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SUNDAY
JULY 14, 1861

THE DAILY PICAYUNE

BLOCKADE AND THE NEUTRALS

The commander of the United States steamer South Carolina dropped at Timballer Lighthouse, on his way to blockade Galveston, a very comprehensive notice of Mr. Lincoln's blockade. In most instances, thus far, the commanders of blockading vessels have give notice, more or less regular, at each port, of the commencement of the blockade at that port. Captain Alden leaves a written notice off Grand Pass that "the whole of the Southern coast of the United States, between the Chesapeake Bay and Rio Bravo del Norte, (Key West excepted,) is in a state of blockade."

If this be not a paper blockade merely, there never was one in the days of the ancient conflict between France and Great Britain, in which each knowingly violated the laws of nations and rules of war, on the plea of the imperious necessity of self-defence and retaliation. There are not ships enough in the whole navy of the United States to execute this blockade in a way to make it legally effective. There are enough of them to suppress the bulk of the commerce of the South--the belligerent enemy of the United States--and occasionally capture a vessel of ours straying homeward from Europe, or venturing out of port in the daring hope of escaping the hostile cruisers. But these are the effects of war between avowed enemies. Blockade and the rules of blockade, whether effective or non effective, make a question between neutral nations and the blockading power. The United States and the Confederate States are at war, and may and do seize each other's ships, public or private, wherever they may be found, without proclamation or notice. It is the right of a belligerent to capture his enemy's property wherever he can find it not within a neutral jurisdiction. . . .

In the present condition of the Southern ports, the inquiries about the rights and rules of blockade have nothing to do with the proper commerce of the South. . . . Blockade is, for us, simply war and its consequences. But it is a very serious question for France, England, Spain and all other Governments which desire, and are accustomed, and have great necessities to have free commerce with us, to require that the rules which limit and define the belligerent rights of blockade for the protection of neutrals shall not be disregarded or unfairly construed.

This question the Federal Government is raising for them by this paper decree of exclusion from the ports along three thousand miles of seacoast. The Southern States have no means of precipitating that issue, by any acts of their own. They can claim belligerent rights only; they must leave to neutral Europe the decision of the question how far and how long it will permit great interests of its own to be the sport of the unwarranted exercise of a belligerent right by our enemies, which, directed against us, strikes deadly and incessant blows against its own commerce, and revenues, and internal order.

We need not hurry ourselves, or waste complaints, or lower our dignity in importunity to these powers to interpose, in order to take care of themselves. In the course of time such interference must come, and in the meantime we may act, and we should act, as a people who are determined to take care of ourselves without them, and who will not expect to receive from them anything from special favor. Standing on the strength of our position and the righteousness of our cause, we shall ask from foreign governments only exact justice, and we shall expect only such demonstrations on their part against our enemies as the laws of nations will require from them, and their own interests will accelerate them in making.

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A Daring Exploit of Texans--"L.W.L," writing to the Charleston Mercury from Fairfax Courthouse, June 29, reports the following incident:

There is still something now and then to give the spice of variety to life. Yesterday Messrs. Thomas Lubbock and Col. Terry, of Texas, who had come on to negotiate for the acceptance of a company of Texas Rangers, to keep their hands in, got up a party and started on a scout. They penetrated to within four or five miles of Alexandria; passed between the sentries and their pickets; turned upon the sentries; shot two, wounding them at least; and took two prisoners, whom they brought  to camp, to the great relief of friends  who saw them start, and who were conscious of the perilous adventure upon which they started. Col. Terry's horse took the bit between his teeth and carried his rider at full speed into the picket guard of the enemy, but they broke at his approach, and soon after, bringing his horse to his senses with the butt end of his pistol, he rejoined his friends in safety. Capt. Lubbock is brother to the present candidate for Governor in Texas, and Col. Terry is brother of the Judge Terry who killed Broderick in California.

THE RICH MOUNTAIN FIGHT
EIGHT HUNDRED MEN DISLODGED BY FIVE THOUSAND INVADERS
SOUTHERN LOSS, SEVENTY KILLED
Loss of the federals, Forty Killed and Wounded

Louisville, July 13--The fight at Rich Mountain, the occurrence of which has been previously reported, comes to us t-day in a different tone.

The latest dispatch regarding the affair states that the Southerners were eight hundred strong, and had two cannon. Their loss is put down at seventy-five killed, and about as many wounded. The loss to the Federalists amounted to eleven killed, and wounded to thirty-five.

The above is approved by Gen. McClellan, but his own dispatch to Washington reports twenty killed and forty wounded.

Apparently, the invaders had made plans for a certain victory, and sent bulletins before the fight, but a courier lost his way.

Gen. McClellan waited all day for signals, which he did not get, and the enterprise resulted in the dislodgement of eight hundred men by five invading regiments.

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The French Darien Expedition--We have already mentioned that the French exploring expedition on the Isthmus of Darien has returned to France, being unable to effect its objects, owing to the heavy rains. The Panama Star, of the 24th ultimo, says:

The expedition got as far as the river Chuquínaca, after having gone nineteen miles up the Sabana and nine up the Lara, during which time they had to overcome a great many difficulties, and put up with a good deal of hardship.

They met with no elevation more than forty metres above the level of the sea.

We understand they communicated with the Indians, who have expressed their willingness to allow the expedition to prosecute their journey unmolested.

The party intend returning to France at once, and coming out again in December, so as to follow up their plans in the dry season of 1862.

 A LADY'S REBUKE OF LADIES

Mr. Editor--Did you ever congratulate yourself, after a weary day, as you sat with tired feet in a comfortable car, chatting to a gentleman friend, that there were such alleviations as seats upon which one could be conveyed, instead of walking home?

And were you ever roused from your delusive dream by the entrance of one or two ladies, to whom your repose was a claim by right, without even a "Thank you" for it?

If so, let me assure you that you have the sympathy of at least six ladies in the city. Of course any gentleman would prefer to relinquish his place to a lady, and it is expected that nurses with babies must drive him forth; but there might be the slightest possible recognition of the favor for civility's sake. It softens the sharpness of a sacrifice somewhat to know it is appreciated. A few days since, while riding in one of our easy cars, two females entered, and having routed out two gentlemen, very calmly "enlarged their borders" on either side with a contemptuous look toward their victims, two noble men, as if to say, "What business had you there in the first place?"

The females were handsome, and tastefully dressed. They had bright eyes, pearly teeth, and pearl powder expression, but the omission of an acknowledgement for a courtesy conferred, proved that they were not "to the manner born." Therefore, we could not admit them as ladies.

Helen Beverley

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Explosion of a Shell at Baton Rouge Arsenal--The Baton Rouge Advocate, of the 11th instant, says:

Yesterday morning an accidental explosion of a six pound shell took place at the Arsenal, which resulted in the injury of three of the workmen, Mr. John Flannery, Mr. Rheams and Mr. Holland. They were cleaning out some old shells to be refilled we suppose. The shells are first filled with hot rosin and bullets, the center is then bored out and filled with powder sufficient to burst it, when it is plugged up. To clean them out, they first knock the powder out, and then insert a hot iron to melt the rosin, when the contents fall out. It was while engaged in this that the explosion took place. The shell bursted with great force, scattering its contents in every direction. We do not think that either of the workmen are dangerously, though severely injured.

MONDAY
JULY 15, 1861

THE BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER

THE SPRINGFIELD ARMORY
WHAT IT IS DOING AND CAN DO

Springfield Republican, July 12--The destruction of the Harper's Ferry armory leaves the government only the Springfield establishment; but this--always the chief reliance and the model workshop--is now producing a greater number of rifle muskets per month than both armories ever did before. When Mr. Dwight, the new superintendent, assumed charge here in April, the manufacture was only 800 per month. Already he has increased its number to 3500, and in less than three months will turn out five thousand per month. Never before was its production over 2500 a month. This great and rapid increase has been gained by filling all the shops with additional machinery and men, and by working some parts of the establishment 24 hours a day, and others from 14 to 18--yet while the production has more than quadrupled, the number of workmen is but little more than doubled, or advanced from nearly 300 to 650, the present number. This is the result of the men working extra hours, and the advantage which a duplication of machinery and continuous employment of it alike give. The large old arsenal on th south or State street side of the armory grounds, becoming vacant by the removal of the muskets, is being fitted up for a workshop, and will soon be occupied by those branches that do not require machinery, giving room in the other shops for the additional machines now being prepared for the continued enlargement of the production.

In 1851-52, when the Springfield armory produced about 25,000 muskets of the old model per year, the cost was $9 each.  This covered every expense, salaries of officers, care of grounds, &c.--everything but interest on original investment. Since then the new and more expensive rifle model has been introduced, and the production decreased to less than 10,000 a year upon which the same general expense had to be divided, and the cost has been from $12 to $14 per arm. But the present increase in production, with the dropping of the Maynard primer as a drawback to the usefulness of the musket, has carried down the cost, and the arm is now produced, in its highest perfection,  for about $10. It is believed that 75,000 to 100,000 muskets of the present model could be produced here yearly, by an enlargement and simplification of the shops, at a cost of between $8 and $9 each!

Contrast these facts with the cost of the small arms at other establishments, and we shall see how greatly  the U.S. government has reason to congratulate itself  upon the economy of one branch at least of its public service, and how justly teh Springfield armory may claim the respect and favor of Congress. The price of the small revolving pistol and of shot guns average $30. The cot to the English government of its rile musket, of which it makes 100,000 a year at a single establishment, ranges from $13 to $15. This estimate is made up in the same way that the cost is computed at the Springfield armory, counting in all expenses for officers, &c., bu excluding interest on buildings, machinery and lands. The State of Massachusetts is paying $20 apiece for the English rifle muskets, which it is now importing to arm the new regiments. Yet this is an inferior arm in style and workmanship to that produced at the Springfield armory; and though modeled upon the Enfield or English government rifle, is not made at the government establishment, but by private armories. Probably the private contracts which the war department has made for rifle muskets is at the rate of over $16 each, and is more likely to be nearer the price paid for the English imported rifles.

REBEL IRON-CLAD VESSELS

A gentleman from New Orleans reports that the rebels had taken a powerful tug-boat, covered her with rail-road iron, and put her machinery below the water line. They had also built a new boat completely of iron, very sharp, with a sharp point below the water line, and intended to run down United States vessels. She was to be commanded by Captain Seward Porter, formerly of Portland, Me.

EARTHQUAKE AT SYRACUSE

The Syracuse Standard of Friday says:

"We learn from various sources that a very sensible shock of an earthquake was felt in this city and other parts of the county last evening., about 9 o'clock. The weather yesterday very suddenly became quite cold and chilly, and the extraordinary change from the intense heat of the previous days occasioned considerable remark, but whether the change in the weather occasioned the earthquake we cannot say. The shock was about four seconds in duration, and was so severe as to cause dwelling houses to rock, and in some cases furniture was removed and persons sitting in chairs were waved to and fro, and many persons supposed some of the fixtures of their dwellings had fallen upon the floors.  A gentleman from the north part of the town of Salma informs us that the shock was sensibly felt in that section, and farmers ran out of doors supposing that their barns or outhouses had fallen."

EXPLOITS OF THE BLOCKADING SQUADRON

Key West, July 8, 1861--The Mexican schooner Brilliant, in charge of Lieut. Sawyer, and a prize crew from the steam gunboat Massachusetts, arrived in the harbor the morning of the 6th. We learn from Lieut. Sawyer, that on the morning o the 23d, Ultimo, the Massachusetts steamed past Ship Island, to cut of a secession steamer standing close in shore, but not daring to venture nearer the shore than six miles on account  of shoal water, she came to anchor in three fathoms of water. As the secession vessel could now pass beyond the reach of the Massachusetts' guns, it became necessary to cut her off with the boats, if possible. Accordingly, at 10 A.M., Lieutenant Sawyer, in command of four boats and forty-six men, armed with a boat howitzer and small arms, cutlasses, &c., started in shore in pursuit, to cut off the enemy. The steamer proved too swift in her movements, and escaped by running into Biloxi. Lieut. Sawyer soon fell in with the Mexican schooner Brilliant, loaded with flour from New Orleans, and bound to Campeachy, and easily captured her and sent her off to the Massachusetts. A large secession schooner was then chased and fired upon, but her legs were faster than the boats, and she followed the steamer into the harbor of Biloxi.

The mail steamer Oregon at this juncture made her appearance, and was fired upon by the Massachusetts, whose shells falling short, were disregarded, and she proceeded saucily on with her secession flag at the fore and the American at the main, Union down. Running near the boats, a shot from the howitzer turned her back, and she steamed off towards the Lakes, and soon disappeared. A high pressure steamer now made her appearance, emerging from Shildeberg Bay, and made a dash to cut off the boats from the Massachusetts, but failing in this and venturing too near the shells of the gunboat, she hurried back to the westward.

The boats then captured four schooners in succession, and without difficulty anchored them safely alongside of the ship, and finished the day's work at sunset.

The schooners taken were--the Brilliant, with a cargo of flour; the Fanny, with railroad iron; the Three Brothers, loaded with brick; Olive Branch, cargo of turpentine; and Biloste, with a full cargo of salt and oats. The vessels were taken to Pass La Outre, from whence they will be taken to Key West.

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A knotty question has just been decided by military lawyers. Several volunteer cavalry men having lost their horses in the field, one or two colonels thought there was nothing to be done but to mount the men anew on horses from the government stables. They were wrong. According to the original regulation, every volunteer regiment of cavalry was formerly required not only to provide their own horses, but keep the stables always supplied. A regiment of 1000 mounted men should have 1400 horses for the saddle.

TUESDAY
JULY 16, 1861

THE
SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN

THE REBEL SOLDIERS NOT RELIABLE

The readiness of Col. Pegram and his regiment of six hundred men to surrender to Gen. McClellan, and their protestations of penitence for taking up arms against the United States, are highly significant indications. And there are daily evidences, on a smaller scale, of the fact that a large number of men in the rebel ranks need but the opportunity to throw down their weapons ad return to their duty as loyal citizens. And why should it not be so? Abundant evidence shows that thousands have been pressed into the rebel ranks, and remain there only because they have yet had no opportunity to escape with safety. And a majority of all those who are heartily in the business are under a hallucination that defeat will certainly dispel. W. H. Wilson, a printer, who has just escaped from the rebel army at Fairfax, into which he had been impressed, says that there are many northern men in the ranks there who in case of a conflict will never fire upon northern men. With such elements in its composition, it is not strange that the rebel forces retreat easily and surrender penitently. There is a statement by one of the Washington correspondents, given as upon the authority of a cabinet officer, that an officer of the rebel army in western Virginia has arrived in Washington, with a proposition that the majority of the forces there now under the rebel flag will run up the flag of the United States in its place, and avow their allegiance to the federal government, saying that the majority of them are loyal at heart, are serving the rebel cause very unwillingly, and are anxious to place themselves under the flag of their country. This news is hardly credible, and yet we are prepared to see such a movement become general in the rebel ranks after a few more stunning and disheartening defeats, such as are now occurring  on the western slope of the Cumberland mountains.

In the same view we attach much importance to the fact that Virginia has not yet furnished her quota to the rebel army, that the more southern regiments grumble about this, as well as about the general indifference and cowardice of the Virginians, and to appease their clamor, Gov. Letcher has issued a requisition on the eight north-eastern counties for a thousand more men, armed and equipped , giving them only two days notice, after which if the number is not forthcoming they are to be drafted. The men remaining in these counties are mostly Union men, and are flying to Washington and into Maryland to avoid being drafted into the rebel ranks. A general draft in Virginia now would cause a stampede of all who could get out of the state, and those forced into the rebel ranks will only go in to retreat and surrender, but not to fight to any damaging extent. And this is not only true of Virginians in the rebel ranks, but of many from the extreme South, as is daily attested by deserting North Carolinians and Alabamians.

MISCELLANEOUS WAR NEWS

According to the Richmond Examiner, the letter from Jeff Davis to the president, brought in under a flag of truce, contained a threat of retaliation in case any of his pirates should be hung, and a  general dissertation on the subject of privateering.

STEPHENS BEGGING COTTON AND SUGAR

Vice President Stephens, of the southern confederacy, is succeeding very well in his special mission of begging cotton and sugar for the rebel treasury. The planters are made to believe that it is a fair business transaction, and that the confederate bonds taken in payment for their staples will at some future date be worth something. The Baton Rouge (La.) Sugar Planter has quite a list of contributions from 100 hogsheads of sugar and 200 barrels of molasses each up to twice that amount, and the animated scene at the taking of subscriptions is thus described: "As name after name was called out, the cry was 'Put me down for half my crop;' 'Put me down for my whole crop;' and another, 'Say fifty bales for me;' 'Write one hundred bales after my name;' 'I'll give one hundred  and twenty-five bales;' 'I'll give twenty five bales, and would give fifty bales, but I owe some money.' 'Right,' says Mr. S., 'pay your debts; but if you can pay what you owe in bonds, sell your cotton for the bonds, and pay your debts with them.' 'I'll try it,' responds he, glad of the chance opened for increasing his loan, and so it went on, until Mr. S. requested the secretary to cease adding tot he list, as the committee desired to do a little themselves in the matter. The meeting then adjourned. Upon looking over the list as taken down, the following we found to be the result: Three whole crops (two of them are said to be pretty large ones), 33 half crops, 4 one-third crops, 3 one-fourth crops, and 822 bales in quantities from 5 bales to 125. Upon an examination of the list, and making some calculations of what the crop part would probably amount to, we summed up the whole something above 2500 bales of cotton made up in half an hour."

APPEAL FROM A RUNAWAY OFFICIAL

Lieut. Gov. Thomas C. Reynolds of Missouri, having fled to Nashville, Tenn., and feeling at a  safe distance from loyal muskets, sends back a letter to his associate rebels, exhorting them to stand up to the rack and have patience. In case Gov. Jackson should be captured, he says, he is willing to undertake any constitutional duty that such an event will bring upon him. Meanwhile he is exerting himself to promote an interest in the cause of Missouri; he assures the rebels of that state that they have the sympathy of the confederates and the admission of Missouri to the confederacy is only a question of time. He concludes: "Be not impatient of delay. Success in war depends greatly on a proper combination of preparation, precaution, and daring; on blows surely given at the right time and place. You have this inestimable advantage; if the hopes given you, by me now or by others, of effective aid, should incite the enemy to increase his forces in Missouri, he but weakens himself elsewhere and hastens in Virginia his own defeat, which is your victory; if he remains inactive, he but shortens the time of your captivity. Be of good cheer; be but true to yourselves, invoking the aid of the Almighty, who has so visibly favored the southern cause, and sooner or later, the deliverance will surely come."

WEDNESDAY
JULY 17, 1861

THE NEW HAMPSHIRE PATRIOT

THE WAR

During the last week there has been some pretty severe fighting between the Government forces and the rebels in Missouri and Virginia, in which the former have been successful. In Northern Missouri, at Monroe station on the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, about 30 miles west of Hannibal, Col. Smith of Illinois with about 600 men, was attacked by 1600 rebels under Gen. Harris. The latter were repulsed with the loss of four killed, several wounded and five prisoners. They retreated, and another skirmish ensued, in which they were again defeated. Col. Smith was afterwards surrounded at Monroe by a large force, estimated at 2600, but receiving a reinforcement of 300 mounted men, he attacked and defeated them, killing twenty or thirty and taking seventy-five prisoners, one cannon and a large number of horses. Several of the Government soldiers were wounded, but none killed.

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PORTSMOUTH NAVY YARD

Business, it is said, was never before so good in all its departments. The U.S. frigate Sabine arrived on the 3d instant, and $120,000 was required to pay off her crew. Orders have been received to build a number of pivot-gun carriages, which will cost over $3,000 each.

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MILLS STOPPED

The Mills of the Great Falls Manufacturing Company stopped a week ago or more, and will not start again until October. The Mills in Nashua have also stopped work for the present. The Print Works in Dover have suspended, and all the cotton mills there are soon to stop. The Portsmouth Steam Factory has also stopped.

VIRGINIA

The new Government of Virginia, inaugurated by the Union men at Wheeling, is fully organized. It has been recognized as the State Government by the United States authorities, and is extending its authority over the Western portion of that State. On the 9th instant, John S. Carlisle (a member of the House) was elected United States Senator in place of Hunter, and W. T. Willey in place of Mason. They have been admitted to seats in the Senate.

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The Connecticut Legislature last year passed a vote, by a large majority, allowing Negroes to vote, but as it had to go to the people this year it was reversed by a vote of 44 yeas to 130 nays.

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On Tuesday of last week, at Cambridge, Mass., the wife of Prof. H. W. Longfellow was engaged in making wax seals in the library, for the amusement of her two youngest children, when her dress caught fire from a match with which she was melting the wax. She had on a light summer dress, which was all in flames in a moment. Mr. Longfellow, who was in his study, near by, ran to her assistance, and succeeded in extinguishing the flames, with considerable injury to himself, but too late to save the life of his wife. She was injured so that she died the next day. She was the daughter of Hon. Nathan Appleton, and leaves five children.

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In a recent engagement at the Cape of Good Hope, between the English troops and some of the native insurgents, 80,000 shots were expended in killing 25 men.

WELL PUT

It is a great mistake, says the Journal of Commerce, to suppose a bloodhound is a courageous dog. The men who have plunged us into this war, who have hallooed on the people, are men that have wisely stayed home. And a part of their plan to cover up their own want of courage, is to keep up the cry of war. The rebels in the South who planned the dissolution of the Union, who advocated it in Congress and in newspapers and on the stump, are the men who have taken the field, while the Northern editors and Congressmen and Senators who opposed compromise, who let us drift into this war, nay who dragged us into it, are at home making contracts to supply army stores, and shouting "traitor" at every man who ventures to remind them of the evil they have brought on the country, or suggest a remedy for it.

ONE DOLLAR EACH FOR THE SOLDIERS
AND A MILLION FOR THE PLUNDERERS

Our Legislature appropriated ONE MILLION AND FIFTY THOUSAND DOLLARS for the war. To what specific purposes it is to be applied, we have no definite information. But from what has already been done in the way of expending money, we infer that but a small portion of it is to go for the benefit of the soldiers who volunteer to fight in defence of the Constitution and the Union. Other States have made liberal provision for the families of their soldiers, and have given the soldiers themselves a liberal bounty--some $30 a year, and others $10 a month--in addition to their regular pay. But our Legislature has done nothing of the kind, for the reason, probably, that they prefer to provide for the "soldiers of fortune" who hover about the treasury, and through contracts and "agencies" contrive to "absorb" the lion's share of the money nominally expended for the war.

As a specimen of the treatment received by the soldiers at the hands of our Government, we copy the following from the Dover Gazette's account of the departure of our Second Regiment:

Before closing, we wish to say a word in regard to the niggardly manner in which, we are informed, this regiment was treated by our State authorities. They were entitled to two months' pay, within a very few days, amounting to $22 for each man. This amount they had been expecting to receive before leaving for Washington. It had been promised them, as we are told, and the families of very many of the men were actually suffering at home for the necessitates of life, and were depending upon the small remittances from their fathers and husbands before starting for Washington. But what was done? Gov. Berry, with his Council, go to Portsmouth, and do they pay these soldiers the amounts due them? Yes, within twenty-one dollars apiece! In other words, they cause to be paid to these poor volunteers the sum of one dollar apiece, and that is all. What reason does Gov. Berry give for not paying them more? We have it from authority that we cannot question, that he replied, in substance, that "it would do them no good as they are going off, and they might spend it foolishly for rum or something bad."

That is the way the Governor of New Hampshire pays the soldiers who have gone to fight the war which just such men as himself have brought upon this country.

One reason why the soldiers of the Second Regiment were not paid before they left, was that by not paying them here there would be an excuse for sending "agents" to Washington to do it--thus rewarding partisan services at the expense of the "war fund." Accordingly we find that, a few days after the Regiment left, two or three "agents" went on to pay them! How this was done, and how much regard for the soldiers' rights has been exhibited in the business, we prefer to let others tell.

THURSDAY
JULY 18, 1861

THE
VERMONT PHOENIX

THE WAR

The news this week from the seat of war has been of the most cheering character. The victories gained by Gen. McClellan in Western Virginia have cleared that section of the State from the nests of rebels that have s long infested it, and have opened his way to join the federal forces in Eastern Virginia. The battle fought at Carthage, Mo., between Col. Siegel and the rebels resulted in a retreat of the federal forces which in itself was a victory. From 6000 to 8000 rebels were engaged by only 1500 of our troops and while our loss was trifling the rebels confess to losing 700 men. These battles show the great superiority of regularly educated officers, and they go far to redeem the blunders at Great Bethel and Vienna.

WHO IS COL. SIEGEL?

Col. Siegel, who is distinguishing himself in Missouri, is a native of Baden, Germany, and is about 37 years old. He graduated at the military school of Karlsruhe, and entered the regular army of Baden and was advanced to the post of chief adjutant in 1847. His sympathies with the first revolution in southern Germany lost him his commission. He was appointed general-in-chief in the beginning of the second revolution, May, 1848, and led the forlorn hope of the liberal party with great energy and zeal. He came to America in 1850, was a Professor in Dr. Dulon's academy, New York, and married Mr.. Dulon's daughter. He received a call to a professorship in St. Louis, where he soon became distinguished by his great military talents.

BOLD CAPTURE BY THE PIRATE "JEFF DAVIS"

The brig John Welch, from Trinidad for Falmouth, England, with a cargo of sugar, was captured on the 6th by the privateer Jeff Davis, off Hatteras. Capt. Enfield and the crew of the brig were sent north, and have arrived at Newport, R.I. The brig was owned in Maine. The same rebel privateer also captured the schooner J. C. Warner, of New York, and a brig unknown, 100 miles S.E. from Nantucket South Shoal. The schooner Enchantress, from Boston for St. Jago, was captured on the 8th by the Jeff Davis and sent to some southern port.

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Uncle Sam's credit is good on Wall street. On the morning of the 9th instant, Mr. Cisco, Sub-Treasurer of New York, received a telegraphic dispatch from the Secretary of the Treasury authorizing him to borrow five million dollars on Treasury Notes, having sixty days to run, and bearing six per cent. interest. By three o'clock the entire amount was subscribed, and three million five hundred and eighty six thousand dollars were paid.

THE PIRATE SUMTER BAFFLED
ALL HER CAPTURED VESSELS RELEASED

A mercantile firm in Boston has received a letter, dated Cienfuegos, 7th instant, which states that all the prizes brought into that port by the privateer Sumter had been released and put in possession of their officers, and that they would all resume their voyages the following day. The Sumter did not remain in port but a few hours. When she arrived her captain communicated with the governor of the fort, and inquired of that functionary if the captured vessels could be held as lawful prizes. He was informed that they could not be held as prizes in Spanish ports, and they were all accordingly released.

It is said that they were all captured within three nautical miles of Cuba, or in Spanish waters.

Secretary Seward has made a reclamation on the Spanish government for the surrender of American vessels carried into Cienfuegos by the pirate steamer Sumter. No doubt is entertained of their immediate release with their cargoes and of the prohibition of the entrance of rebel craft into West Indian ports.

A DANGEROUS SPY CAUGHT

A late clerk in the navy department, named Taliaferro, a Virginian and son-in-law of the traitor Senator Mason, left Washington by land on Thursday afternoon, for Port Tobacco, Md. Capt. Darling, of the capital police, discovering the fact, charged him with being a spy of Jeff. Davis. He obtained the aid of James Gay, an expert detective, who immediately went in pursuit, and arrived at Port Tobacco Thursday night. He found Taliaferro, arrested and brought him back to Washington as a prisoner Friday afternoon. A large bundle of letters addressed to prominent secessionists in the South was found on him, also plans of the location of our camps in and  around Washington.

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Next year is the thousandth anniversary of the foundation of the Russian empire; and they intend to celebrate the occasion with one of their grand national religious festivals. The spectacle at St. Petersburg and Moscow will probably be very magnificent; and the recent manumission of the serfs will give it peculiar significance.

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Intelligence arrives from Connecticut that a couple was lately married at the Wooster House in Danbury, and stopped there until the next day. The unhappy twain sat up all night in the parlor, on account of the modesty of the bashful bridegroom. Cause for divorce.

FRIDAY
JULY 19, 1861

THE BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER

THE ADVANCE TOWARD RICHMOND
PROGRESS OF THE ARMY

CENTREVILLE OCCUPIED WITHOUT RESISTANCE

Sangster's Station, On the line of the Orange and Alexandria R.R., 18 miles from Alexandria, July 17--We have had the pleasure of seeing the enemy flying before us, but in consequence of the roughness of the march, and owing to the heavy guns which we have, they are succeeding in making their escape without a fight. We are now in full possession of the railroad as far as this station. The enemy commenced retreating during the day and barely escaped by the old Fairfax road, which is occupied as far as Fairfax station by Col. Wilcox, who took eleven prisoners. Col. Miles is in possession of Fairfax Court House. Wednesday morning the troops proceeded as far as the cross road that leads to Sangster's Station, arriving at noon, when Col. Franklin's command marched off on the road to Sangster's to cut off the railroad communication, and Col. Wilcox proceeded to Fairfax station. Col. Heintzelman in the mean time remained at the corner of Sangster's cross roads, two miles and a half from Fairfax station, with Col. Howard's brigade and Capt. Lowe's cavalry. . . .

The roads towards Sangster's were intercepted by the felling of trees and other obstructions; otherwise, Col. Wilcox might have succeeded in making even a more successful ad expeditious victory. Several regiments of rebels are reported to have passed Sangster's station during the day in retreat before Franklin's column. An Alabama regiment was encamped within two miles of the fork of the road, where we arrived at noon. Their camp fires were still burning when we passed this afternoon, ad every evidence of their hasty retreat, quantities of fresh beef, corn, &c., being left behind; near this camp they had made an attempt at infantry breastworks which could have been walked over by our troops. Its construction proves the weakness of the enemy in this art of war. In the meantime the 1st division under Gen. Tyler proceeds towards Fairfax Court House by roads from Falls Church and Vienna. The 2d division under Col. Hunter, and the 5th division under Col. Miles in the same direction by Little River Turnpike and Braddock road.

A messenger from Wilcox brings information that after taking Fairfax station he proceeded toward the Court House. When within a mile of that place he found that Col. Burnside's brigade had taken possession, the enemy in all instances having retreated without a show of fight except by a few pickets.

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Parson Brownlow has been assigned by the State Department to publish the United States laws in Tennessee. He still keeps the American flag flying at the head of his paper and over his house. He is making a gallant fight in his section of the State against the traitors. The Government is determined to give the Union men there and in every other Southern State, all the aid in its power.

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The introduction of gas to light the steamer Commonwealth, of the Groton line, having proved a success, arrangements are now making to have the Plymouth Rock lighted in the same manner. The company has every facility for manufacturing gas at Groton, and can supply the boats at a cost not much greater than that for oil, while the boats are made much pleasanter by the arrangement.

FROM FAIRFAX COURT HOUSE

Washington, July 18--The following dispatch was received this afternoon:

Fairfax Court-House, July 18
Lieut. Col. E.D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant-General

The First Division, under General Tyler, is between Germantown and Centreville; the Second Division is in this place, just about to move forward to Centreville. The Fifth Division is at the crossing of the old Braddock road with the road from here to Fairfax station, and  is ordered forward to Centreville by the old Braddock road. Barry's battery has just joined it. One of Heintzelman's Brigades, Col. Wilcox's, is at Fairfax station. Heintzelman and his other brigade are below the station, but he has not reported to me since we have been here and I have not been able to communicate with him. I think they are at Sangster's station. The 4 men wounded yesterday belonged to Miles's division, who had some slight skirmish in reaching their position. Each column encountered about the same obstructions, viz., trees felled across the road, but the axemen cleared them in a few minutes. There were extensive breastworks thrown up at this place and some of them with embrasures recessed within sand bags. Extensive breastwork were also thrown up at Fairfax railroad station and on the road leading to Sangster's. A great deal of work has been done by them and the number and size of the camps show they have been here in great force. Their retreat, therefore, must have damaging effect on them. They left in such haste that they did not draw in their pickets, who came into one of our camps, thinking, as it occupied the same place, that it was their own. The obstructions to the railroad in the vicinity of the station, including the deep cut filled in with earth, &c., can be cleared up in a few hours. The telegraph poles are up, with the wires upon them. I look to having railroad and telegraphic communication in a very short time.

Much flour, some arms, forage, tents, camp equipment, &c., were abandoned by the rebels.

I am distressed to have to report excesses by our troops. The excitement of the men found vent in burning and pillaging, which, however, was soon checked. It distressed us all greatly. I go to Centreville in a few minutes. Very respectfully,

Irwin McDowell

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Numerous trophies were brought to Washington this afternoon, including the commissary tent of the 31st South Carolina regiment; guns, books, coats, hats and Palmetto buttons, and a halter manufactured in New York.

All the masked batteries so much talked about turned out to be nothing more than infantry breastworks of the meanest style of construction.

Reports are prevalent, which are credited, that a fight of minor importance took place at Bull Run, five miles from Manassas Junction, and several killed and wounded on the Federal side from a battery.

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The London Times of the 21st ultimo, published three full sheets of eight pages each, in all twenty-four pages! The impression is said to contain four thousand advertisements of all lengths, and is the largest production ever issued from the daily press.

SATURDAY
 JULY 20, 1861

 THE NORWICH MORNING BULLETIN

THE ADVANCE OF THE GRAND ARMY

Centreville, July 19--Noon--Gen. Tyler's column has commenced moving. The troops have formed in line. The Massachusetts 1st has the right of the column.

O. E. Simpson of Co. H., 1st Massachusetts regiment, was one of the first wounded, and died this morning. He was buried by his friends.

It has been ascertained that the first battery beyond Centreville was abandoned by the rebels before the federal troops retired last night. The loss on our side was comparatively small. Some are missing, supposed to have straggled away or been taken prisoners. Thirteen prisoners captured by our troops, are now on their way to Washington.

New York, July 19--A special to the Herald from Baltimore gives a letter from a rebel source which says the artillery at Bull Run were in play all day yesterday, from 9 in the morning to 5 P.M., except during three intervals, of about an hour each. The enemy's loss was very heavy, but ours comparatively small. A Mississippi regiment fired into their own force by mistake. The enemy were repulsed three different times. A prisoner taken by the rebels, stated that they were slaughtered like sheep. Among the killed were several field officers.

Washington, July 19--The following is from our reporter at Bull Run, dated 4 o'clock this P.M.: From careful enquiry and personal observation, the number of wounded on the Federal side amounts to sixty, and the killed to forty. Several amputations have taken place. The greater part of the wounded are quartered in an old stone church, where every attention is being paid to their comfort. Fourteen dead were buried this A.M. There has been no firing at Bull Run today. The rebels are still in possession of their principal batteries. Their pickets approach to within 150 yards of ours. With a spy glass large bodies of rebels were seen moving to the right and left, apparently extending their base lines of operation, but not retreating. Batteries are being erected on our side commanding the enemy's works, which are of substantial character. Owing to the slight repulse with which we met, the movement against the rebels will be more carefully planned, and of greater magnitude than was at first contemplated. Our troops are all eager for the fight. They have constructed tents with the blankets thrown over stacked arms. They have plenty of food, including fresh beef. The indications are that there will not be a general forward movement before Tuesday morning, unless the rebels provoke one. Special attention is being paid to the hospital department, making preparations for the sick and wounded. The batteries of the rebels were scientifically worked.

This afternoon a general order was read to all the troops, prohibiting theft of every description, enjoining respect for persons and property, and stating that the least penalty for its violation would be incarceration in the Alexandria jail and for crimes of magnitude the severest penalties known to military laws. The order also states that we have invaded Virginia to restore persons to their lawful rights, and secure their good will. They were not at any time to be judges of the acts of southern people, and to take upon themselves the propriety of punishment. It would frustrate the designs of the government.

To this the troops acceded by clapping their hands and huzzahs for the commander. Great pains are taken by responsible men visiting the seat of war from Washington, to impress upon the people that the government will protect them in the enjoyment of their rights, and that this war is for the purpose of maintaining our nationality.

All rumors of fighting today are untrue. Several casualties have happened by the accidental discharge of firearms.

THE SHARP-SHOOTERS' REGIMENT

The Providence Press notices the arrival in that city of Mr. S. Rowland, whose business it is to raise recruits for Mr. Berdan's regiment of sharpshooters now forming in New York. Companies have already been raised for this regiment in the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, and others are forming in Kentucky and Missouri. It is proposed to raise one company in New England, and already fifteen or twenty applications have been received from citizens of Rhode Island. The arrangement for equipping this regiment of riflemen is that each State will provide for the company raised within its limits.

A SAYING IN 1856

The Hartford Times--Mr. Jason Hitchcock said in 1856, if the Republican party ever got the ascendancy in this country, we should have war, but he should not live to see it. He was a Whig. The Republicans have carried the day, and the war is upon us.

LOCAL AFFAIRS

Picnics--D. Corey will give a pic nic at Harvey's grove, this (Saturday) afternoon.

A German pic nic* will be given at the same place on Monday afternoon, by F. Kottman.

POLICE COURT

Friday--Mrs.. Mary Brown appeared before the Court to answer a charge of breaking the peace. It appeared that a feud had for some time existed between Mrs. Brown and Mrs. Crocker, which had at divers times caused sundry belligerent manifestations, on the part of both parties. On the afternoon of this day, Mrs. Brown, gotten up regardless of expense, had been making a friendly call upon some person in the house where the hostile Crocker resided and had set about upon her return. She was ambulating quietly along when some remarkable conjunction of fates brought it about that a body of water fell plump upon the back of her neck, and from no other fountain head than a hand-basin in the hands of Mrs. Crocker, who was installed just inside the window. Somewhat ruffled, Mrs. Brown seized a pail of soft soap from an adjacent wood-pile and hurled it with damaging effect at Mrs. Crocker. Thereupon the latter sallied forth, and floored her foe with two well delivered blows with her hand-basin. Mrs. Brown retaliated by twisting her hands in her adversary's hair, dragging her over the wood-pile, taking the hand-basin from her, and getting heavily home upon her countenance therewith, disfiguring it to a considerable extent. At this point the combat was terminated, and the parties repaired to the court room, under the escort of an officer, for the purpose of detailing their woes. After a hearing of the case the court charged Mrs. Brown for her pugnacity $3 and costs, which she failed to pay, and was incarcerated.

FREE ACADEMY

The fifth Annual Exhibition of the free Academy was held on Friday afternoon. The attendance was very large. Nearly all the exercises were applauded. The graduating class numbers sixteen--ten young ladies and six young gentlemen.

The first exercises were the original declamations, all of which were well written and gracefully delivered. . . .

The second exercise, was the original essays of the young ladies. Miss E.G. Hyde's "Away down South in Dixie," a humorous poem full of patriotic allusions, was received with enthusiasm.

*No, this is not a typo. That's how they spelled it--twice.

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