LAST WEEK INDEX NEXT WEEK

SUNDAY
MAY 18
, 1862
THE DAILY PICAYUNE (LA)

Supplies of Beef.—The Bulletin of yesterday morning, had the following welcome intelligence: “We are gratified to learn that the agent of the Committee of Subsistence has succeeded in inducing the drovers and cattle dealers at New Iberia to transmit their live stock to this city, if no unforeseen impediment should be presented. Up to that Monday, 700 head had been sent forward, and it was then expected that 200 would come on daily. When some arrangements are completed, which are now pending, the amount will be doubled. In fact, it is anticipated that our market will be fully stocked and rule at low prices. At the commencement of the past week about 1000 head of cattle were at New Iberia, awaiting shipment.”

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The Negro as He Is.—A Northern View.—Col. Gibson, of the 49th Ohio, recently wrote a letter from Tennessee, which is attracting some notice. Gibson will be recollected as the Republican successor to Breslin, as State Treasurer of Ohio, and that under his administration the great defalcation1 was discovered. He writes thus about the condition of the slaves, as observed by himself:

“In this region every one owns one or more slaves. Here, as elsewhere, where I have been, the slaves are well treated and well provided for. They appear happier and certainly live and dress better than the poor whites or the free Negro of Ohio or the North. They all supposed we were about to liberate them. This lie had been trumpeted in the South, and hundreds of honest people, aside from slaves, believed it. But the Negro here instinctively dreads the North. They love the South and are devoted to their masters.

“I have witnessed some touching scenes between exiled masters, returned to their homes, and their faithful slaves. It is strange how few try to escape or run away. I doubt if twenty have come to the army with which I have been connected since last September.

“About the farm houses and in the city the white children and the black play together like brothers and sisters. It is my deliberate opinion that, in their present state of ignorance, the slave rather fears than desires emancipation. They only regard their appetites and comforts. They are well housed, well dressed and well fed. They appear to want no more. These facts constitute no excuse for slavery, but I mention them as intending to show that statesmen had better let the Negro alone at present, and address themselves to suppressing this great rebellion.”

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U.S. Provost Court.—Provost Judge Bell yesterday, as usual, disposed of a number of cases of drunk and disorderly soldiers.

Thomas Heatherton, charged with inciting a mob on the arrival of the U.S. naval officers, while on their way to the Mayor’s office, resulting in the knocking down and severe beating of Peter Dirkort, was adjudged guilty, and sentenced to pay a  fine of $300, and give bond in the sum of $10,000 to keep the peace for one year towards all men, especially Peter Dirkort.

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The want of genuine religious faith is a great misfortune, but it should never be punished as a great crime, and it never is, or will be by those who truly possess it. It is only religious prejudice, mistakenly called religious faith, that is intolerant.

The Result of Eight Censuses.—We copy the following from a late number of the National Intelligencer:

We were favored recently by the Superintendent of the Census with a copy of a tabular statement, prepared in his bureau, which, from its comprehensiveness and condensation, deserves a passing notice. The table compares the aggregate populations of each State and Territory of the United States every tenth year from 1790 to 1860, inclusive, classing in separate columns, at each period and in each State, the number of “whiter,” “free colored,” and “slaves,” and we have all these aggregates of eight different censuses in a table thirty-six inches by twelve. We presume that the reader could hardly, of himself, begin to estimate the amount of human labor that was expended in travelling and obtaining and recording and reporting the details compressed into this space of thirty-six inches by twelve, or the weight in tons of the vast volumes of manuscript returns from which this compendium has been reduced. Would the reader believe that these masses of figures, in manuscript, of the eight censuses, would load one hundred wagons? Yet it is so, incredible as it may appear. What a labor, then, the reduction of all this to one sheet!

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Wit on Tombstones.

A vast amount of wit is to be gathered from tombstones, and mortuary puns have long been famous. The epitaph of the witty divine, Dr. Thomas Fuller, is worthy of himself, simply:

Fuller’s earth.

There is a professional point in the epitaph of the eminent barrister, Sir John Strange:

Here lies an honest lawyer—that is Strange.

And by what an outrageous quibble has the name of William Button, Esq., been handed down to immortality. The epitaph is to be seen in a churchyard near Salisbury:

O sun, moon, stars and ye celestial poles!
Are graves, then, dwindled into Button-holes?

There is something quaint and touching in this epitaph of Grimaldi, the distinguished clown:

Here I am.

One of the best of this briefer kind was proposed by Jerrold, whose wit did not always wear so courteous a dress. Charles Knight, the Shakespearean critic, was the subject, and the words:

Good Knight.

It is added that the injured man recommended the author to use the inscription as a motto for his own journal.

Of histrionic epitaphs the best is this on one of Shakespeare’s actors:

Exit Burbage.

In a similar vein a with gave a couplet to Mrs. Oldfield, the most celebrated actress of her day:

This we must own in justice to her shade,
The first bad exit Oldfield ever made.

Something of compliment is here sacrificed to make the point. It is the reverse of Malcolm’s Eulogy on Cawdor:

Nothing in his life
Became him like the leaving of it.

The comedian Foote takes his turn, thus:

Foote from his earthly stage, alas! is hurl’d;
Death took him off, who took off all the world.

MONDAY
MAY 19
, 1862
THE HARTFORD DAILY COURANT (CT)

THE EVACUATION OF PENSACOLA.

Before Corinth, May 18.—The Mobile Advertiser contains the following: “Pensacola, May 10.—At 12 o’clock, last night, the Pensacola Navy Yard and forts were set on fire and destroyed. When the enemy discovered it, Fort Pickens opened and continued a fire, which was kept up during the conflagration. No one at Pensacola was damaged. All the public property that could not be burned, except the Custom House, was moved, but all the movable property was saved. The railroad track toward Montgomery was torn up this morning.

“Federal vessels with a flag of truce came up to the city to-day, demanding its surrender. Major Balbe refused to comply, and said he had no power to oppose the federals. The officer said he would occupy the city tomorrow, but the inhabitants need not be alarmed.”

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From Gen. McClellan.

Headquarters, Army of the Potomac
May 17, 10:30 P.M.

A combined naval and army expedition under Capt. Murray of the Navy, with troops and artillery under Maj. Willard and Capt. Ayres of the Army, went 25 miles up Pamunkey river to-day, and forced the rebels to destroy two steamers and twenty schooners. The expedition was managed admirably. We have advanced considerably to-day. Roads are improving.

Geo. B. McClellan, Maj. Gen.

White House, (Va.), May 18.—To the Associated Press: The advance guard of our forces on the main road to Richmond by way of Bottom’s Bridge, drove the enemy across the Chickahominy, at that point, yesterday morning. When our troops arrived within half a mile of the burned bridge, they were fired briskly upon by artillery from the opposite side. No one was injured. At this point our troops will experience considerable difficulty in crossing, as the country is low and swampy.

At the reconnoisance yesterday, the boats that were burned by the rebels, on the Pamunkey, had been mostly loaded with corn. When they heard of the advance of our gunboats they commenced putting the corn on board so as to ensure its destruction. A few shells soon dispersed them when the gunboats returned to White House.

The roads for the past three days have been next to impassible, owing to the recent rains. A division train was 36 hours making its way five miles with teams doubled together and many soldiers assisting. The advance of our army from this point must be necessarily slow. From here it loses the benefit of river transportation. The bridge between here and the enemy has been destroyed and every imaginable obstruction placed in the way of our advance.

The Richmond Dispatch of the 12th has an article on the evacuation of Norfolk and the conduct of the war in general. It says that the points within reach of the enemy’s fleet being abandoned, powerful forces can be concentrated on the essential points, and has baffled the enemy in every attack of vital importance. The same paper makes mention of a terrible panic in Richmond on the appearance of our gunboats.

To-day being Sunday the army has rested.

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A Canadian Opinion of Blowing up the Merrimac.—The Toronto Globe says: “We confess, however, to some surprise at the blowing up of the Merrimac. We have never overrated the ‘pluck’ of the Southerners, but in destroying such a vessel without endeavoring at least to injure their opponents, they manifested a degree of ‘poltroonery’ rarely if ever equalled.”

Interesting from Charleston and Savannah!

New York, May 18.—By the Atlantic from Port Royal we learn that a Negro pilot named Small brought out from Charleston a small rebel tug boat, with a number of guns, destined for Fort Ripley, and surrendered her to our blockading fleet. He is considered the greatest acquisition, being thoroughly acquainted with all the intricacies of navigation in that region.

Gen. Hunter’s proclamation has been published in Charleston, and a Negro insurrection was imminent.

Vast preparations are making to bombard Savannah. Our gunboats have proceeded up the river, and our pickets are within four miles of the city. Massive batteries, mounting Parrott guns, have been erected all around the city.

Our troops have a portion of the Charleston and Savannah Railroad in their possession.

A Negro regiment is being organized by General Hunter, its officers being appointed from Massachusetts regiments, and the movement meets with favor, as they are able to perform duties which will relieve our troops.

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Beauregard Suffering for a Fight.

Chicago, May 16.—Refugees from Corinth report that the officers of the rebel army complain bitterly of the loss the Southerners sustain by the delay of Gen. Halleck in making an attack upon them. Beauregard has been ready for a week. Every day’s delay weakens him. He has all the re-enforcements he can produce while sickness reigns.

New York, May 18.—A special to the Times, on the Corinth road the 17th, says the Memphis papers of the 11th are looking for the great battle at Corinth with terrible interest. They estimate the national army at 60,000, and insist that it is greatly demoralized. They say they do not allow themselves to think of being defeated. Beauregard is still undoubtedly at Corinth.

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From Washington.

Washington, May 17.—Eight or ten fugitive slaves have been returned to claimants.

It is estimated that there were here recently about a thousand slaves, principally from Prince George’s county, Md. At least forty slaveholders from that county were at the court to-day, filing petitions for reclaiming runaways.

In some cases as many as 21 are claimed by a single person. Generally the fugitives for whom writs are issued have been removed beyond the reach of arrest.

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TUESDAY
MAY 20
, 1862
LOWELL DAILY CITIZEN & NEWS (MA)

We publish the president’s proclamation called forth by the recent action of General Hunter. The document is very plain and unequivocal,2 and will relieve an anxiety on several points in respect to which the people are in want of information. It seems that the order of General hunter was as much a surprise to the president as to the rest of mankind, and it is not strange that he should prefer to have a directing hand in a matter of such import as that involved in the order of his subordinate. It will be perceived that while the president in effect annuls the order of Hunter, as unauthorized by rightful authority, he reserves to himself, as commander-in-chief, the determination of the question when and how such power shall be exercised. He renews his appeal to the people of the slave-holding states to embrace the definite and solemn proposal offered by the government in its recent action. The president, in a word, carefully abstains from any disavowal of the power of emancipation, under military authority, but the drift of his proclamation is unmistakably against its exercise at the option of subordinates. This conflictive action will necessarily complicate matters, but something will be gained, if we can have, at last, some authoritative and uniform regulations covering the whole ground.

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Bold Adventure of a Negro Pilot.—The Port Royal correspondent of the New York Post gives the following account of the escape of the pilot Robert Small with the Planter:

“He has been employed in transferring siege guns from one point to another around Charleston. He has long been planning this movement. He brought with him his family and those of his crew, and several valuable siege guns, including an eight inch rifle. He cleverly got clear on Monday night of his white captain, shipped his family, and at daylight Tuesday boldly steered by the forts, giving his usual salute of the steam whistle; then hoisting the white flag he steered for our squadron and reached here this morning. It is noteworthy that Gen. Hunter’s order of emancipation, which was circulated here on Saturday, had reached Charleston, (its purport, at least,) before he left.

“It is said that his vessel and guns are worth nearly $30,000, a prize to the blockading fleet! Will not congress, by unanimous consent, give these bold fellows the full value of their prize as an encouragement to others? Robert Small is a sharp-looking, intelligent fellow of medium size, and apparently about thirty years of age.”

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A Printer Boy in Battle.—In the battle of Pittsburg Landing, young Martin Been of Alton, Illinois, scarce eighteen years old, was a sergeant in the 13th Missouri, having entered the regiment as a private. On that fatal Sunday the color-bearer was shot down at his side; he caught up the flag and carried it through the day, and slept that night with its folds around him. The next morning his captain appointed him a second lieutenant pro tempore. The first volley killed the first lieutenant and Martin took his place. Soon after the lieutenant-colonel fell and the captain of the Martin’s company acted as major, leaving this young hero to carry the company through the battle, which he did most gallantly, and escaped unharmed. Young Martin Been was in a printing office when the war broke out.

Soldiers’ Bounty.—The pay-roll for the families of soldiers now being paid by the treasurer, Mr. Keyes, at the room in the Market house, formerly occupied as the liquor agency, amounts to $2500, over half of which was paid yesterday. A new system will be adopted in future, by which one half will be paid on Mondays and the remainder on Tuesdays, preventing a large crowd at any one time. The place now being used for an office is very convenient and easy of access, but it has a very “ancient and fish-like smell,” which is anything but agreeable.

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An intelligent correspondent of the Missouri Republican, in writing concerning the prevailing want in Arkansas, describes the disability which belongs to the whole south more or less. He says:

“The great want of the country is schools, churches and free labor. When the rebellion is over, a new spirit will visit this land. The people are beginning to see that the great cause of all their troubles has been the want of general intelligence and education among the people, and, as the rebellion is likely to remove a portion of the violent and reckless class from the state, their places will be filled with a better class of citizens, and there will be greater respect paid to the institutions of religions and liberty, and greater protection to life and property than has hitherto been enjoyed. One of the traits of this war must be the renovation of society in many parts of the south, and the purification of the public mind from the hurtful prejudices which have heretofore kept the people in ignorance and cursed the state.

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The heavy fighting before Williamsburg was in the woods, where the enemy, before our reserves came up, greatly outnumbered us—one account say four to one. The Eleventh Massachusetts, Col. Blaisdell, showed admirable pluck, advancing through ditch and swamp and driving the foe before them. The following is from the account furnished to the New York Times:

Suddenly a regiment filed out in front of the advancing Eleventh, bearing a flag of truce. All firing instantly ceased, and the enemy was allowed to approach within speaking distance, when the inquiry was made by them, “What regiment are you?” Without answering the inquiry, the same requisition was made upon the enemy, who replied, “We’re the Eighth Alabama!” “And we’re the Eleventh Massachusetts!” was the rejoinder. “The you’re the d----d sons of ------- we want!” and the white flag was instantly thrown down and a volley of musketry poured into them along their whole line, killing and wounding several of our men. The Eleventh, with renewed impulse, immediately charged upon the treacherous horde, and sent them flying into the woods, where they were shot down and bayoneted at our mercy. The Eleventh was soon relieved, and at 9½ o’clock the cheering and shouting of the men in the rear told us our artillery were coming up.

WEDNESDAY
MAY 21, 1862
LOWELL DAILY CITIZEN & NEWS (MA)

From New Orleans and the Gulf.—The steamer Rhode Island arrived at Fortress Monroe yesterday with the mails and dates from New Orleans to the 8th, Southwest the to the 9th, Ship Island to the 10th, Pensacola to the 11th, Key West to the 14th and Port Royal to the 18th. By this arrival we have some items of interest, though not very important, from New Orleans and other points on the Southern coast:

Gen. Butler commenced landing on the 1st of May, established his headquarters at the Custom House, took possession of the City Hall, Mint, &c., and compelled the St. Charles hotel, which was closed, to open for the accommodation of himself and staff. A conference had been held between Gen. Butler and the authorities of the city with Pierre Soule. The proclamation was discussed and modified in some particulars, as an act of humanity to the suffering inhabitants. The boats and railroads were allowed to bring supplies to the city. Negotiation for Confederate scrip is forbidden, but other species of currency in circulation are allowed. The newspapers continue their publication. The Delta was suppressed for refusing to publish the proclamation, but was subsequently allowed to go on. Algiers has been occupied by our forces, and Forts Jackson and St. Phillip garrisoned by our troops from Ship Island. The Opelousas and Jackson Railroad was taken possession of, and all the approaches to the city cut off. Gen. Phelps had advanced to Carrolton, 5 miles up the river, and occupied the place. There was very little public demonstration of Union feeling in consequence of the uncertainty in reference to the future. A great want of confidence was prevailing, but under the firm course of Gen. Butler business is slowly reviving. The city is gradually becoming quiet, and affairs generally are perfectly satisfactory.

It is stated that porter’s mortar fleet had been off Mobile and in the bay, and soundings had been made in the channel. On the 7th the fleet was fired on while engaged in this work by Fort Morgan, but no reply was made. The fleet afterward returned to Ship Island.

On the night of the 9th inst., the enemy evacuated Pensacola, and set fire to the forts, navy yard, barracks and marine hospital. Gen. Arnold commenced a bombardment when the destruction of property was begun, with the hope of saving a portion of the forts and public property. The steamers Bradford and Neaffie were burnt. Fort McRae, the hospital and navy yard were destroyed. The barracks were saved, as were also the foundry and blacksmith shop in the navy yard. The city and forts had been occupied by Gen. Jones with 3000 troops. Gen. Arnold was to establish his headquarters in the city on the 12th and occupy the city with 1200 men.

There is nothing of importance from Key West or Port Royal. Some few days ago the gunboat Wamsutta lost two men in a skirmish in Warsaw Sound.

Robert Small.—The prompt action of the senate, passing without opposition the bill of Senator Grimes, by which Robert Small and his gallant crew of loyal South Carolinians are given prize money to the amount of one-half the vessel and cargo seized by them, deserves all praise.3 When the bill was sent to the house, action was postponed for one day by reason of objections made by some “conservative” whose name is not announced. Well does a contemporary observe, “If we must still remember with humiliation that the confederate flag yet waves where our national colors were first struck, we should be all the more prompt to recognize the merit that has put into our possession the first trophy from Fort Sumter.”

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Teach Ideas.—It has been a very common fault of the teaching in our schools, that it has been too formal, too much confined to the language of the text-books. Teachers have asked the questions from the books, and pupils have repeated the answers as contained in the book. This may be well to a certain extent, and yet such course alone constitutes but a small part of a true recitation.

Words without ideas are but little worth—but little worth only as the clear exponents of ideas. A pupil may be able to repeat the words of a grammar from beginning to end, and yet have no clear and well-defined ideas of structure or analysis of language. If he has learned mechanically, no thoughts have been awakened, no valuable impressions have been made. With a view to testing the understanding of your pupils, and awakening thoughts, ask many incidental questions, such as are not contained in the text-book, but such as are pertinent to the subject under consideration. It is not unfrequently the case that a pupil may perform certain operations with the text-book, a given model under his eye, and yet not clearly comprehend the principles involved.

In all your teaching, consider that your true duty is to awaken thought, to encourage investigation, to lead your pupils to examine, to think for themselves.

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The Situation Before Corinth.—A correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette writes from Farmington, Miss.:

Thus far Pope had been doing the lively work. Landing at Hamburg and advancing out to the left of Corinth, he has after a series of sharp skirmishes, established himself at Farmington, four miles east of Corinth, and has reconnoitered up to the enemy’s fortifications on that side. On the centre Buell is advancing rather more slowly. His divisions are now thrown forward two to four miles from Monterey, and within six to eight of Corinth. Thomas completes the line of battle to the right, with (Ohio) Sherman’s division close up on the enemy’s outposts on the road from Corinth to Purdy. The line of our advance thus stretches around in a circuit of nearly ten miles. All the time as we move forward, our front opposes to the enemy an unbroken line of battle, and at every point, by early dawn each morning, an array of bayonets stretches from wing to wing of our extended forces. There is no camping by the enemy now under the light of our own camp-fires; no moving of a heavy array within a half a mile of our lines without our knowledge.

THURSDAY
MAY 22, 1862

THE NEW HAMPSHIRE SENTINEL

Democrats in the Army and Democrats in the Caucus.—Mr. Forney writes in his Philadelphia Press that while many democrats out of the army embarrass the administration, abuse the abolitionists and give moral aid and comfort to the rebels, he finds that the democrats in the army have come to consider the leaders of the rebellion alike inhuman and desperate, and are ready for the most severe measures against them, even to the arming of the Negroes. He says a democratic brigadier remarked to him, a few days ago: “When I think what they are doing to my poor soldiers, and to the Union men of the South, who, like some politicians in the loyal states, think the abolitionists the worst of men, I feel like waging a war to the knife against every disloyal slaveholder.”

Capt. William D. Wilkins of Banks’ division, a democrat, writes to Senator Howard of Michigan, from Harrisonburg, Va., May 3d:

“I sent you a few days since the mandate of the so-called confederate court of Virginia to the Rockingham bank, a measure preliminary to the confiscation of all the property of loyal citizens that could be reached. Every loyal citizen in the ‘valley of Virginia,’ through which our column is now moving, has been stripped of everything the rebels could carry away. Hundreds of prosperous farms have thus been laid desolate, hundreds of loyal men stripped of all they had, hundreds cast into loathsome prisons. When Jackson retired before us from Winchester, he arrested and took with him over fifty Union men of that place, whose only offence was loyalty to their country. And these men, many of them aged, and holding highly respectable positions, were driven on foot behind his baggage train, through rain and mud, denied shelter at night, and were often obliged to go all day without a meal. I speak of what I do know. Lenity to these rebels only makes them believe that we are afraid of them. They imply from our forbearance that we dare not punish. Let us make haste to convince them that ‘our eagles bear the arrows of punishment as well as the shield of protection.’ ”

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To Richmond by James River.—The repulse of our gunboats, in James River, in approaching Fort Darling, seven miles below Richmond, only proves that gunboats cannot accomplish everything, and that they are not invulnerable against all kinds of assault. The Galena, Monitor, Naugatuck, &c., made their way successfully up, until they neared Fort Darling, which was situated on a bluff 200 feet above the water, commanding the river where it was very narrow, and where the channel had been recently obstructed by sunken vessels. The heavy guns are so high above the river, on the nearly perpendicular bank, that the gunboats could not elevate their guns sufficiently to reach them, while their immense shot were driven down point blank upon the boats. The obstructions in the river prevented their running by, and having been considerably damaged by the guns of the enemy and the bursting of the great Parrott gun on the Naugatuck, there was no alternative but retreat. But Commodore Goldsborough has gone up the river, and will doubtless succeed in reducing the fort, and thus open the way to Richmond by water. He is accompanied by the steamer Susquehanna, and the gunboats Dacotah, Maritanza and Wachusett, and the tug Zouave; the latter mounted with a single gun. The abandonment by the rebels of all their batteries below Fort Darling, leaving their ordnance to be picked up by Com. Goldsborough, will enable that officer to bring his mortar boats, which we suppose he has, with other vessels, within range of Fort Darling.

Mr. Gough’s Lecture.—The lecture by John B. Gough at the Town Hall last Thursday evening, was what might have been expected from his wide-spread reputation—powerfully dramatic, amusing, brilliant—alternately moving his audience to tears and laughter. No orator that we have heard in Keene has held such power over his audience. The theme was “Here and There in Britain”—and the lecture was therefore a medley—descriptive of places, the abodes of the noble and rich, and of the humble working people, with delineations of character drawn from the ranks of the nobility, gentry, and the toiling masses. The speaker is a native of England, but has long residence in the United States, and his trials and sufferings through poverty, have made him a staunch friend of republican institutions,4 and a hater of wrong and oppression, but they have not blinded him to the real virtues of aristocratic life. The masses of English people, the intelligent middle classes, Mr. Gough asserts, are friendly to America, and American institutions, while the aristocracy, the governing classes of England, hate us most cordially, and always will hate us, so long as we are free and prosperous. The London Times, the newspaper organ of the aristocracy, has never been friendly to this country, and has never told the truth of us, when the truth was adverse to its prejudices. The intelligent masses of England are friendly to our government in its struggle with the rebellion, and only the Times newspaper and those it represents, are in sympathy with the rebellion. The speaker alluded to our struggle for the Union with thrilling eloquence, and said we had much more cause to fear disastrous results from Northern sympathy with rebels and fraudulent contractors, than we had from any foreign intervention. The appreciation of this truth among the audience was manifested by the enthusiastic applause it elicited. The English Queen was warmly eulogized for her many virtues. Modest and unpretending, a strict lover of justice and of her country’s welfare, she lives deeply in the affections of the English people. She has purified the atmosphere around the English court, which presents a fine contrast to the times of George IVth. In dwelling upon English aristocracy, Mr. Gough had something to say of aristocracy in general, for it existed in all countries, and in every phase of social life. Under this head he took occasion to pass a merited rebuke to village snobbery, so common in New England. Those who failed to hear the lecture lost infinitely more than the price of admission. It was over two hours long, but the audience could have listened an hour longer with delight, ad the speaker been able to continue that length of time.

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The great international exhibition at London has been opened, and the English newspapers pronounce it a success. The building itself is not equal to the Crystal Palace of 1851, but the contents, it is said, far surpass those of that year. The Queen was not present at the opening, her deceased consort having had so much to do with the preparations, she could not bear to witness the opening ceremonies.

FRIDAY
MAY
23, 1862
THE LIBERATOR (MA)

HOSPITAL EXPERIENCES.
The Wounded at Paducah, Ky.—Great Variety of Wounds—Horrors of the Battle-Field.

The following extract (says the Detroit Free Press) is from a private letter from an army surgeon at Paducah—

Paducah, Ky., April 17.

Do not upbraid me for the very hard work I have done, for how is it possible for a man of my temperament to do other than work, when you enter a room where a hundred or two of our brave boys lie in pain, in agony, and in mutilation; and hear them cry out, in the most piteous and beseeching tones, “Dear Doctor, for heaven’s sake, do help me next.” Others will say, “I know you do all you can, but if I die, oh, my poor wife and my little children! What will become of them? Do, for God’s sake, fix me next.” Then, again, to look into the anxious, beseeching eye—put your hand upon the feeble pulse, or on the fevered cheek, or on the cold and already clammy brow, I ask you, where is the man who has a single particle of love for his race or his country and countrymen, who will not be nerved up to work, tired and weary as he may be?

The variety of wounds we have are almost as numerous as the wounded themselves. First look at the head. A cannon ball or portion of shell has carried away all the skin and scalp from a whole side of the head and face; a Minié ball has entered the back part of the head, coming out through the nose or the cheek bone, carrying away all the bony and fleshy substance of the face, and leaving the most horrid mutilation you can imagine. Another is shot through the temple, one or both eyes torn out and lying on the cheek; another with the lower jaw all shot away, and the poor, dry and fevered tongue swelled as large as a man’s arm. Again turn down the coarse but bloody woolen blanket from the poor man’s breast; a bullet has gone through the chest; the bloody serum and the bubbles of air press or ooze out of each wound at every labored breath; his lips are blue, his skin is cold, sweat oozes out at every pore; he, too, with the utmost difficulty, breathes out, “Do help me.” But all we can say or do is to assure the poor sufferer that his only relief is in a dose of morphine, and his only rest the grave. Another has a shoulder or an arm pierced or carried away. If the shoulder is carried away, wash and dress, cover up, assuage the pain, and wait the fatal moment; if the arm be only badly shattered, the knife and the saw soon do their work; the poor fellow is maimed for life, whether it be short or long. He is laid away as best he can be, to run his chance. Another is shot through the back, and an entire paralysis of the whole lower part of the body has ensued. He breathes a few hours or days at most. Anotehr is shot through the hips, leaving the bones perfectly bare. He, too, soon goes to his long home, his final and last resting place. Then again, the variety of wound and mutilation which are met with in the legs, and number and variety of operations which are needed and performed, would take volumes, and not letters, to describe. It is out of my power to give a graphic view of what has come under my notice and care.

The estimate I gave you the other day, of the number of our killed and wounded, 5,000 killed and 15,000 wounded, is really below the fact. I have yet been in no battle, but have seen a great deal of its horrors. Paducah is at the junction of the Tennessee with the Ohio rivers. It is the first point of any kind of size that is reached from the field of battle, and is the first point where a general hospital is located. All the boats first stop here, and all the worst cases are taken off, hence the great number and variety of our operations.

I cut off forty-one limbs in one single night. At first I felt really nervous; at last I really liked it. So the feelings of poor human nature can become blunted.

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SAVAGE WARFARE.

H. J. Raymond, editor of the N. Y. Times, writing from Yorktown under date of the 8th inst., says: “I cannot close this without mentioning one incident which will brand forever in history the character of the foe with whom we have to deal. Gen. Butterfield was General of the trenches on Sunday, and in charge of Yorktown after its evacuation. 

The troops found scattered about—not at random, but carefully placed so as to be the most destructive—great numbers of torpedoes, charged with explosives, and so arranged with wires that on being handled or stepped on, they would explode. A large tree, around which horsemen would naturally gather for shelter, was completely surrounded by them. They were placed in narrow portions of the road—at or near wells, and wherever individuals were most likely to go. They were found in carpet-bags, in flour barrels, in corn and coffee sacks, in officer’s trunks, &c., &c. One was placed just where the telegraph wire, which had been cut, entered the ground—and exploded as the new telegraph operator went to take possession, killing him instantly. Seven or eight of our men have lost their lives already from this cause. The entrance to the magazines has been so arranged as to make it almost certain that an explosion will follow any attempt to open them; they have, therefore, been placed under guard, and have not yet been disturbed. I saw to-day a statement made by a man named Grover, from Western New York, who has been in the rebel army from the beginning of the war, but who was lately taken prisoner, or who surrendered voluntarily, I do not remember which. He says (under oath) that the construction and planting of these torpedoes has been the special work of Brig. Gen, Rains, who goes among the rebel soldiers by the sobriquet of “Sister Rains,” on account of his devotion to the doctrines of Free Love and Spiritualism. He asserts that Rains had given a great deal of time and labor to the preparation of these torpedoes—that he superintended the “planting” of them himself, and that he had seen him going about in connection with a man named Gray, with a wagon load of them to be placed in particular spots. Grover says that he knows where many of them have been placed, and to-morrow Gen. Andrew Porter, the Provost-Marshal, intends to send a guard of rebel prisoners under Grover’s guidance to dig out all these infernal machines at their own proper risk and peril. No one can complain of a retaliation such as this, which merely compels the rebels to take the chances of the assassinations they had planned for our troops.”

SATURDAY
MAY 24, 1862
THE BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER

The Generalship which is Sparing of Life.

The following is an extract from a letter from the Colonel of a Massachusetts regiment, dated at the camp on the Pamunkey River, May 11, 1862—

“When we move from here, I cannot say; soon, however, but we need not anticipate anything to compare with Yorktown, where the works are as formidable as were those of Sebastopol . . . But, thanks to the science of General McClellan, a few weeks of labor, with a small sacrifice of men, made the enemy’s works untenable. His batteries were so placed that the enemy were reduced and made to fly without loss of life on our part. How grateful wives, parents and children should be! At least 5000 lives are saved. Honor the commander who gains success without sacrifice of life.”

The following is from a letter from the same officer dated May 13, 1862—

“Will the country generally ever know or understand the immense amount of life he (McClellan) has saved? I was prepared to see strong works at Yorktown, and ready personally to meet the peril of an assault upon them; but my conception of the defences—nearly one year has been occupied in their construction—established by Lee and Johnston, was very imperfect. The works in front of our division, which would have fallen to us, are very formidable. We—my own regiment—passed over a marsh covered with eighteen inches of water; a dam and gate below—under the control of the enemy—could easily have backed up the water to waist-deep; the approach for a half mile was over a wide, level plain, swept by batteries of great power. Now we could and would have carried these works; but at great sacrifice of life. As it is, the enemy have fallen back fighting—making stands at West point and Williamsburg, meeting signal defeats on both fields. We have had great success and small loss.”

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The Enlistments and the Slavery Question.—We observe that it is hinted that Governor Andrew is the “New England governor” referred to in a Washington dispatch yesterday morning, as having refused to raise more troops until the government adopts a new policy respecting slavery. In this form the report was so palpably and notoriously false, that we are not surprised to see that the story has been recast.

It now runs that the Governor intimated a doubt whether enlistments would be prompt, unless such a policy were adopted. We discredit the story, however, in this or in any form. The official reply made by the Governor to the President’s call is known to have been prompt, patriotic and unequivocal; and we take leave to doubt whether in the most confidential of his unofficial letters the Governor has ever expressed a doubt, as to the readiness of Massachusetts to respond to any demand made by the country, whether all of her citizens agree with the precise policy pursued by the government or not.

New Orleans.—Of course no one expects that the press of New Orleans will admit any shadow of doubt as to the steady rebellious character of the city. They assert that the people are a unit, that they submit only to brute force, and make all the other heroic declarations which are thought suitable on such occasions. But the New Orleans papers note a reaction from the sullen spirit at first manifested by the citizens. Even the Delta records a perceptible vivacity and buoyancy of demeanor, in great contrast with the gloom which at first prevailed. The Bee says the city is as quiet as in ordinary times, and far more tranquil than it has been of late, the troops being careful to interfere with no one, and the city authorities having pledged themselves that the soldiers shall not be molested or insulted under any circumstances.

General Butler, we should infer, has managed with great judgment in dealing with the people under his control. The Delta calls attention to the fact that he is neither a Know Nothing nor an abolitionist, and of course he is not “Picayune Butler” any more. He has consented to the introduction of a boatload of provisions for the inhabitants of Mobile, to the opening of the Opelousas railroad and to steam navigation to the mouth of Red River, for obtaining provisions. The rebels may refuse to allow this communication, on account of the support which it will give to our forces; but such a measure will not improve their relations with the people of the city. On the whole, therefore, we should judge that General Butler has shown no little shrewdness, and has taken thought for himself as well as for the populace of New Orleans.

An authority of a very different sort, a special correspondent of the New York Evening Post, declares that progress towards a right state of feeling is easily seen. The prisoners taken on the river were released upon taking the oath of allegiance, and a party of one or two hundred of them cheered loudly for the Union, while a hundred applied for work in the government service. For the first few days the mob was boisterous and ready to take liberties and show its defiance. But after four or five days in the city, the correspondent writes as follows—

“May 5.—I see that, writing two days ago, I gave this people one month to become strongly Union. I believe I shall have to reduce the time to two weeks. We are getting on famously. They no longer insult us in the streets. They begin to enter into conversation with us; make advances of various kinds; they throng to our reviews . . . In truth, they are a thoroughly French population, shouting today for a republic, tomorrow for an empire, and with their whole souls for both.”

He is no doubt too sanguine in his predictions, as men as so apt to be; but the facts which he notes as observed by himself are worthy of attention.

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The Detroit Tribune of Tuesday evening says: “A fleet of some 75 sail, grain-loaded, bound down from Chicago to Buffalo, passed down yesterday, the great part of them during the latter part of the day—a majority of them of the larger class of vessels.”

1 “defalcation” is the misappropriation of money or funds held by an official.

2 And terribly long, which is why it is not included here, as there would be no room for other news.

3 Small and his crew are not being slighted by getting only one-half the value of the ship and its cargo; this is the same percentage given the crews of U.S. Navy vessels when capturing a blockade runner. Half the value always went to the government—which used the money to set up a post-war pension system for sailors of all races. They even went so far as to make the system retroactive to include African American sailors who served before the Emancipation Proclamation.

4 Meaning “the institutions of a republic,” not “institutions of the Republicans” (as opposed to the Democrats).

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