JUNE 7, 1863
THE DAILY PICAYUNE
How people Live in New York City.–The
annual sanitary reports of the New York police furnish many odd
revelations of the condition in which the population of that great city
manage to get along. The Philadelphia North
American has the following analysis of these reports:
total number of tenement houses in the city is given at 12,347, with a
population of 401,376 six persons—being an average of rather more than
thirty-two to a house. Of these people 22,095 live in cellars. Of the
tenement houses, 3,801, inhabited by 125,380 persons, are deficient of
means of escape in time of fire, and 4,221 houses, containing 148,168
persons, are badly ventilated. The following extract further illustrates
the report denounces the rapacious spirit of landlords and of tenement
houses, and calls for a law prohibiting the packing of human beings as
is done now, it also affirms that the tenants themselves are responsible
for many of the discomforts under which they labor, the plainest
principles of hygiene being continually violated with apparent
indifference as to any evil results. A general improvement, however, is
noted in the condition of the tenement houses. Twenty-two were reported
filthy during the last year, which were immediately cleaned upon receipt
population included in these dreadful places is nearly half of the
aggregate population of New York city, and in the above figures are
included only the houses which came under the supervision of the police
distinctively as tenement houses, for the lowest classes of the people.
Nothing could more forcibly illustrate the poverty of the great mass of
the population of the city than these statistics. They do not include
any but those whose poverty is a terrible burden since no one would live
in such places except from sheer necessity. Of the many thousands who
live in boarding houses, but little elevated above actual want, there is
no record. It is only by the light of these figures that we are enabled
to understand the gaunt necessity which compels the eager cupidity and
unnatural greed and avidity of the New York population in everything
that relates to business or money.
Reporting Under Difficulties.–A
letter from Chicago, referring to the ecclesiastical trial of the Rev.
Mr. Hager, charged with conduct unbecoming a clergyman, and of which he
has been honorably acquitted, says:
circumstance connected with the case is rather funny. The Bishop
attempted to make the trial a secret tribunal, and put every one within
the pale on his honor not to reveal the proceedings. But pretty full
reports appeared in the daily papers. Here was a mystery. The Bishop
endeavored in vain to find the “leak.” After the trial is over the
reports explain. The sittings were in an upper room of a public
building. The first floor was occupied by a hose company. By inserting a
hose into the chimney they got a tolerably good hearing of what
transpired above through a stove-pipe hole in the room where the court
was sitting, and the public had the benefit of it.
Terrible Drought in Australia.–Accounts
from Sydney, Australia, represent that a fearful drought has prevailed
in Australia. In some localities there had been no rain for fourteen
months, and the cattle had died by thousands. One farmer lost five
thousand to six thousand sheep and lambs; another, fifteen thousand, and
all who owned stock of any kind suffered in like manner. No one in the
country remembers such a season before. Wool could not be brought into
Sydney, as all the teams died on the road for want of pasturage and
water. In some parts of the country nothing is met for miles but the
bodies and bleached bones of sheep and bullocks.
How Gen. Grant Started in his
Present Campaign.–The Chicago Tribune
learns from a gentleman who participated in the recent campaign of Gen.
Grant, up to the time the enemy crossed the Big Black in the retreat
towards Vicksburg, that in starting on the movement, the General
disencumbered himself of everything, setting an example to his officers
and men. He took neither a horse nor a servant, overcoat nor a blanket,
nor tent, nor camp chest, not even a clean shirt. His only baggage
consisted of a tooth-brush. He shared all the hardships of the private
soldier, sleeping in the front and in the open air, and eating hard tack
and salt pork. He wore no sword, had on a low crowned citizen’s hat,
and the only thing about him to mark him as a military man was his two
stars on his undress military coat. On the battlefield he was
omnipresent, riding everywhere, generally alone, into the very thickest
of the fight, inspiring the troops by his impetuous coolness and
New Style of Freight.–The
Rochester Express relates that a few days since a steamer which touched at
Kingston, [Canada], took on board a large box marked thus:
the American Glass Co., Pearl Street, New York.
(Glass, this side up, handle with care)
care was exercised in handling the box, which was gently deposited in
the hold. When the boat arrived at Sackett’s Harbor, N. Y., one of the
hands pulled at a wisp of hay protruding from a knot hole in the
aforesaid package, when, to his amazement, the side of the box flew off,
and out rolled two soldiers (!) who quickly gathered themselves up and
bolted for the shore, and the last that was seen of them they were
making tracks up town. From a collar found in the box it appeared that
they were deserters from the Royal Artillery at Kingston.
No Paper Money in California.–A
San Francisco correspondent has the following bit of good news for
believers in “hard money:”
is no paper money in California. The constitution of the State prohibits
“banking” and the creation of paper to circulate as money. No bank
notes have ever been current in this State or on this coast, nor are
bank notes used upon any part of the coast between Acapulco and Sitka;
and we are so far from the countries in which paper money is current,
that no attempt is made to introduce it here. In our banks there are
great piles of double eagles, but no bank notes are visible. Wherever
you go or whatever you buy, you see only gold and silver; people do not
think of paper.
MACON DAILY TELEGRAPH (GA)
Their Loss in all the Assaults 40,000.
MEN REFUSE TO RENEW THE ATTACK.
Loss Less Than One Thousand.
have seen Wm. James R. Saunders, of Selma, Ala., who left Vicksburg day
before yesterday at 11 a.m. He had been inside the Yankee lines ever
since Grant invested the place, and was allowed to leave by Gen. Grant
in order to bring away Mrs. Hundley, wife of Col. D. R. Hundley, of the
31st Alabama, who was wounded and taken prisoner at Port Gibson.
reports that in the big fight on Friday of week before last, the Yankees
confess that they lost twenty thousand men.1
Tuesday of the same week we sank two of the enemy’s gunboats, which
shell the town every day, having set fire to some houses, and already
killed a few women and children. Thirty-one of Vaughn’s East
Tennesseans, having deserted and taken the oath, state that so far our
losses in the city amount to only a thousand. Mr. Saunders reports that
the Yankee loss is from fifty to four hundred every day, our
sharpshooters killing them off whenever they show themselves near their
guns, which they are obliged to handle at night. One of our
sharpshooters has already immortalized himself in the Yankee Army. He
tells them he is a one-eyed man, and as he shoots a Belgian rifle,
whenever the peculiar whistle of that weapon is heard, the Yankees call
out, “Look out boys, there is Old One Eye!”
say he can kill at one thousand yards, and never misses. One day two
Yankee captains were looking from behind a cotton bale, and Old One Eye
killed them both at one shot. Mr. Saunders saw one other captain with an
amputated leg, which he owed to the same unknown man. Col. Hundley knows
the man, and says his name is Elliott, and that he belongs to the 30th
Alabama. He is known in Alabama as the best marksman in the State.
Grant speaks very disparagingly of Johnston, and says he will whip him
certainly if he comes to attack him where he is. He has received heavy
reinforcements since the fall of Snyder’s Bluff.
two gunboats sunk were the Natchez
and the Nightingale. Grant says he will starve Vicksburg out in ten days,
but this is known to be an idle boast.
Saunders states that the stench of the dead Yankees offended citizens
six miles from the battle field. Gen. Pemberton sent a flag of truce to
Grant and demanded that he remove his wounded and bury his dead, which
demand was complied with.
Federals when they approached Vicksburg were perfectly sanguine of an
immediate capture of our stronghold, and invited the ladies into
Vicksburg to see their sweethearts, as the rebels were all to be sent
North. Gen. Grant demanded a surrender of the city, and gave Pemberton
three days to consider the proposition. The rebel General replied that
he didn’t want three minutes to consider the question, but invited
Grant to open upon him as soon as he pleased.
the terrible slaughter on Friday, General Grant issued an order for new
ladders to be made and the assault to be renewed on Saturday at two
o’clock, but the men refused to be led again to the “slaughter
pen.” The 20th Ohio sent up a petition to Gen. McClernand, and
positively refused to participate again in the murderous work.->
Saunders heard frequent conversations between the Federals, and Colonel
Womack, chief of Grant’s staff, expressed the opinion that Vicksburg
could not be taken in six months, if ever. They imagine, now, that our
force in Vicksburg is from 75,000 to 100,000 men.
entire Federal loss around the entrenchments at Vicksburg is estimated
at from 35,000 to 40,000.2
Gen. Grant sent in to Pemberton to know why he fired railroad spikes and
poisoned balls at them? The only answer that Gen. Pemberton made to this
question was that the whole story was a lie. The Federals are seizing
upon all sorts of pretexts to account for their tremendous losses.
IRONCLADS ORDERED TO AMERICAN WATERS.
Feeling in Regard to the War.
(London Correspondence of the New York Herald.)
the mails had all left, I telegraphed you as follows, to Queenstown, to
put on board the Cunard steamer at that port:
have positive reliable information that the entire naval steam reserve
of three hundred vessels is ordered ready for sea immediately, in view
of the critical position of American affairs.
they are ordered to be prepared and in readiness at an hour’s notice,
I have the very best assurance. Of course, not a word of this is in the
newspapers or even talked of.
“war fever” blazes intensely; but it has declined some since the
news of the defeat of the ironclads at Charleston. If the rebels can
thrash you and get their independence, and thereby destroy the Union,
the purpose of the British will be answered. There is but one
thermometer to John Bull’s desire to go to war with Jonathan. His
wrath is just exactly in proportion to the successes of the U. S.
Government and the discomfiture of the rebels. Smash his dear friends,
the rebels, and his anger knows no bounds; get well beaten yourselves,
and Mr. Bull is as smiling as a summer morning. So you know perfectly
well how to please him, and it is your own fault if you do not keep him
in good humor.
first idea of the Englishman as to a war with America is this: He says
to himself, we shall break the blockade of all your Southern ports,
blockade all the Northern ones, give the rebels any amount of supplies,
and capture a number of your war and mercantile ships, and perhaps sack
one or two of your cities. Then he flatters himself you would be so
badly chawed up that he could dictate a peace, making one of the
conditions that the Confederacy should have their independence, covering
the thirteen nice little States that they claim, including, of course,
Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee, Louisiana and Texas. Perhaps he would
modestly stipulate that Maine should come to Mr. Bull as compensation
for having goaded him into a war.
JUNE 9, 1863
SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN (MA)
situation of affairs in the various military departments continues to be
full of interest. Everything thus far seems on the whole to be going
well, but at the same time the issue of pending events cannot be awaited
without anxiety. Vicksburg holds out longer than was expected, but all
our reports thus far are favorable to final success. The rebels have not
made that effort to raise the siege which was anticipated, and their
golden opportunity for an attack on Gen. Grant’s rear is passed. They
have doubtless been mustering their forces, but for once we have been in
a situation to receive reinforcements as fast as the enemy, and, what is
more, a disposition has been shown to use our facilities. The St. Louis
papers make frequent mention of steamers departing with troops for
below, and we have now the gratifying assurance that Gen. Burnside’s
ninth army corps has been sent to Vicksburg, so that Gen. Grant must be
abundantly prepared, as far as numbers are concerned, to meet any
attack. The assaults on the enemy’s works have been discontinued and
regular siege approaches commenced, and if the reports of the lack of
ammunition and supplies by the garrison are correct, a capitulation must
be effected. As far as we can judge now, and unless some new development
of rebel plans and strength is made, the fall of Vicksburg is sure and
only a question of time.
Port Hudson, which now divides the interest felt in the western
department with Vicksburg, the result is not quite so clear, but we hope
for the best. We put little faith in the rebel report that Kirby Smith
has crossed the Mississippi with his command to reinforce the rebels. He
has not been heard of in that section, and the rebels have now no
steamers on the river to effect such a crossing as they mention. But
aside from this the situation is full of danger. Gen. Banks was right in
saying he had not time to take the place in any other way than by
assault. From the number of troops that are known to be with him in the
attack, he must have left New Orleans and the other conquered portions
of Louisiana with very slight garrisons and exposed to capture by very
small bodies of the enemy. He cannot leave them thus exposed long
without the risk of losing what he has already acquired, and if he is to
take the place at all it must be by a quick movement. And besides there
is danger that Johnston, despairing of a sufficient force to
successfully attack Grant, might march quickly to Port Hudson and defeat
the smaller army of Gen. Banks, who is entirely cut off from
reinforcements beyond a certain limit. This then is the point fullest of
danger, and from which we are most anxious to hear.
is impossible to form any clear notion yet of what is going on in
Virginia. The late reconnoissance across the Rappahannock has shown that
the rebel army is not much if any decreased in numbers, only changed in
position; and the report of a northern invasion is again circulated. It
is certain Gen. Hooker is preparing very extensively for either
offensive or defensive movements. He has been largely reinforced from
the peninsula, and our forces there are drawing back and contracting
their lines near Norfolk and Fortress Monroe. He has also been
reinforced from other points, and has now a very large army in good
fighting condition. One side or the other must soon take the initiative
and resolve the doubts now hanging over the situation. The season is
advancing, and the hot weather coming on, and the next month seems
likely to witness a great struggle both in Virginia and at the West, and
also, as far as we can judge, great Union victories, for even if Gen.
Banks fails in his attack on port Hudson, that place cannot stand long
after the reduction of Vicksburg. One and the best and surest signs of
federal success is the great concentration of troops recently, and the
abandonment of the old plan of scattering our armies all over the
country. For once we appear likely to meet the enemy with superior or at
least equal force, and if we are not victorious, we ought to be. Still,
we have been disappointed so many times it will not do to predict great
things now. We can only hope for victory, and at the same time be
prepared for defeat.
the exchanges of a single mail, a few days since, we clipped the record
of no less than thirty suicides, all of which occurred within the space
of forty-eight hours. Of the thirty, eight were females. Fourteen were
believed to have been caused from disappointment in love, six from
seduction, four from a monomania in religion, two—both lads of twelve
years—from cruel treatment of parents, one from jealousy, and the
remaining three from misanthropy, sickness or sorrow. How sad a
commentary upon American life and its attributes this picture presents,
we leave those who have the welfare of their species at heart to
conjecture. But it behooves every thinking man to carefully weigh the
combination of causes whereby so many mortals are hurried to
fear it is getting to be a characteristic of our social organization,
induced either through labor-wasted nerves, or the drowning of imaginary
sorrow in fruitless dissipation, or an inevitable drifting toward
misanthropy, either to indulge in a hopeless retrospection of what might
have gladdened life, or a dismal review of opportunities lost and years
sacrificed at the shrine of some foolish passion. As individuals, we are
sadly given to these gloomy retrospections. The worry and over-work of
the mechanic, the bustling activity of the merchant, the perplexing
brainwork of the professional, only cover a crowd of lurking memories
that sadden and torture the intervals of repose. As a people, we let
very little sunshine into our lives. Our peculiar organic temperaments
absorb too much of the dismal and too little of the bright and joyous.
We are prone to magnify emotions that require but little determination
to overcome permanently. Suicide and insanity seldom occur among the
Germans, although they are essentially a dreamy, metaphysical and
thoughtful people. They devote half their lives to amusement and
pastime; when labor is ended, they invariably seek recreation and
that mind dawns upon the age, that shall teach us not to fritter away
our lives in ephemeral pleasure and wasteful idleness—and we heed the
lesson—then will these suicidal tendencies be absorbed by better and
nobler desires. We cannot afford to sacrifice a promising future for
mere personal gratification. Activity, energy, industry and perseverance
are the necessary combatants to most of the elements of monomania. The
cultivation of them brings us into sympathy with the world and the
objects of civilization. We are all dying for the want of clear sky and
warm sunshine. Our lives grow darker and sadder every year, only because
we will not see the flowers that lie smiling at our feet; only because
we will not listen to the sweet bells of hope tinkling in our hearts the
glad music of heaven, and the grand diapason of the eternal spheres.
Those who are drifting into misanthropy must check the tendency so
inevitably hurrying them on. Their selfish cravings must be overcome
with the determination to live broader, nobler lives, and participate in
the grand religion of humanity.
JUNE 10, 1863
BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER
From the Rappahannock.
New York Times’s
correspondence, dated Headquarters Army of the Potomac, Monday, June 8,
1863, 6 p.m., says:
situation here remains unchanged. The position taken by Howe’s
Division on the south bank of the Rappahannock on Friday evening is
still peacefully held. The only hostile manifestation firing the past
twenty-four hours has been an occasional shell from one
four-and-a-half-inch Rodman, stationed on the hills on their side. Our
skirmishers hold the line of Deep Run and the Bowling Green road, while
the enemy are in plain sight, one-fourth of a mile further on. No large
bodies of their troops are in sight. About one mile directly in front of
our positions, and on the crest of the hill is a battery in sight, but
this is all we can see. There is abundant evidence, however, that the
enemy is closely watching our movements, evidently hoping we may
continue our advance, and meet him on his chosen ground. I can say that
depends altogether on circumstances. Our troops lay on their arms in the
open plain, covered by several batteries of those fierce brass
Napoleons. They are in excellent spirits, and enjoy this episode far
better than the dull and tedious life of camp. A large detail of men is
today engaged in destroying the enemy’s rifle-pits on the bank of the
river near where we crossed. The ditches are being filled up and the
banks levelled off, thus restoring the ground to its former level
surface, and depriving the enemy of the immediate use of this defence,
and facilitating the passage of our troops over the ground.
can safely say, in order to relieve excited minds, that no general
engagement is yet imminent. There are indications, though not very
numerous, that ere the week is over there may be noteworthy news, though
from what quarter and in what shape, no one seems to know. General
Hooker can do one thing well evidently—he can keep his own counsel.”
good deal has been made at different times as to the importance of
directing our operations against the enemy’s armies rather than his
positions. Especially has this difference been dwelt upon in comments
upon the various movements against Richmond, which it seems to be taken
for granted were merely movements for the barren seizure of an
unimportant town, and entirely distinct from any attempt to crush the
enemy’s armies as embodying the military power of the rebellion. These
criticisms, we are free to say, have
generally seemed to us to be misplaced. As regards Richmond, for
instance, the importance which the enemy as well as the government
attached to the position of that city is such, that there has never been
a time when it could have been taken without first destroying for all
effective purposes the army of the rebellion. In the peninsular
campaign, indeed, it is well known that the cooperation which General
McDowell’s corps was to have given->
expected to result in the capture
of a large part of the rebel army and the disorganization and virtual
destruction of the whole. And in general we have seen few proofs that
our generals have neglected the importance of shattering the military
forces of the rebels and given undue weight to the possession of
very notable case, however, of the refusal of two of our generals to be
misled in that direction has just occurred. We refer to the rejection by
Generals Grant and Banks retrospectively to offers from Vicksburg and
Port Hudson for the surrender of those places, if the garrisons might be
allowed to march out with their arms, free from detention. Either of
those generals might have made a tolerably specious defence of his
conduct, had he accepted the offer addressed to him. He could have urged
that the occupation of the post attacked by him would probably insure
the opening of the Mississippi river, that the establishment of our
communications by that route and the complete severance of the enemy’s
territory would be a great step towards final success cheaply secured,
and that in the loss of places of such note and interest, the enemy
would lose far more than he would gain by preserving his troops, with
the necessity of seeking and fortifying new positions in the presence of
our army. The country would have been disappointed at the enemy’s
escape, but it would have been cheered by the thought that the terrors
of these redoubtable strongholds no longer existed.
is clear enough, however, that both Grant and Banks judged well, in
refusing to be diverted from their purpose of destroying or capturing
the armies before them. If they succeed, they will have destroyed the
enemy’s power in the whole valley of the Mississippi, and will
probably have put it out of the question for him again to make head
against us there. The struggle in the Southwest is now brought down to a
contest for the mastery on those two fields, and our generals have
wisely refused to be content with less than a complete victory, or to
adjourn the contest to some other field. Indeed, had either accepted the
offer which was made to him, and been misled by the éclat
of occupying a celebrated position, disaster would very possibly have
been the result. The enemy in that quarter is now divided, by good
fortune, into three bodies, neither of which is strong, and is thus
likely to be destroyed in detail. But were either Grant or Banks to lose
his hold upon his antagonist, we should probably see two of the
enemy’s detachments united, and perhaps compelling the abandonment of
[the] siege which threatens the third. In short, the enemy’s offers
have simply been invitations to suffer him to concentrate by sacrificing
one of his favorite positions. He has done that too often already, and
we rejoice therefore that our generals refused to permit a repetition of
the manœuvres in this case.
PITTSFIELD SUN (MA)
news from Vicksburg to Wednesday last is of great importance. A rebel
dispatch bearer was recently captured on his way from Gen. Pemberton to
Gen. Johnston. Pemberton’s dispatch stated that his forage was all
gone, that his men were on quarter rations, that his ammunition was
nearly exhausted, and that he could only hold out ten days longer. The
next day after receiving this valuable intelligence, Gen. Grant ordered
all our siege guns to be opened on the city, and in the course of an
hour 3600 shells were thrown into it.
latest information from Port Hudson is to the 29th ult. At that date
Gen. Banks had completely invested the place, and our gunboats were
bombarding the fortifications from the river, while the troops at the
same time were using their artillery from the land side. The rebel
reports concerning affairs at Port Hudson, contained in dispatches from
Jackson, Miss., on the 4th inst., say that the rebel Gen. Kirby Smith
crossed the river to Port Hudson on Sunday, the 31st.
It was stated also that the gunboats had made a furious assault,
sinking one steamer and drowning seven hundred men. Serious doubts are
cast upon the truth of this story.
state of affairs on the Rappahannock was the subject of rumor on
Saturday. The prevailing report was that the enemy had evacuated
Fredericksburg, and that our troops had taken possession of it. This
news was brought by some passengers from Aquia Creek, but more reliable
news received in Washington shows that there is no truth in the rumors.
General Longstreet still holds possession of Fredericksburg, and
maintains a strong front on the upper fords of the river. A large
portion of his force, however, is thought to have gone in the direction
of Gordonsville. A considerable body of the rebels, principally cavalry,
was at Culpepper Court House. The Second Division of our Sixth Army
Corps crossed the river at Deep Run on a pontoon on Friday, and had some
skirmishing with the rebel sharpshooters from the rifle pits, which were
finally taken with about forty prisoners.
late movements of the rebels on the south side of the Rappahannock
induced the belief that they had retired altogether from their old lines
of defence and officers and others who came to Washington confidentially
announced this as a fact. The crossing of some of our troops on Friday
was in the way of reconnoissance to understand the actual condition of
affairs, and although on Sunday morning they had not returned, they
probably did so by night. Friday evening in crossing we lost about 30 in
killed and wounded and took about 50 prisoners in rifle pits on the
river bank. They have been brought to Washington. Captain Cross of the
regular engineers was killed. The entire loss on our side was in the
engineer brigade in crossing. On Sunday skirmishers of both parties were
represented to be in line of battle at some points, but there seemed to
be no apprehension of a general engagement. Both armies however seemed
to be wide awake.
advices do not contain anything especially new in regard to the progress
of the siege. A general bombardment was commenced on teh3d, and was kept
up with vigor, with what results is not known. A general attack was to
have been made on the 4th, though whether it was to have been an assault
or no is not stated. Gen. Blair had made a successful expedition
northward as far as Mechanicsburg.
Port Hudson Fight.
of the Negro Troops.
an occasional shot was being fired, before the battle commenced in its more
deadly fury, speculations were rife as to the manner in which the 2d
Louisiana black troops would act during the conflict. They had been placed
in the rear, with white troops leading them. Gen. Banks, however, in order
to test their military capacity, ordered them to the front. The Negroes at
once rushed to the assigned point, and in the midst of the battle, they
proceeded to storm the rebel portion opposite to them. They rushed in a body
over the parapets and siege guns, and reached the interior of the fort,
despite the opposition of a large number of rebels. The presence of the
black soldiers inside, not less the probability that the pass they had made
into the stronghold, seemed to create a spirit of fury in the enemy. They
left their guns at all points and rushed to the quarter where the Negroes
had prepared to make a vigorous struggle. The whites and blacks, in a
moment, had a hand to hand conflict unprecedented for its ferocity.
Negroes in the conflict were soon disarmed, and in defending themselves they
rapidly used the weapons of savage humanity. In every position in which the
struggle placed them, they fought with their teeth, biting their assailants
in every available part of the body, kicking and scratching them. Soon,
however, they had to succumb; the bayonet, the trigger, the revolver, and
the merciless hands on their throats, doing the work for them with fearful
may be here noted, as a key perhaps to other battles, that the presence of
the black troops made the rebels in the fort almost as ferocious as
the blacks. In the attack, the enemy did not content himself with wounding
the Africans: of eight hundred, six
hundred were at once killed; when one was wounded, the assault was
repeated until he died. Finding themselves thus overpowered, about 200 of
the Negro troops rushed to the siege guns, jumped headlong over the walls,
and were saved.
The Canal Convention at Chicago
closed its proceedings on Wednesday night. Resolutions were passed
unanimously for constructing the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and one around
Niagara, to open a highway from the Gulf of Mexico to the St. Lawrence.
DAILY PALLADIUM (CT)
Change in Public Opinion.
The events of the last few
weeks have wrought a wonderful change in public opinion respecting the
employment of Negro soldiers. A very large class of people, who six
weeks ago were bitterly opposed to our using Negroes to help put down
the rebellion, are now ready to insist that the only sensible way of
conducting the war is to enlist all who are ready to serve as soldiers,
without regard to color. The prospect of a draft has done something to
excite this sentiment. Most men who are not anxious to enter into the
service are quite willing that Negroes should be accepted if they
themselves may thereby escape. The heroism of the black troops on
several recent occasions has swept away the prejudices of all who really
desire to see the rebellion put down, and therefore welcome every new
agency which seems likely to help our cause. The fact that Negroes will
fight has been proved beyond question. Even their most implacable and
cowardly assailants cannot impeach their courage.
But there is one other reason
why public sentiment has so rapidly changed in the last month. The
cavalry raids into the midst of the enemy’s country have shown that
the Confederacy is stripped of its fighting white men, and that
everywhere the Negroes are anxious to escape from their masters and
enter our service. They are thoroughly informed as to the nature of the
contest now going on.
They understand that our flag
is the banner of freedom, and that the deliverance from bondage, so long
hoped for, must come, if at all, through the success of the Union cause.
Hence the bravery of these blacks at Port Hudson and Pocotaglio. Hence
the long train of six thousand sable emigrants marching into New Orleans
from the plantations of the interior, the squadrons of mounted blacks
following Kilpatrick in his raid through Virginia, and the thousands of
men, women and children praying Grierson to take them with him to a land
of freedom. With such facts as these daily coming to public notice,
people are beginning to understand that the seeds of death to the
Confederacy are planted in the Confederacy itself, and that the shortest
road to the suppression of the rebellion is through universal
emancipation. We swell our armies with Negro recruits, and at the same
time we rob the confederacy of the industry on which the rebel armies
live. The white labor of the North is needed here. No more men should be
called into the field from those Northern states than is absolutely
necessary. For the war lives upon the industry of the North, and our
agriculture and manufactures must be sustained or the resources of the
nation will fail. Every enlisted Negro saves a Northern white man from
service and enables him to continue his labors here. Every Negro
enlisted lessens the productive labor of the rebels and introduces
demoralization among their slaves. Who will say then that Negroes shall
not serve in our armies? Who will say that Negroes will not leave their
masters? No one, surely, unless he is blind to the events daily
transpiring, or devoted to the interests of those who have sought to
ruin this free republic.
Col. Forney writes from
Washington to the Philadelphia Press,
that he has assurances from a gentleman in high position that, in a very
short period, more than three hundred thousand colored men will be in
arms under the old flag. A white soldier cannot be sent into the fields
of the far South under a cost much less than one thousand dollars, while
a black soldier, being found in the South, can be instantly and
General Hooker’s Army.
Thursday, June 11.
Affairs along the front of
the Army of the Potomac remain as at the last advices, the enemy as well
as our own troops maintaining their original line of battle below the
town. Occasionally a gun is heard, and some scattering shots from
Intelligence from Caroline
county, Va., shows that the enemy have no strong forces there. There are
several picket guards at the fords and landings, and one at Bowling
Green, the county seat, and one at the railroad. These comprise their
The Neck this side of the
Rappahannock is quiet. None of the enemy’s forces are known to be
there. The health of our army is represented as excellent.
Pennsylvania Preparing for Defense.
Thursday, June 11.
Major General Couch arrived
this afternoon to consult with Governor Curtin on the best means of
defending our border from anticipated invasion. They will be joined
to-night by Major Generals Schenck and Brooks. The most energetic means
are being devised and will be carried into effect at once. It is thought
that the Governor will issue a proclamation to-morrow calling for the
organization of minute men.
The War Department has
created two new military districts to provide for the defense of
Pennsylvania. The western district is designated the department of
Monongahela, and embraces the territory west of Johnstown and Laurel
ridge, Major General Brooks in command, headquarters at Pittsburgh. The
eastern district embracing the balance of the State under command of
Major General Couch, headquarters at Chambersburg. Each has full
authority to organize an army corps consisting of infantry, cavalry and
artillery. Harrisburg will be the point for troops to assemble and
organize. General orders from General Couch will be issued to-morrow,
calling upon the people of the State to organize immediately for the
State defence. The time for action has arrived to save our State from
invasion by rebel forces.
Dr. Colton has concluded to
admit the boys and girls from our public schools to his laughing gas
exhibition to-morrow afternoon, at five cents each. Let the little ones
go and enjoy a treat. Dr. Colton will instruct as well as amuse them.
His closing public entertainment last evening was altogether the best he
has given, and afforded a genuine evening of laughter ad merriment to
all present. The lady subjects were especially good.
Over one hundred colored men
have left Canada within the past few months to enlist in the black
regiments. The most of them have old scores to settle with the rebels.
JUNE 13, 1863
HALLOWELL GAZETTE (ME)
of the Rebellion.
Nashville, Tenn. Union, published in a slave state, thus lectures the
“conservatives,” north and south, with regard to the cause of the
rebellion. Facts and figures are entirely ignored by those who would
make the people believe the rebellion was caused by anything short of
the cursed institution of slavery. We copy from the Union
say, Conservative, that slavery is not the cause of the rebellion. What
State originated the rebellion, cherished it for many years, when all
other states shunned and denounced it, and finally fired the first gun
of the war?
Carolina, where there are 402,406 slaves to 291,388 whites.
what State was next in the work of disunion?
where there are 436,631 slaves to 353,091 whites.
but four of the Slave States
seceded and rebelled, Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland and Delaware.
Kentucky has 919,517 whites to only 225,483 slaves; Missouri has
1,063,509 whites to only 114,931 slaves; Maryland has 515,918 whites to
only 87,189 slaves; and Delaware has 90,589 whites to only 1,798 slaves.
In the four loyal Slave States the disloyal portions of them are
generally the slave-holding portions of them. Even when we look at
counties, the slave-holding precincts are disloyal, and the
non-slave-holding precincts are loyal. We could specify, if it were
necessary, several remarkable instances of this, within our personal
knowledge, in Southern Kentucky.
are the facts which it is impossible to set aside.”
another article the Union makes the following emphatic declarations:
is false to assert that ever was a day when slavery was acquiesced in by
the nation. The arts and intrigues of politicians within a few years
past have given an extraordinary power to the slaveocracy, and it has
become the master of the Government. It is plain that either Slavery or
the Government must perish. They are at eternal enmity; they cannot be
reconciled; it is an evil no longer to be tolerated. Convinced of this
fact, the voice of an overwhelming majority of the American people
unites with that of the civilized world abroad in saying: ‘Down with
Exploits of the S. C. Colored
Regiment.—The late raid of the Second Carolina, Col.
Montgomery, was performed by about three hundred men of that regiment.
The correspondent of the Boston Herald, at Beaufort, fully describes this inroad against the
enemy’s cherished “institution.” Wherever the steamers with the
colored United States troops stopped, the following described incidents
are said to have occurred:
the steamers went up the river, the slaves on the various plantations
were just going to their tasks, and the flying pickets could be seen
rushing from one plantation to another, with the information about the
expedition. The Negroes seemed to have no clue to it, for as soon as
they saw the boats they rushed towards them in droves.
drivers frantically rode about with whips and revolvers, threatening and
ordering, trying in vain to stop the tide. In some instances they
succeeded, and went driving off whole herds of Negroes into the woods,
the artillery of the boats being generally useless, since it could not
be used without danger to the Negroes. Wherever drivers could be seen
detached from the contrabands, shells were pitched in among them with
the effect of freeing the Negroes entirely from their presence.
one plantation some drivers got sixty Negroes locked into a storehouse,
around which they were keeping guard. Some shells were fired at them,
frightening them off, and the whole crowd of Negroes cam shouting and
capering down to the boats.
secesh property was destroyed, and the expedition returned with 829
contrabands—men, women and children. The able-bodied men—about two
hundred in number—will be immediately drafted into Col. Montgomery’s
latest news from the army, near Fredericksburg, asserts that part of our
forces are across the Rappahannock, holding the rebels at bay. The
greatest cavalry fight of the war occurred near Kelley’s Ford on
Tuesday. The rebel Stuart had planned a cavalry raid with his entire
force. He was badly whipped and driven back six miles, with heavy loss.
Both sides were repeatedly driven back in eh course of the battle,
though we succeeded in driving the rebels back to a point six miles
southwest of where their pickets were first encountered, where Gen.
Pemberton found the enemy so heavily reinforced with infantry and
artillery, as to make it prudent to return to this side of the river.
Our forces returned unmolested during the afternoon. The enemy declined
making any further attempts to regain their lost ground.
lost several valuable officers. The loss of the enemy in killed, wounded
and prisoners, far exceeds ours. We got two or three of their brigades
under fire of our artillery with the shell of short fuses, and tore them
A Slave Empire.—The
Richmond Examiner is far more
frank than many a Northern man who can be found, even at this late day,
striving to make others believe that slavery is not the cause of the
rebellion. Read the following bold and shameless avowals of the Examiner:
establishment of the Confederacy is verily a distinct reaction
against the whole course of the mistaken
civilization of the age. For ‘Liberty, Equality, Fraternity,’ we have deliberately substituted ‘Slavery, Subordination and
Government.’ Those social and political problems which rack and
torture modern society we have undertaken to solve for ourselves, in our
own way, and upon our own principles. That ‘among equals equality is
right;’ among those who are naturally
unequal equality is chaos; that there
are slave races born to serve, master races born to govern. Such are
the fundamental principles which we inherit from the ancient world,
which we lifted up in the face of
a perverse generation that has forgotten the wisdom of its fathers;
by those principles we live and in their defense we have shown ourselves
ready to die. Reverently we feel that our Confederacy is a God-sent missionary to the nations, with great
truths to preach. We must speak them boldly, and who hath ears to hear,
let him hear.”
losses were502 killed, 2,550 wounded, and 147 missing on the Union side
and 500 all told on the Confederate.
Losses for the entire
Vicksburg campaign were actually 10,142 on the Northern and 9,091 on the
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