JULY 5, 1863
THE CHATTANOOGA DAILY REBEL (TN)
Richmond, July 3.—Various
reports from below Richmond are circulating to-day. In the morning
several militia regiments and battalions were called together by the
appointed signal, and promptly responded. Nothing having occurred
rendering it necessary for them to remain under arms, they were
latest report deemed reliable is to the effect that the yankees have
fallen back from the vicinity of Bolton’s bridge.
post marked Carlisle, Pa., June 28, were received here to-day. Another
flag boat is expected to-morrow.
news from the seat of war on the Potomac to-day.
Richmond, July 3.—A
dispatch last night to the War Department says that a portion of gen.
Hill’s corps attacked the enemy four miles below Bolton’s bridge
yesterday p.m., and drove them within five miles of White House. Several
prisoners state the force of the enemy at twenty thousand.
large number of yankees are in King William county, who are reported to
be moving in the direction of Hanover Court House. There is no
excitement here. Nearly every citizen and resident has joined some
organization for the present. By general consent business is practically
suspended. The enthusiasm at the commencement of the war was not more
ardent nor general than is the spirit now animating all classes of the
hot and cloudy.
Richmond, July 3.—The
city is very quiet to-day. The State troops under Governor Letcher,
several thousand strong, have repaired to a place selected for temporary
encampment. The men are in fine spirits. The militia of the adjoining
counties are organized and aroused. Public opinion is still divided, in
regard to the demonstrations of the yankees near Richmond. Some think
Dix is fool hardy enough to attempt to take the city, others that the
movement is a mere diversion, and a marching expedition on a large
scale. A large force of the enemy have gone in the direction of the
junction of the Central and Fredericksburg Rail Roads, with the object
to destroy the bridge over South Anna on the latter road. The bridge is
news to-day from the army. The Winchester mail is not yet opened.
Richmond, July 3, 9
o’clock p.m.—The 9 o’clock train has just arrived
from the Junction, and reports the enemy advancing in three columns.
Nothing further from below, up to seven o’clock.
flag of truce boat expected at City Point has not arrived.
it not be fair now, to make all the non-combatants in Pennsylvania swear
to support the Southern Confederacy? They make our defenseless old men
and boys do the same thing in our captured cities. It is a poor rule
that will not work both ways.
Cheering from Vicksburg.–We have
intelligence brought by a distinguished gentleman recently from
Johnston’s headquarters, that Gen. Johnston has organized a large and
admirably disciplined army, and is in condition to make an effective
demonstration. His cavalry horses, of which he was very deficient at
first, have been supplied by the people of Mississippi, who have very
generally sent up their carriage horses, and they are the finest horses
in our whole army. He reports the feeling both among the army and people
as buoyant and confident. He had reason to believe that the fate of
Vicksburg would be decided within a few days. –Augusta
we go over the border–shall we pillage and burn as the yankees do? The
query is serious and should arouse reflection. Beyond a doubt the law of
retaliation would justify us in any act we might commit in response to
the outrages of a savage foe, no matter how atrocious; but would the
laws of God do so? Is incendiarism ever right? And can the principles of
humanity and christian warfare be violated without risking the wrath of
that Divinity to whose protection we look with ceaseless hope, and whose
aid we constantly invoke with prayer and fasting? Again, is it prudent
in a temporal sense?
glimpse of the face of the Confederate States at the present moment
discloses a singular expression of countenance;1
in the East, advancing legions seem to meet nothing but victory along
the march of glory across the border; in the West, the Department of the
Mississippi appears to be confined by a cramp of some sort; Richmond,
invested by a large force, is proclaimed in no danger; and Gen. Bragg,
who with a few thousand of reinforcement could drive Rosecrans to the
wall, is put to the necessity of choosing his own ground instead of
riding rough shod over the road to Nashville and the Ohio river; truly a
jumbled mass of features, full of anxiety, vague and indefinite.
is aid to be a country where the roses have no fragrance and the women
no petticoats. Not so in Georgia. There they have both in plenty. And as
for pretty feet clad in Paris gaiters, and ankles–! There is not a
woman in Tennessee but would cry her eyes out, if she were to see them.
We lately met a young person, down whose cheek the tears fairly trinkled
when we told her of them; and four old women near Knoxville would go
into hysterics if they heard of it! But these things cost prodigious!
“Would you believe it?” exclaimed an Augusta belle, as she put one
of her exquisite No. 1½s out of a dainty petticoat, with the prettiest
edging imaginable, “would you believe it? These cost pa-pa sixty
dollars!” “Odds life!” muttered an old croaker hard by, “what a
mercy your father did not happen to be your husband, when the bill came
in!” Nevertheless the foot was marvelous handsome. It was worth the
price of the shoe to see it. Another young lady assured an Augusta paper
that her wardrobe for the last six months only cost five thousand
dollars. It was purchased in Nassau. Original price in gold about
fifteen hundred ditto. Poor girl! She said she was in a bad way
for–for–a new set of–pearls! She should be assure that she is a
pearl without price herself, and should rather be hung round the neck of
some one of the Augusta heroes, as she will doubtless be one of these
SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN (MA)
Great Struggle in Pennsylvania.
Substantial Victory on Friday.
various dispatches from the seat of war in Pennsylvania agree in
representing the final results of the three days fighting–Wednesday,
Thursday and Friday–as decidedly in our favor. They generally claim a
sweeping and glorious victory in the battle of Friday, which was clearly
one of the most hardly contested and bloody battles of the whole war.
Whether it can be pronounced a decisive victory or not will be made
clear by subsequent events. The rebels were driven back from Gettysburg
some two or three miles, but were still in position on Saturday morning,
and the fight was not renewed on that day. Our army was of course
exhausted by the fighting of the three days, but if Gen. Meade had
considered the defeat of the enemy as overwhelming as some of the
accounts represent, he would not have allowed the enemy to rest a single
day, but would have followed them up to the complete destruction of
the battle of Wednesday afternoon the enemy had the advantage. In the
fight of Thursday afternoon, which was severe for the short time it
lasted, we gained in position somewhat, but the armies seem to have
suffered about equally. The enemy commenced the attack on Friday, as
they had done on the previous two days, and through the forenoon the
battled raged fearfully with alternate advantage to either side. The
rebel forces were hurled with fearful impetuosity against our lines, but
were repulsed with tremendous slaughter. Shortly after noon the enemy
began to falter, and were pressed with irresistible energy by our
troops. They were driven back through the whole afternoon, retreating
some two or three miles, but disputed the ground won from them with the
most desperate obstinacy.
took many prisoners, variously stated at from 3,000 to 8,000, and even a
much larger number, and many cannon and flags and a pontoon train. Among
the prisoners are the distinguished generals, Longstreet and A. P. Hill.2
Among our wounded are Generals Hancock and Gibbons.
present situation seems to be this: Gen. Meade holds Gettysburg and the
woods east and south. Lee’s army is northwest of Gettysburg, and
maintains its connections with Hagerstown and the Potomac; but Gens.
Kelly and French are marching to cut off the retreat, and the Potomac is
rising. The militia under Gen. Couch are somewhere north of Gettysburg,
awaiting the signal to join in the conflict. Some dispatches on Saturday
represented the rebels as then retreating rapidly towards the Potomac,
but Sunday’s accounts locate them on the ground they occupied at the
close of Friday’s great battle. It would seem that there is to be more
hard fighting to complete the work so well begun, and there is no doubt
that Gen. Meade will be promptly reinforced with all the available
troops the government has at command. If this is done we may confidently
expect that the rebellion will receive its death blow in the utter
defeat of Lee’s army on this side of the Potomac.
official dispatch from Gen. Meade, received at half past three this
morning, after the above was written, says Lee’s army is in full
retreat, having left in the rain and darkness. Our cavalry is in
pursuit. Follow up smart and don’t let the rebels get away.
Movement of the Indians.
Train on the Platte River Attacked.
New York Sunday Mercury has a
dispatch dated Des Moines, Iowa, July 4, which says the Indians on the
border are aroused to terrible action, and the excitement is momentarily
increasing. I have direct and reliable intelligence from the border that
no less than three thousand Indians, principally Sioux, have just
attacked the Pawnee agency on the Platte river. They are said to have
fought like devils. I am unable to give the result, although I
understand that many of our men who defended the place were killed, and
a number wounded. Lieut. Col. Pollock of the 6th Iowa cavalry, with the
2d battalion of that regiment, started from Fort Randolph a few days
since for Devil’s Lake, where the Indians are said to be congregated
in considerable numbers. A fight is also anticipated there, and warm
times are expected. The Indians are bent on rapine and are thoroughly
Great Telegraphic Feat.–To
the Editor of the Republican.–Two messages, one from the president
of the Overland telegraphic company, and the other from the director of
the Columbia telegraph, dated respectively San Francisco, June 2d, 12:15
p.m., and 9:20 p.m., addressed to Cyrus W. Field, on board the steamship
China, were carried to
Queenstown by that vessel, arriving at that port on the evening of the
12th, and the substance of these messages was dispatched to St.
Petersburg on the morning of the 13th. Thus they were transmitted from
San Francisco, on the Pacific, to St. Petersburg, on the Neva, in 10½
days, 9½ of which were consumed in traversing the Atlantic. This
remarkable telegraphic feat demonstrates that when an Atlantic cable is
successfully laid, St. Petersburg and the great telegraphic system of
Russia, reaching almost to the frontier of China, will be able to
communicate with San Francisco and the adjacent country on the Pacific
within 24 hours.
Springfield, July 4.
validity of the pending draft is questioned on the ground that the
enrollment was not completed before the 1st of July, as the law
requires. Section 11 provides “that all persons thus enrolled shall be
subject for two years, after the first day of July succeeding the
enrollment, to be called into the military service of the United
States,” &c. Strictly interpreted, this postpones the draft till
after the first of July next year, but the government will find some way
to evade a difficulty created by its own slowness.
JULY 7, 1863
DAILY CITIZEN & NEWS (MA)
Important, if True!
July 6.–[Special to the New York Herald.]
News of a most important character reaches us from sources beyond all
question as to the truth of the statement.
Vice President of the rebel government, Alexander H. Stephens, and Mr.
Commissioner Ould, came down the James river on board the rebel gunboat Dragon on Saturday with a flag of truce and requested permission
from Admiral Lee to proceed to Washington in order to present in person
an important communication from Jeff Davis to President Lincoln. Admiral
Lee at once dispatched to Washington for instructions. A cabinet meeting
was accordingly held yesterday morning and it was decided that
permission should not be granted to these gentlemen to fulfill their
mission, whatever it was, to Washington.
Lee was instructed to inform them that the ordinary channels of
communication would suffice for the transmission of any message they
might have to send to Mr. Lincoln. Meanwhile the rebel gunboat had
steamed up the James river while awaiting the reply from Washington.
York, July 7.–The Tribune’s
post-script, dated five o’clock this morning, contains the following:
of the Rebels–Attacks upon the Rear Guard–The Storm Impeding their
Progress–The Cannon and Wagons Stuck in the Mud–Large Captures of
Prisoners–Strong Hopes of Destroying the Whole Rebel Army–There was
a battle near Mercersburg this (Monday) afternoon, between the rebels
under Fitzhugh Lee and Gen. Pierce’s forces. Firing continued up to
nine o’clock to-night. Our forces still maintain their ground, and
Pleasanton will be up to-morrow and head the battle.”
following dispatch was received at the Merchants’ Exchange News Room,
July 7.–Gen. Ewell died yesterday of his wounds.3
Potomac is six feet above the fording mark.
enemy are abandoning all their wounded in their retreat. Every house and
barn on the route is full of them.
rebel Maj. Gen. Trimble is wounded and a prisoner.
looks now as if the enemy would have to turn and give battle again.
The Conscription.–The call on the state is
for 15,519 men, and thee quota in this (7th) district, is 1775. The
number to be drafted is twice the number required, and is based on the
idea that half those drafted will be exempted for various causes. The
drawing in Boston will probably commence to-morrow.
our Union generals went into Virginia, they placed guards round the
property of the rebels, gave them permits to pass through our lines, and
sent soldiers to return fugitive slaves to their owners. This was called
conciliating our brethren of the South. When Gen. Early took possession
of York, he demanded contributions from the people to the amount of
$150,000, saying that if they refused they would be taken. This is
called supporting an army upon an enemy’s country. The rebels do not
make war sentimentalism.
military commandant at Philadelphia rejoices in the name of General
Napoleon Johnson Tecumseh Dana. Verily, the people of that city ought to
feel perfectly safe.
The Late Contest, in magnitude, can hardly
be overrated. The history of the present century furnishes few struggles
where more men on each side were brought into action: alas, the long
lists of dead and wounded tell a tale of the thousands engaged which
figures poorly express, and of friends who will mourn by myriads. In
importance, both socially and politically, it cannot be over-estimated.
It is the greatest success of the war; a complete triumph of northern
valor, being a fair and square stand-up fight without entrenchments on
either side, and no gunboats to aid in the issue. The rebels boasted
they had everything they wanted–men, arms, provisions, ammunition and
artillery in abundance. They seemed to stake everything on the issue and
lost all, the prospect being that they suffered a complete rout and that
hardly a corporal’s guard will ever get back to Virginia. As to going
to Richmond, if private advices may be relied on, that city is as good
as captured now. It’s “contraband” to say more on that point.
people of the North have cause for hearty rejoicing. Amid all the doubt
and anxiety of the past, they have kept up good courage and never
relaxed any effort, firmly believing that it was darkest before day;
and, now that the full brightness has broken, they may be glad with
lightened hearts. The coil of the anaconda seems to have done its work.
a military point of view the late battle will give rise to one painful
reflection, and that is that the present result ought to have taken
place nearly a year ago. Then the rebel army recrossed the Potomac at
their leisure almost, and hardly left an old shoe in their retreat. And
the reason given was that the federal army had nothing but old
shoes to follow with.
let the dead past bury its dead. On this the eighty-eighth year of its
existence, the republic enters upon a new life with renewed vigor, and,
if we, as a people, are true to the great trust of humanity committed to
our care, by the time another year has rolled its round, we shall be as
much in advance of our present position as we are now ahead of one year
ago, in all respects.
From Richmond.–Twenty-four hundred
prisoners have arrived here, who will be paroled, save the officers, and
sent north. The Enquirer, in a
fierce editorial, says:
valley of Pennsylvania ought to become a sea of flame, like the prairies
of the western world. Nothing should be left that man could eat, or
sleep on, or shelter himself, or procure food with. The whole city of
Philadelphia, if burnt to the ground, would not pay for the Negroes they
have carried off.”
New Hampshire and
Massachusetts have both sent surgeons and assistants to look
after the wounded in the late conflicts. Great numbers of the latter are
already, or will be sent to Philadelphia.
The Massachusetts Second Regiment.–Capt.
James Francis reports himself safe, but that twenty-three men of his
command, Co. A, are among the killed and wounded. This is fifty per cent
of its members, and the whole regiment lost in that proportion; one
hundred and forty-four being killed, wounded or missing.
JULY 8, 1863
DAILY ADVERTISER (ME)
Late Great Battle.
echoes from the late field of slaughter near Gettysburg daily become
fainter and less hopeful. That a tremendous holocaust of human lives was
offered up to the Moloch of war, we all know. That on that terrible,
heated field of battle, the wounded can hardly be saved, we cannot but
allow. But the slow days, pain-laden, drag themselves along without
bringing us any certainty of a decisive victory. That Gen. Meade
deserves all credit for his great effort, we all should gratefully
allow; that he won a field ensanguined and terrible beyond what we read
of in past history is equally true. But that the results open a road to
Richmond we do not see. We have no idea that Lee is so cut off by the
rear but he can throw a heavy force into the strong defences of
Richmond; nay, we are more inclined to think he will hold the passes and
strategic positions that separate our brave army from Richmond.
thing any reader of the papers cannot fail to have noticed–that is,
that when news is bad we get it only through correspondents; but when
there is a ray of success, it is multiplied in all ways, by repetition,
and amplified by detail. So it has been for the past several days. We
hope that before this goes to print, we may chronicle better news by
telegraph than that of the night before last; at least, unless the blow
can be quick and decisive in our favor, that an amnesty will relieve the
soldiers from a summer campaign, which if continued, will be more
horrible an destructive of life than that of the first Napoleon, who
pushed his army into the frozen heart of Russia only to bring it out in
shreds and patches.
had rumors yesterday of the surrender of Vicksburg; and of the desire of
the rebel government to be represented by Alex H. Stevens in person
before our President and Cabinet. These rumors have not taken definite
shape at present writing; but if the latter rumor be true, we have the
idea that it means only a temporary arrangement for a suspension of
fighting on account of the terrible suffering of the soldiers. If this
is the object, it is only an act of humanity. If later news worthy of
comment comes before going to press, the reader can interpret it for
Surrender of Vicksburg.
the South-West we have the more cheering news of the capitulation of
Vicksburg. This will probably open a communication between the able and
persistent Gen. Grant and that other accomplished commander, Gen. Banks.
This success, so patiently, ably and withal so much loss, will probably
secure the department of the South-West in such a way that they will be
able to attend to the sanitary necessities of the summer, even if Port
Hudson is not captured. But we cannot expect much more in that quarter
July 6.–The Washington Star
says it is estimated that at Gettysburg, Lee had lost up to yesterday
morning by desertion since crossing the Potomac an aggregate of 6000
men, while it was confidently expected he would lose as many more from
the same cause on his retreat. He is clearly cut off from taking either
of the three lower short routes leading to Virginia, and must be
endeavoring to make for the Potomac at Hancock, where at ordinary stages
of low water, he might find a practicable ford.
Preparing to Cross the Potomac–A Battle Expected.
July 7.–6 p.m.–Information
received here proves beyond a doubt, the continued retreat of the rebels
towards Hagerstown and Williamsport, with the intention of crossing the
Potomac. Their wagon trains are all in front, and are being ferried
across slowly in two flat boats. The Potomac is very high, and they
cannot cross, their only bridge having been destroyed.
large force of infantry prevented the capture of Williamsport by Gen.
Buford with his cavalry. Our army is fast following them up, and a great
battle will be fought before they succeed in getting away. This fight,
it is hoped, will result in the capture of the whole of Lee’s army.
Sedgwick in Pursuit of the Rebels.
York, July 6th.–A Tribune
letter gives he total loss of the 11th corps at nearly 5000; of the 12th
corps, killed and wounded, 997; missing 242. Seventeen officers killed
and forty-three wounded.
7th.–The Inquirer has the following special dispatch:
Pa., 6 p.m.–Reliable
accounts from the front state that the rebels are in full retreat
towards Hagerstown. They were at Williamsport at 6 p.m., Sunday. General Sedgwick is close to their
rear with 2,500 fresh men.
rebel loss is estimated at 50,000. The battle-field is strewn with dead
and wounded for miles around.
firing was heard in the direction of Cedar Spring and Williamsport. It
is supposed that Mulligan has come up from Hancock.
was Gen. Longworthy, and not Longstreet, that was killed.
enemy appear to be retreating in all directions. Gregg is in full
An Immense Oil Well.–The Harrisburg Union
of the 8th inst., says: “One of the most valuable veins of petroleum
yet discovered was lately struck on the Ferrell farm, Oil Creek, Venango
County, Pennsylvania. The well commenced flowing on Saturday last, the
oil spouting up to a height of fifty feet, with a roar like a hurricane,
and escaping at the rate of two thousand barrels per day. A stop-cock
was got on after much trouble, and the flow can now be regulated to suit
the demand. Another flowing well in the vicinity was o affected by the
opening of the new well that its yield decreased over three hundred
barrels per day. The Farrell well, which is four hundred and fifty feet,
was, at last account, flowing steadily at the rate of twelve hundred
barrels a day. This, even at the moderate prices now ruling at the
wells, would yield the owners $3600 a day.”
Vicksburg.–A high state of excitement ensued on the
receipt of the news that Vicksburg was captured. This, after news from
Gen. Meade, was sufficient to bring the public feeling up to concert
pitch, and flags were displayed from every staff and across the streets;
the bells rung, and one hundred guns fired in honor of the event.
BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER
ENEMY’S POSITION IN MARYLAND.
Efforts to Save His Army.
A Battle Imminent.
July 8.–The American’s special correspondence from Frederick, dated this
is no longer a question whether the Potomac is fordable, but whether any
bridge the rebels may have would stand before such a flood.”
speaks of active army operations. Our cavalry are continually picking up
prisoners and send them in by hundreds. They are also capturing or
burning rebel trains. The rebels are abandoning their wounded whom they
place in wagons taken from farmers along the road. If Lee is detained at
the river, his case will be most desperate, if not hopeless.
July 8.–No information has been received from Williamsport up to 2
o’clock today, and it is not believed that there was a fight there
yesterday, although it is probable that Gen. Sedgwick has done the
enemy’s rear much damage.
July 8.–The American’s special dispatch, dated Frederick, noon today, says:
position of the rebels and their condition has been difficult to
ascertain. Their infantry line is drawn across from Huntstown, Md., to
Falling Waters, and behind this line they are using almost superhuman
exertions to get their trains, such as they have saved, and their
artillery and ammunition across the river. The best military authority
doubts, I might almost say is convinced, that they have no pontoon train
besides that destroyed at Falling Waters, and that with such canal boats
as they had not previously burned, and with timber felled in the
vicinity of and at Martinsburg, they are endeavoring to supply the
deficiencies of their engineer corps. It is known that two days ago they
had troops felling timber. They also attempted to cross some wagons on
flat boats, but the impetuous current of the river rendered the attempt
are now crossing there on boats, and leaving their wagons on this side,
probably intending to take them to pieces and thus transport them on the
have heard the opinion expressed in a very high military quarter, that
the rebels will probably secure the most defensible line in front of
Williamsport, entrench themselves and endeavor to hold our army at bay
while they secure the means of crossing.
position of the rebels is much more desperate than I had allowed myself
to think heretofore. Of course, they may get away, but it looks much
less probable now than it did twenty-four hours ago.
headquarters are definitely ascertained to be at Hagerstown today, and
his troops are mainly on the road between there and Williamsport, which
is only seven miles distant.
Early’s rebel command is today reported to be cut off in the mountains
near Greencastle by our cavalry. This is of course at present only a
rumor, but it is entitled to credit to some extent in view of the
knowledge of the purposes of Gen. Pleasanton’s present movement.
cavalry of Gen. Pleasanton have been operating with magnificent success
during the last 3 days. It is a positive fact, that while the rebels
were retreating, we had cavalry in their rear, front and on both flanks.
Its presence and bold dashes greatly aided and increased the
demoralization of the rebels, and their discipline has been greatly
relaxed. It is the opinion at headquarters that our cavalry have taken
not less than 6000 prisoners, including wounded rebels who have been
picked up everywhere along the road and in farm houses when they had
been abandoned by their friends.”
July 8.–Messages to the Associated Press received from Frederick, Md.,
tonight, say: ->
damage done to the rebel trains by the dash of our cavalry is almost
incredible. Everywhere they were captured, cut off, and burned. Gen.
Kilpatrick dashed into the middle of Gen. Ewell’s trains, and burnt
between two and three hundred wagons and ran off the horses.
he captured 60 more wagons and 300 horses and mules. Our cavalry . . . had a
fight yesterday at Hagerstown with a rebel infantry division. Their position
was most dangerous, but they got off without serious loss.
forces are gradually concentrating in that direction. The hopes and
prospects if annihilating the whole Army of Virginia are bright.
last advices, Lee was concentrating his forces by every available route.
Fearing an attack, he yesterday morning planted his batteries on every road
by which we were likely to approach.”
Surrender of Vicksburg.
York, July 8—The Tribune has
the following special dispatch, dated Chickasaw Bayou, Friday, July 3d, via
Cairo, July 7th.
is ours. Firing from our front ceased this morning, pending negotiations for
a surrender, which have occupied the greater part of the day.
only contested point touching the surrender has been in reference to what
shall be done with Gen. Pemberton’s army. He asks and demands that while
the surrender is unconditional in other respects, the garrison which has so
long and so heroically resisted our army shall be spared unnecessary
humiliation and shall be paroled in Vicksburg. This will probably be
conceded from motives of expediency alone, and not as a condition, as it
will save an immense expenditure for transportation and subsistence.
Grant and Pemberton had a long private interview, at the latter’s request,
in relation to the surrender before it was determined.
accompanying the flag of truce indicate by their conversation that all that
has been written and published in the North concerning the suffering of the
rebels in Vicksburg, has been but half the truth. There are about 23,000
people in Vicksburg, 10,000 of whom are efficient soldiers. Our army will
take possession tomorrow morning.
surrender is just in time to save both armies from the loss and destruction
of life which would have attended an attempt to carry the works of the enemy
by storm, as such an attempt had been determined on for tomorrow morning.
having been allowed an inside view before the dispatch boat, I cannot give
such interesting details as may be desired. Colonel Markland of the Special
Post-office Department will on the 6th establish a post-office in
Unchivalric.–General Grant’s discourteous habits seem
to cling to him very closely. It will be remembered that last year at the
capture of Fort Donelson he refused an armistice and capitulation, requiring
an immediate and unconditional surrender. For offering such “ungenerous
and unchivalrous terms,” he was rebuked by Buckner, who nevertheless found
it prudent to succumb, notwithstanding what he called the “brilliant
success of the Confederate arms.” It is now reported that Grant was
equally unfeeling towards Pemberton at Vicksburg, apparently being unable to
see how a garrison which has been made captive practically should be in a
position to claim terms of any sort.
DAILY EVENING TRAVELLER (MA)
Destruction of Rebel Wagon Trains.
on Wednesday Near Antietam Creek.
York, July 9.–The Time’s
Middletown (Md.) dispatch of the 9th says the number of wagons destroyed
by our cavalry is over 500. Buford destroyed 200 on Monday, and Dahlgren
destroyed 170 in the same day, and on Saturday and Monday Kilpatrick
burned and destroyed 200 or 300. Fully one-third of the transportation
of the rebel army has been destroyed. Yesterday the enemy pressed our
cavalry back upon Boonsboro’. Pleasanton then dismounted his men and
fought the enemy two hours, finally driving them clear back to Antietam
creek. The rebels have run the greater part of their train of artillery
into the valley near Williamsport, and covered them by artillery posted
on the south side of the river.
Md., July 8.–On the 1st inst., accompanied by the dashing Capt.
Dahlgren and twenty men, Capt. Cline
went to Greencastle and captured Lee’s private orderly and his entire
escort, who had very important dispatches from Jeff Davis to Gen. Lee.
The following are some of the points contained in the letters captured:
June 29.–Davis feared his raid into Pennsylvania was a great mistake.
It was an error to suppose that the army of the Potomac had been so
reduced as to make victory an easy matter. It was utterly impossible to
organize a reserve army at Culpepper, as Lee had suggested, owing to the
fact that D. H. Hill’s command had been largely reduced by reinforcing
other points, and it was equally impossible to spare a single man from
were needed. Johnston could not succeed against Grant without them, and
Davis had fears for the fate of Vicksburg. Davis was sorry he could not
reinforce Lee. The Quartermaster General tells Lee that he can’t send
him supplies and ordnance without horses, and the campaign must be
abandoned unless animals are had immediately. Lee must also keep open
communication and a line of retreat. Other matters of interest are
contained in the dispatches.
Paulding of Greencastle is spoken of in the highest terms by Capt. Cline
as rendering him invaluable assistance as a guide. On the 4th inst.,
Captains Cline and Dahlgren were reinforced by 100 of the 6th
Pennsylvania cavalry, and returned again to the rear of Lee’s army at
Greencastle, where they took thirty-one prisoners.
of the rebel cavalry came into the town and called for the Burgess in
order to levy a contribution. Captains Cline and Dahlgren were posted in
the square, and a citizen told the rebels they would find the Burgess
there. A part of our men made a detour of a square and at a given
signal, the rebels were assaulted in front and rear, and the whole party
captured without the loss of a man.
Cline and Dahlgren hovered around the enemy’s rout, and on the 5th
discovered the advance of the retreating rebel trains, making in the
direction of the Potomac. The train consisted of 500 or 600 wagons
belonging to Ewell and Hill. The vanguard was composed of 600 cavalry, a
regiment of infantry, and a battery of artillery.
until the train had nearly passed, and taking advantage of a defile, our
officers dashed upon the train, dividing their force. They cut down 130
wagons, ran the horses into the woods and captured two guns and 300
completing all they desired to accomplish, the rebel cavalry and
infantry were upon them. The guns and all the prisoners were recaptured,
excepting twelve, when our party took to the woods, closely pursued by
the rebels. They escaped, however, and made their way to Waynesboro’.
the morning of the 6th they found Gen. Buford at Boonesboro’, having
lost only 4 men, who were taken prisoners. It was impossible to bring
off the captured horses and these were turned over to the farmers, who
had lost their own by Lee’s army.
N. C., July 5.–The expedition for the interior is composed of a
picked force of infantry, artillery and cavalry. Gen. Foster is
confident of accomplishing all he undertakes. If the enemy attempt to
obstruct his advance, an important engagement will probably take place
to-day or to-morrow. The 23d Massachusetts regiment accompanied the
expedition, under Lieut. Col. John G. Chambers. The North Carolina Union
cavalry rendezvoused here with the 3d and 12th New York cavalry prior to
the advance. Gen. Wilde, of the African brigade, is left behind in
command here during Gen. Foster’s absence. The National Guards, Col.
Wright, received their arms on the 3d, and are now doing garrison duty.
First North Carolina Volunteers have returned from an expedition up the
Pungo river, where the regiment captured two large schooners heavily
laden with rebel supplies, large numbers of prisoners, horses, cattle,
Negroes, and several thousand bushels of corn. The regiment landed near
Wade’s Point, taking the enemy everywhere by surprise, who was pursued
forty miles. Several thousand dollars’ worth of rebel supplies were
companies of the First North Carolina Artillery are already enrolled.
North Carolina will soon have a grand Union army in the field.
Ill., July 9.–The rebels have retired from Helena. Gen. Oglesby
has just arrived from Memphis, and says the terms of capitulation of
Vicksburg were that enlisted men be paroled, while the commission
officers be retained as prisoners. Pemberton gives the number of men fit
for duty 12,000, and 6000 in the hospital.
Against the Minnesota Indians.
Chicago Tribune says:
news from Minnesota is highly important. One feature we are not quite
ready to endorse. The twenty-five dollar bounty on Indian scalps would
look better offered by the red skins themselves whose warfare it little
becomes us to imitate. White men in Minnesota stringing dead Indian
scalps for a tally at the Adjutant General’s office, is not well or
wisely inaugurated. Shoot the miscreants, hunt them to their holes. Let
every squaw’s son of them be bored through with a Minié, but scalping
knives and tomahawks should pass away with the red man.
of the Rebel Garrison at Vicksburg.–A few days before the
surrender of Vicksburg, the rebels threw over to our men a small biscuit
made of corn meal and peas. To this was attached a small piece of meat
and a note stating that it was one day’s rations. For our information
the further statements were made that “we are pretty hungry and
dreadful dry; old Pemberton has taken all the whisky for the hospitals,
and our Southern Confederacy is so small just now, that we are not in
the manufacturing business. Give our compliments to Gen. Grant, and say
to him that grub would be acceptable, but we will feel under particular
obligation to him if he will send us a few bottles of good whisky.”
JULY 11, 1863
BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER
from Rebel Sources.
York, July 10.—The Richmond Dispatch
says, (speaking editorially of the movements around Richmond): “The
only information we have of the enemy’s movements north of this city
is brought by the trains over the Fredericksburg road, which arrived
last night for the first time for a week past. They report that they
could hear nothing of the Yankees, either at Hanover Junction or at the
South Anna bridge, and the roads of the Central and Fredericksburg are
citizen of King William County, who has been exiled from his home since
its occupation by a band of marauders under Gen. Dix, went on a scout of
that country on Monday last and obtained some interesting particulars of
the whereabouts and movements of the Yankee army of plunderers. His
statement is that their headquarters are at Mangolick Church and that
their squads of thieves are scattered throughout the country, taking
whatever they can find and destroying whatever is not convenient to
carry away. They are also endeavoring to incite the Negroes to
insurrection, promising to make them officers in company organizations
as a temptation to them to quit their masters. The gentleman, to whom we
allude, learned that one of his own Negro men had been tendered the
command of a company as an inducement to quit his house. The Negroes
under these influences are said to be very insubordinate and some are
even boasting of their freedom and ability to maintain it.
July 10.—The Richmond Enquirer
of the 5th says: “Our loss is estimated at 10,000 at the battle of
Gettysburg. Between 3000 and 4000 of the wounded arrived at Winchester
on the 7th. Generals Armistead, Barksdale, Garnet and Kemper are killed.
Generals Scales, Pender, Jones, Heath, Anderson, Hampton and Hood are
wounded. The Yankee army is estimated at 175,000 men. The fighting
lasted four days, and is regarded as the severest of the war and the
slaughter unprecedented. The enemy are said to have fought well. We
captured 40,000 prisoners."4
late accounts from Europe indicate that a war with Russia on the part of
England and France is not very improbable. The British public at least,
appear to be apprehensive that they are drifting towards some such
event, they hardly know how or why. This state of things is a new proof
of the astuteness of the French Emperor, who, despite his famous
assertion of good auspices to his people, “The Empire is Peace,”
shows by his public acts that he loves war, regarding it as a means of
securing respect both at home and abroad. The Emperor, however, is too
wise to go to war with England–that is, with
England objectively. It is much better fun for him to go to war with
England on the same side. This distresses England and benefits
France, more surely and cheaply, by checking the commercial prosperity
of the former, and aggrandizing the political strength of the latter.
legal doctrines lately enunciated by Chief Baron Pollock as directions
for the jury in the case of the Alexandra
will receive a terrible significance in the event of England becoming
engaged in a war [with] Russia. If the law in such cases be affirmed by
the superior tribunals in accordance with the Chief Baron’s
instructions, there will be no hindrance to the fitting out of any
number of Alabamas in the ports of the United States at the instance of the
Russian government to prey on British commerce and to sweep it from the
seas. That loyal deference to the obligations of neutrals, which tied
the hands of our ship-builders ->
the Crimean war, will cease to be required at our hands, and while in
the interest of civilization, we must regret that so decided a step
backward has been taken in the interpretation of the rules of war, we
shall at least have the satisfaction of knowing that history will
absolve the American people from the authorship of this retrograde
movement, and that it is that great power, the boasted “mistress of
the seas,” which has insisted upon relapse towards barbarism which
will feel in the largest measure the baleful consequences of its
abominable behavior in giving judicial sanction to a species of
thinly-veiled private piracy.
will not very greatly serve to mitigate our want of sympathy for Great
Britain in the war against Russia into which the cunning of the French
Emperor may reluctantly lead her, that the ostensible cause of the
interference of the allies is respect for the rights of the unhappy
people of Poland in their attempt to assert their independence. For the
people of Poland we entertain a lively and genuine sympathy, and if we
could serve them consistently with the firmly fixed principles which
have always regulated the proceedings of our government with reference
to the affairs of Europe, we should be very glad of the opportunity. But
the experience of the world is daily making it more and more obvious
that, “Who would be free, must himself strike the blow.”
do not forget the important service rendered to our nation in its
infancy by the generous assistance of France; but in our present
gigantic struggle to maintain the free popular nationality which our
fathers founded, we have been forced to rely upon ourselves alone,
without even that moral support and sympathy from the other civilized
nations of the world which we had a right to expect in our behalf. The
Italians, in achieving their unity and independence by the aid of France
have manifestly put themselves under obligations to the French Emperor,
annoying and embarrassing. Harsh though the sentiment may seem, it is
nevertheless true that the best help that be given to the Poles is to
let them alone. The victories that they may win unaided (and they have
thus far shown themselves well able to maintain their cause) will be
genuine and substantial. Those that they may win by the aid of French or
British battalions will cost them dear; it is in point of fact only
changing masters. That the British government really cares a straw about
the sufferings of the people of Poland, nobody of course imagines.
such a war the other powers of Europe can scarcely keep aloof, and if,
as is perhaps not very improbable, the complication of affairs leads to
war between Great Britain and the United States, upon the verge of which
we have been so long standing, the amazing spectacle will be presented
in the middle of the Nineteenth Century of all Christendom in both
Hemispheres arrayed in arms against each other. Such a state of things
of course is too awful to be contemplated for a moment with any
complacency; yet we may find some consolation in the reflection that the
history of the world has shown that it is only after these storms of
violence that the calms occur which mark the most conspicuous stages of
progress. A very great amelioration in the condition of the people will
be the inevitable result of the next general war in Europe; while on our
own side of the Atlantic, we already see bright promise of the
restoration of the power and integrity of the Union, with our free
popular institutions purified so that the blessings of liberty may work
out their full fruit of beneficence in public and individual prosperity.5
lesser-used sense of the word, meaning “a calm facial expression;
composure.” The article ends, however, with a different sense.
“fact” that would have surprised (and probably amused) both
generals, as neither was captured. Meade’s army also did not push Lee
back “two or three miles” following the failure of Pickett’s
as Longstreet and Hill were not captured, Ewell was also not
dead. In fact, he lived until 1872.
accepted numbers for the battle are 3,155 killed, 14,530 wounded and
5,365 missing/captured for the Union (26% of the army), and 2600-4500
killed, 12,800 wounded and 5,250 missing/captured for the rebels (30-34%
of the army). (Reference.)
The size of the armies was 93,540 (Union) and 69,915 (rebel), so both
the 40,000 prisoners and 175,000-man numbers are wildly inaccurate. (Reference.)
lengthy article is included because it shows the beginnings of what will
come very close to being a shooting war in the months to come–between
Russia and the North on one side, and France, Britain and the South on
the other. The world war that began in 1914 could easily have begun in
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