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SUNDAY
NOVEMBER
22, 1863
THE DAILY PICAYUNE (LA)

France and Canada.

There is a very significant and suggestive item in the late foreign news. We refer to the remarks of the Paris Constitutionnel, respecting an invasion of Canada by the United States. In the course of a length article on the subject, eh Constitutionnel asserts that “sooner or later that British possession will be attacked by the Americans of the North; but that, whenever that shall happen, England may count on the support and assistance of the French Canadians, who would oppose any arrangement which would bring about a union with the American Republic.”

This places the Canadian question in a new light, rather complicating than simplifying it. The French Canadians, if they could be rallied in such a cause, would certainly constitute a very strong defence; but we think the Paris journalist pledges a power that cannot be relied upon in such an emergency. Their well-known antipathy to the British Government, and, in fact, to almost everything British, gives little promise of such support. In the din of alarm and panic of preparation throughout the Provinces in anticipation of the invasion, the French population seem to take matters very quietly. Their journals and orators hardly allude to it.

All the demonstrations of alarm and preparation appear to have been confined mainly, if not altogether, to the English speaking population. There is an explanation, of course, of all this seeming indifference. It cannot spring from a lack of patriotism, or an indifference to Government changes, for love of country and attachment to their Government will nerve the arms of inferior races and inspire them with courage to rise up and smite the invader of their fatherland, of their homes and firesides. Even self-interest would seem to prompt the French Canadians to some demonstration in this war panic. They have as much if not more to lose as the so-called Anglo-Saxon population, and in case of actual invasion by the United States, their chief towns and cities would be would be the first occupied by the invading army. Quebec and Montreal, the largest and most populous cities of the two Provinces, the great centers of trade and capital, the seats of universities, cathedrals and numerous and richly endowed charitable, ecclesiastical and religious institutions, are in the French Province.

In short, Canada East has a monopoly of the wealth, trade, fashion, ecclesiastical honors, and political importance; and to whom belongs the lion’s share of these may be judged from the fact that about five-sixths of the population is of French extraction. According to the latest census (1861) at hand, the population of this province is 1,110,664, of which 832,998 are of French descent, and 10,000 more are of what Louis Napoleon would consider the Latin races. The census of 1861 is not so replete with details as might be desired; but, referring to that of the previous decade, we find that the churches, schools, colleges, charitable and religious institutions under the control of the French or Catholic population, outnumber all those of the other denominations ten to one.

From this exhibit, and remembering the indifference of the Franco-Canadians to the invasion panic, their antipathy to the British Government and pronounced attachment to France, we can judge whether the writer in the Constitutionnel does not offer England a rotten staff for support. This becomes the more evident when we consider the Emperor’s self-imposed mission in the management of the affairs of “Latin nations.”

In the event of an invasion, then, there is but little doubt Canada East would promptly run up the French flag, and call upon the Emperor to intervene and repossess an ancient colony of the Empire; one which still clings with uncommon tenacity to the language, religion, literature, customs and traditions of the mother country. That he would as promptly comply with their wishes, we are assured in his seizure of Mexico. If he moved in that instance in the interest (as he said he did in his letter to Gen. Forey) of the Latin races, and to put a barrier to the growing importance of the United States, he would have the same pretext for a like coup d’etat in Canada, with this difference, that, whereas in Mexico the invasion was unsolicited, in Canada it would be eagerly sought, and that while it is an insult to the southern nations of Europe to class the mongrel horde of Mexico among the Latin races, the people of Lower Canada are not only Latin but French. In France the status of a French Canadian is, we are informed, the same as that of a native of the Empire; the public schools and colleges, secular, ecclesiastical, military and naval, being as free to him as to one born on the soil of La Belle France.

To the tie of race is added the no less strong one of religion, and in this instance it is one of the strongest. The great body of the Catholic clergy–certainly all the dignitaries–in Canada are natives of France. The same may be said of the numerous religious orders. In addition to all these considerations in support of French intervention, we should remember that Canada is in fact an astray, since England confesses her inability to defend it from the apprehended invasion. Upon the happening then of the contingency indicated, France might intervene in Canada with much more show of justice than in the case of Mexico, and if England is really prepared (which we doubt) to let the Canadas go, it is very likely she would prefer to see them under the tri-color rather than under the stars and stripes. These possible developments of the Canada question lend a deeper interest to our civil war, the French schemes in Mexico and the relations of the United States with Great Britain and France. If Louis Napoleon thinks France has an interest in preventing the absorption of the Latin races on this continent by the United States, that power and Great Britain have an interest in seeing that he does not acquire the St. Lawrence and the Lakes as well as in the Gulf of Mexico.

MONDAY
NOVEMBER 23, 1863
THE CHARLESTON MERCURY (SC)

Napoleon’s Position Towards Russia, Austria and England on the Polish Question.—The Memorial Diplomatique, of October 24, publishes the following analysis of the dispatch sent by M. Drouyn de L’huys to the Ambassadors of France in London and Vienna upon the 20th June last, and of the dispatch forwarded upon the following day to Duc de Gramont.

In the first dispatch, the Cabinet considers the preliminary agreement of the three Courts as a gauge of moderation and strength, because, although it imposes upon them the necessity of proceeding by way of compromise, it adds to the authority of their language; it shows them united in the pursuit of the same end.

It is as useful as necessary to maintain this solidarity which, in addition, presents a guarantee of security for Austria, most exposed by her geographical position.

The dignity of the three Powers which signed the notes of April 10th, and the gravity of the interests which they defend, render it a duty to foresee eh eventuality of non-success, which might either occur from a direct refusal upon the part of Russia, or a negative result of the conference of the powers which signed the final act of 1815, then suggested to be held at Brussels.

For this purpose it would be requisite to agree upon the wording of a diplomatic act either in the form of a convention or a protocol. By means of this document the three Courts would solemnly renew their engagement to place Poland in the conditions of a solid and durable peace; and to reunite their efforts to attain the common ­­­end in case of methods of persuasion being exhausted without result.

In the dispatch dated June 21, which the Duc de Gramont read two days afterwards to Count Rechberg, the French Cabinet declared that it fully understood the circumspection which prudence rendered necessary for the Court of Vienna in the Polish question. France was far from attributing to Austria any idea of timidity, which was as unsuited to so great a Power as it was incompatible with the lofty character of its Emperor.

Being the nearest to the theater of war, Austria, more than any other Power, was forced to take counsel with herself, and weigh her resolution before acting. The dignity of the three Courts demanded firm maintenance of their proposals.

France was, above all, guided by the desire of assuring to Austria all the assistance upon which it would be useful for her to be able to reckon in every eventuality.

The surest method of causing the balance to incline in favor of an amicable and proximate solution was to throw into the negotiations the weight of common will. This agreement was and would remain a guarantee of peace.

France was ready to assume every obligation of furnishing to Austria the guarantee and assistance which she would have a right to require in case of her geographical position exposing her to disadvantage. In proposing to link mutual interests firmly together, the Government of the Emperor wished to offer every security which her interests could desire.

“These two French dispatches,” concludes the Memorial Diplomatique, “in spite of the remoteness of their date of more than four months back, still preserve great actual interest. They not only give the key of the real state of the polish question, but they still constitute the most striking justification of the policy followed by the Cabinet of the Tulleries in the anterior negotiations.”

Perusal of these two diplomatic papers establishes, with the utmost possible clearness, that even at the time when the three Courts which signed the notes of April 10th presented the programme of the six points for the acceptance of Russia, the Government of the Emperor was not under any illusion as to the veritable disposition of the Court of St. Petersburg.

The King of Dahomey.—A correspondent of one of the English papers gives some interesting accounts of his Majesty of Dahomey, with especial reference to the revenues he derives from the slave trade. After discussing the manner of conducting raids into the country to capture the natives, the writer states that an export duty of $5 per head I paid to the King, which results in an annual income of $25,000 to the potentate. That in addition to this he collects several transit duties on slaves brought through his territories, which amount annually to the sum of $20,000 more. That the slaves which he himself sells annually at an average of $80 each, number about 2000, and this gives him $160,000 a year. The total income of the King of Dahomey out of the slave trade is therefore over $200,000 a year.

•••••

A Mischievous Story Contradicted.—Mr. B. F. Adams, of Southwestern Georgia, in a letter to the Macon Telegraph, contradicts the statement recently put forth by the Sumter Republican to the effect that fifteen of his Negroes had died from eating Chinese sugar cane syrup. He says: “It is wholly and gratuitously false, and I am the more anxious to correct it, because I suspect it was put in circulation by some designing, heartless speculator, who wished to alarm the planters, and thus secure their syrup for less than its market value.” He further says: “I give each one of my grown Negroes a quart per week, and they are very fond of it. I consider it a nutritious and perfectly harmless article of diet.”

•••••

Valuable Cargo.—The steamer Advance, owned by the State of North Carolina, and employed exclusively by the authorities of that State, brought in, as part of her cargo, Monday, the 9th, eighteen thousand pairs of shoes and boots, a quantity of leather, and seventeen thousand five hundred blankets.

•••••

Difficulties in Crossing the Mississippi.—The enemy seem to have resolved to use every effort in stopping communication with the Trans-Mississippi Department. An officer, who started from Enterprise some time ago to join his regiment in Louisiana, writes from a point on the Mississippi: “Our party have been here seven days, and examined the river for a distance of fifty miles, but as yet without any prospect of success. The river is so closely guarded by gunboats, and patrolled by small crafts, that crossing is almost impossible. Boats and skiffs are being broken up everywhere, and citizens who are engaged in ferrying are arrested, and parties crossing frequently captured.”

 

 

TUESDAY
NOVEMBER 24,
1863
LOWELL DAILY CITIZEN & NEWS (MA)

Army Movements.–Various reports came over the wires from Washington yesterday, announcing an advance of the army of the Potomac. The Washington Chronicle had the following:

Gen. Meade’s army is under marching orders at daylight this morning. The officers and men are in the best of spirits, and the animals in good condition.

The army leaves with ten days’ cooked rations, in haversacks and wagons. All the sick and wounded have been sent to the rear, a large number of them having arrived in the city last evening. It is presumed that the army will soon cross the river at Germania ford.

It is rumored that the main force of Lee’s army is at Hanover Junction, which is about midway between Fredericksburg and Richmond.

At eleven o’clock, the Republican had on its bulletin, “The Army of the Potomac is advancing on the enemy’s works.” In an extra it had this announcement:

This morning at dawn the grand army of the Potomac broke camp near the north bank of the Rapidan and commenced an advance upon the enemy under orders from Gen. Meade. It is supposed that before noon the whole of our army will be across the Rapidan. Gen. Lee must fight or run. If he resists the advance of Meade we have had a battle before this.

The Star, on the other hand, casts a shade of doubt over these reports, and says it was not known in official circles that the army had moved, nor was it expected to move yesterday.

Later.–A later dispatch from Washington states that gentlemen who arrived from the front on Monday night were entirely ignorant of the alleged movement. The announcement was premature. This may be quite true, and yet a forward movement may have been going on. At any rate, it will be something strange if a forward movement does take place without being heralded by the Washington papers.

A letter from the headquarters of the army of the Potomac says an order has been issued that all guerrillas who may be captured are to be immediately shot. The order, if enforced, will soon check the depredations of these desperate brigands, who have too long been allowed to carry on their operations without fear of summary punishment if they fall into the hands of our troops.

A Washington letter to the New York Post says: “The government has determined that no further exchanges shall take place until the rebel authorities will agree to an exchange without reservation. Colored soldiers and officers who commanded them, now in rebel hands, or at least captured by the rebels, must be accounted for.”

From Fort Sumter.–The Fulton brings to New York Port Royal dates to the 20th. The news is thus summarily stated by telegraph:

The sea-wall of Sumter has been entirely destroyed. The rebels were building a bomb-proof in the ruins. The bombardment still continues. A Morris Island letter of the 19th says nineteen shells were fired into Charleston on the 17th inst., falling into the most populous part of the city. On Sunday night a very heavy fire was continuously poured into our batteries from the rebel works. Nothing new in the fleet. The Fulton has the rebel blockade-runner Banshee in tow, having captured the latter on the 17th after a long chase and firing many shots at her. ->

From Gen. Grant’s Army.–Gen. Foster, supposed to have been appointed to relieve Gen. Burnside, arrived at Cincinnati yesterday, and would leave at once for Knoxville. The Cincinnati dispatch, 23d, gives the following items:

Advices from East Tennessee up to eleven o’clock yesterday morning are encouraging. At that time firing was heard by our extreme outposts from Cumberland Gap.

Adjutant General Stanley, of the 13th Kentucky cavalry, arrived at Cumberland Gap yesterday. He brings hopeful news of the situation of Gen. Burnside. He was still holding out and had notified the citizens that he would certainly hold Knoxville. The rebel force opposing him was estimated at 36,000.

Knoxville is not closely invested by the rebels. The rebels have withdrawn from the south side of the river, and we forage there. The Commercial, of this city, says: “The withdrawal of the enemy from the south side of Knoxville is significant of a decided repulse. Gen. Burnside is holding Knoxville under instructions from Gen. Grant, and it is not supposed, therefore, the forces under Gens. Thomas, Hooker, and Sherman are wasting their time during these momentous days. We are hourly in expectation of receiving intelligence of a most important character.”

•••••

The President is said to be on very familiar terms with his official advisers. He calls Mr. Seward, and also Mr. Chase, “Governor;” Mr. Blair he calls “Judge;” the Secretary of War, “Stanton,” and Gen. Halleck, “Henry.” The correspondent who conveys this information also says that if all the jokes attributed to the President could be traced home, very few would be found authentic, but they would be good ones.

•••••

New York, Nov. 23.–The Times’ dispatch says: An officer on General Banks’ staff, writing to a friend in this city, states that a large quantity of cotton was captured near Brownsville, and expeditions had been sent up the river to get all they could find. The Union men at Brownsville, who hailed with delight the capture of the place by our forces, were forming themselves into defensive organizations and rendering valuable service as scouts. The cotton which will be thrown into the market by our occupation of Texas will amount to 250,000 bales. The amount stored on the Rio Grande line is immense.

•••••

The Washington Chronicle says that Gen. Burnside has quite a large force of his own, and since his occupation of East Tennessee, has recruited between five and six thousand men, white and black. He can be easily reinforced from Lexington, Ky., and his line of retreat is open, clear and wide. The rebels attacking Gen. Burnside are thought to consist of two columns, one from Lee’s army, 10,000 strong, under Gen. Bradley T. Johnson, and Longstreet’s force, estimated at 15,000.

WEDNESDAY
NOVEMBER 25, 1863

MASSACHUSETTS WEEKLY SPY

Gen. Burnside Attacked at Knoxville.
Another Great Battle at Hand.

New York, Nov. 19.–A Knoxville dispatch, under date of the 18th, to the Tribune, states that the enemy began skirmishing from their position on Kingston road at 10 o’clock this morning. Our advance alone, composed wholly of mounted infantry and cavalry, commanded the position of Gen. Sanders, and every man fought like a veteran. At noon the enemy opened with artillery at short range, their battery protected by a large house. Benjamin’s battery was the only one which replied, occupying the chief fortification, half a mile in front and to the right of the town. A desperate charge was made by the enemy about 3 p.m. Our men were protected by rail barricades on the crest of the hill. Gen. Sanders was severely wounded and borne from the field. We yielded the position and fell back about a third of a mile to a stronger one. We have lost about one hundred, one-quarter of whom were killed. The enemy had completely invested the place, but Gen. Burnside will defend it to the last man, and it is believed successfully. The troops are in the best spirits, every important point is fortified, and confidence prevails that we shall whip the enemy out.

New York, Nov. 19.–A special to the Herald, dated Knoxville, 17th, says: Gen. Longstreet, after crossing the Tennessee on Saturday morning, the 14th inst., was attacked in the afternoon by Gen. Burnside, who drove the advance guard back to within a mile of the river’s edge by night fall. Longstreet crossed the remainder of his troops during the night, and on Sunday morning advanced in force. Gen. Burnside, finding it impossible to cope with him with the small force at his disposal, fell back to Lenoir, the rear guard skirmishing heavily with the enemy through the day.

Three desperate charges were made upon our positions on Sunday night, but they were handsomely repulsed. On Monday morning Gen. Burnside evacuated Lenoir, but owing to the energy with which the rebel pursuit was kept up, he decided to give them a decided check, and accordingly came into line of battle at Campbell’s Station, where a fight ensued, lasting from late in the afternoon until dark. Our first position commanding the road from both sides, the infantry deployed in front of this and were soon attacked by the enemy, who made several gallant charges, and finally succeeded by outflanking our men, in driving them to the cover of our batteries, which now opened a terrific and destructive fire. The rebels retired before it, gave way, and eventually fell back to the river.

It was now three o’clock in the afternoon. The rebels showing a desire to renew the attack, and having brought three batteries to their assistance, Gen. Burnside fell back to a more desirable position, and again gave them battle. The contest continued, closing at nightfall with our troops in possession of their own ground. The object of the fight having been obtained, and as the detention of the rebels had enabled our trains to get all in advance, our troops fell back during the night, and early Tuesday morning reached Knoxville, where a great battle is expected to be fought to-morrow.

•••••

Gettysburg.—Five months ago this was one of the least illustrious names in the records of the country. It is now imperishable. The gathering on its battle field, yesterday, was quite as remarkable as any of those which have become memorable in the literature of war. Hereafter it will be regarded as a testimony of valor and of honor to say of any brave fellow who fell on that field: “He is buried at Gettysburg.” The formal ceremony of consecration took place yesterday, according to the elaborate and carefully-perfected plans of the committee of arrangements. From advance sheets give on our first page this morning extracts from the eloquent address delivered by Mr. Everett on the occasion.1

Vaccinating the Negroes of Newbern.

The Boston Transcript’s Newbern correspondent, dated Nov. 16th, says: “Last Sabbath was an interesting day, for between five and six thousand contrabands were driven to the bridge, then and there to be vaccinated. I said they were driven–because the small pox had been and even now is committing sad havoc among us here; each contraband was put under fine of $5 if he did not appear at the post surgeon’s and get vaccinated. In spite of entreaty or orders, thousands would not come, as they were afraid; accordingly on Sunday an order was issued by the provost marshal to the guards in the city to scour it, and drive the Negroes on to the bridge, where the inoculation was performed.”

•••••

The Famine in Richmond.

The Richmond Enquirer of the 2d inst. says an occasional lot of flour comes in from the country, and is sold immediately at any price under one hundred dollars per barrel the received chooses to ask. Corn is very scarce, quotable at $12 per bushel–nominal. Apples $45 to $56 per barrel; onions $65 to $75 per barrel–very scarce; Irish potatoes $5 to $7 per bushel; sweet potatoes $9 to $10; bacon $2.50 to $2.60 for hog round. There is no wheat in the market, but we have been informed that sales of small quantities have been made during the week at $10. With an open market a higher figure would no doubt be reached until a fair supply could be thrown in. The injudicious and indiscriminate system of impressment by the government, through impressing agents who have no practical knowledge of the wants of the army or the necessities of the people, has made the supply of bread for those outside the army a question for serious consideration, and if not speedily remedied, will make starvation a more than probable event. Within two weeks flour has jumped from forty dollars to seventy-five per barrel, and we hear of sales as high as one hundred and six dollars. Some are ready to attribute this unprecedented advance solely to speculation, but this is a mistake. The flour is not in the market, and people are beginning to learn that an actual scarcity of the staff of life stares them in the face. We do not mean an actual scarcity in the country, but a scarcity in the market, caused by the starvation plan of impressment by the government.

•••••

Another Rebel Steamer Fitting out at Glasgow.—A late London paper publishes a memorial from the Glasgow emancipation society to Lord Russell, representing that a vessel similar to the pirate Alabama is in that harbor, just launched by James and Geo. Thomas, and her machinery being rapidly placed in her for the purpose of hurrying her off to sea, although unfinished, and which is reported to be for the purpose of pirating under the rebel flag. She was built under contract for W. S. Lindsay, and has ports and all other appliances of a war vessel, disguised by paint, &c. Maffit, of the pirate Florida, is said to be in Glasgow, waiting to take command of the vessel, and the memorialists implore Lord Russell to prevent her departure.

THURSDAY
NOVEMBER 26,
1863
THE FARMERS’ CABINET (NH)

Gettysburg, Pa., Nov. 19.—The ceremonies attending the dedication of the National Cemetery commenced this forenoon by a grand military and civic display, under command of Major General Couch.

The line of march was taken up at 10 o’clock, and the procession moved through the principal streets to the Cemetery, where the military formed in line and saluted the President. At a quarter after eleven the head of the procession arrived at the main stand. The President and members of the Cabinet, together with the chief military and civic dignitaries, took position on the stand.

The President seated himself between Mr. Seward and Mr. Everett, after the reception, with the respect and perfect silence during the solemnities of the occasion, every man in the immense gathering uncovering on his appearance.

The military men then formed in a line extending around the stand, the area between the stand and the military being occupied by civilians, comprising about 150,000 people, including men, women and children.

The military escort comprised one squadron of cavalry and two batteries of artillery, with a regiment of infantry, which constituted the regular funeral escort of honor for the highest officer in the service.

After the performance of a funeral dirge by the band, an eloquent prayer was offered by Rev. Mr. Stockton.

Hon. Edward Everett then delivered an Address, which was listened to with marked attention, though lengthy.

The President then delivered the following dedicatory speech:

“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. (Applause.) Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.

“It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate–we can not consecrate–we can not hallow–this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. (Applause.) The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. (Applause.)

“It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work that they have thus so far nobly carried on. (Applause.)

“It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us–that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion–that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; (Applause.)  that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom–and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” (Long continued applause.)

Three cheers were given for the President and the Governors of the States.

After the delivery of this address the dirge and the benediction closed the exercise, and the immense assemblage departed about 2 o’clock.

Immense Warlike Preparations in Russia.—The New York Times has the following:

St. Petersburg, Russia, Oct. 30.–The war preparations continue here upon a scale unprecedented in the history of Russia. An immense recruitment has been ordered throughout the empire. Very large earthworks and stone forts have been constructed at this place, Cronstadt, Helsingfors, Viborg, and other places. The old granite forts at Cronstadt are to be covered with 12 inch rolled iron plates. Ten or twelve monitors and two or three iron clads of a different construction have been ordered, and will be ready for sea in May or June next. Large quantities of cannon, shot and shell have been ordered from England, and will come overland during the winter.

All the government shops have been enlarged, and every effort is making to render Russia independent of other countries in material, as she is already in food and clothing for her armies. On the first appearance of the war cloud, the Russians dreaded it very much, although they were determined to do their utmost to sustain the Emperor if it came to that; now, however, the feeling has entirely changed, and they do not dread it at all; in fact, I think they rather court it than otherwise.

Alexander’s popularity is immense and increasing every day. He is now visiting the Southern portion of his Empire, but is expected to return to St. Petersburg in a few days.

•••••

A New Material in Warfare.—Chloride of nitrogen will, it is said, soon be utilized as an implement of war. Its employment would seem likely to put an end to war. Mr. Isham Baggs, an English chemist, in announcing his discovery proposes to carry up his composition in balloons, and drop it from the air in the midst of armies and fortresses. "The very mention of this compound," he goes on to say: "as a proposed element in modern warfare, may possibly provoke a smile among chemists who know that the most accomplished of their number would scarcely dare to experiment with it in quantities larger than a grain of mustard seed, and even then only at a respectful distance, and under guard at the moment of its detonation. And yet not one of those chemists would be bold enough to deny that with two or three chemically clean carbons of this terrible compound present in a city or fortress, however strong, the slightest cuttings of phosphorus or a single drop of olive oil coming in contract with it, would in one instant decide the fate of the place and its inhabitants.--Mr. Baggs then proceeds to affirm that he has discovered a method of overcoming the contingent difficulties, and that he is able to manufacture this deadly material with perfect safety, and in any required quantity, and that it can be safely conveyed to its destination.–Summary of Medical Science.

•••••

Desperate Condition of Affairs at Richmond.—The Washington correspondent of the New York Journal of Commerce writes that private letters have recently been received from Richmond which give a most deplorable account of public and private affairs in the city. Thousands of the old and wealthier residents are suffering for the common necessaries of life, and are heartily anxious to have the war concluded, and are quite willing to come back under the old flag. Many of them are said to have become indifferent to the question of slavery, and openly declare that the institution is virtually broken up–having lost all hope and all heart. If this be so, the end of the war cannot be very far off, and the rebel leaders must soon be cast aside like chaff before the wind.

FRIDAY
NOVEMBER 27
, 1863
THE LIBERATOR (MA)

Damnable Revelation!
Cairo a Slave Mart.

A Cairo correspondent of the Des Moines (Iowa) Register makes some startling revelations relative to the villainous practices of certain officials at Cairo, who have been engaged in nothing less than selling contrabands into slavery! The revelations are contained in a letter from Col. Shaw, in command at Columbus, to Gen. Hurlbut. Col. Shaw says he became satisfied that the superintendent of contrabands at Cairo, one Yocum, was engaged in selling Negroes to be taken into Kentucky, and his investigations in conjunction with the Provost Marshal of the district, resulted in establishing the fact. Yocum was detected in selling a Negro boy t two Kentuckians for $50. The parties were arrested, and confessed their guilt. Yocum charges that Rev. Mr. Rodgers, chaplain of contrabands, had sold no less than eleven Negroes into slavery! Col. Shaw charges Gen. Buford, in command at Cairo, as being collusion with these slave traders, and says that when Yocum was arrested, Buford organized a sham commission to try him, which found him guilty, and sentenced him to continue as superintendent of contrabands for three months without pay! The Col. thinks that at the rate Yocum has done business, he will make “a good thing of it” yet, even at that. He further states that one John Atchers stole a contraband belonging to Cairo, carried him South into rebel lines, and sold him. Returning, he reported to Gen. Buford, and was allowed to go free on taking the oath of allegiance. Col. Shaw, however, had Atchers arrested, tried by military commission, and sentenced to ten years hard labor, which sentence was approved by Gen. Hurlbut. One of the parties who bought the Negro boy states that it is a very common occurrence for Negroes to be kidnapped in Cairo and vicinity, and taken into Kentucky.

Gen. Buford denies to Gen. Hurlbut any knowledge of these villainous transactions, and prefers a charge against Col. Shaw, of “conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman.”–Western Transcript.

•••••

Burlington, Vt., Nov. 22.Considerable excitement was caused yesterday in the villages of Rouse’s Point and St. Albans, by reports that a body of secessionists in Montreal had planned to seize Fort Montgomery, destroy the drawbridge at Rouse’s point, and plunder Plattsburg and Burlington. Information of such a plot reached Governor Smith, and Collector Clapp of this port, on Friday. They immediately took steps to communicate with the officer in charge of Fort Montgomery, who soon had its guns manned and ready to give the renegades a warm reception. This scheme was probably linked with the Johnson’s Island project. Ample preparations have been made by Governor Smith to repel any attack which may be made on our border.

•••••

The “Swamp Angel” battery on Morris Island cost seven thousand days’ work. It stands on the softest of mud, twenty-two feet deep. To construct it, ten thousand bags of sand were carried two miles, and three hundred pieces of timber ten miles, and two and a half miles of bridge had to be built. Col. Serril, who constructed it, says he can “in two weeks, with the means we have on hand, utterly destroy, obliterate, and wipe off the face of the earth, as were Sodom and Gomorrah, that sink of iniquity and hot-bed of aristocratic rebels.” The Colonel means Charleston.

Colored Soldiers in the Hands of the Rebels.

Washington, Nov. 22, 1863.

The government has determined that no further exchange of prisoners shall take place till the rebel authorities will agree to an exchange without reservation. Colored soldiers, and officers who commanded them, now in rebel hands, or at least captured by the rebels, must be accounted for.

The Star of last evening, in an article said to have been “inspired” at the War Department, says:

“In determining on the employment of colored troops, this government became bound by the highest moral obligations, as well as by those appertaining to the well-being of the service, to give our soldiers of that description every guaranty that they should be protected and cared for, and, indeed, treated in all respects like any other troops in the service. The rebel authorities, so soon as we placed colored soldiers in the field, proclaimed the purpose of handing over their officers when captured to their several states’ laws as criminals engaging in inciting salve insurrections, and of selling into slavery our colored troops, as they might perchance fall into their hands. As far as this government has been able to learn, we apprehend they have rigidly carried out this threat, formally promulgated in a message from the pen of Jefferson Davis, it will be recollected.

“Thus, nothing whatever has been be ascertained of the fate of such of our officers commanding colored troops as were captured at Milliken’s Bend, Charleston and Sabine Pass. If alive, the rebel authorities have them somewhere immerged in secret dungeons, not having even pretended to bring them to public trial under their state laws. But the impression is irresistible that they have been murdered, as no traces of them can be found. So, also, it is clear that our colored soldiers captured by them have shared the same fate, or been reduced to slavery, the latter being most probable.”

The War Department seems to be firm on this point–it will not consent to a further exchange until it is made general, including all Union soldiers who have been captured. The President, I understand, agrees with the War Department, and all good men will support them in the position they have taken upon this subject.

•••••

Suffering of Our Prisoners at Richmond.De Witt C. Walters, an Indian scout, equal to Leather Stocking, captured just before Chickamauga, and paroled with 850 Union prisoners, has arrived at Washington, and tells, among other things of absorbing interest, that the average number of deaths among our men at Richmond hospitals is forty-three a day, and that most of them got their death warrants on Belle Island, a sandy, low, damp desert, swept with winds and wrapped in fogs. Our men are without blankets, and but one-third of them sheltered under mould-eaten tents. All the starved sicken instantly, and run down with frightful rapidity. Four dogs entered the island during the twenty days Walters was confined there, were greedily cooked, and joyfully ate. In the hospital to which he was transferred, the sole diet was corn bread, made up without salt. Not a beef animal had come to Richmond in twelve days. Virginia is stripped of food, and the border portions of North Carolina, Tennessee and Kentucky. 5000 Union prisoner are now on their way to Lynchburg and Danville.

SATURDAY
NOVEMBER 28, 1863

THE HARTFORD DAILY COURANT (CT)

Rebels Grumbling.

The Richmond Enquirer in a late issue devotes considerable space to censure of the rebel authorities. It complainingly asks, “What nation in three years of war ever lowered their flag eleven time sin surrender?” Eleven rebel surrenders are enumerated. Of many defeats no mention is made. The Enquirer thinks it too bad that promotions should follow upon surrenders, as has been the case in some instances. It gives us a reason why European governments are slow to recognize the traitors, that “the flag we seek to register among the nations of the earth,” has been lowered so often “in unmitigated disgrace.” It thinks that foreign Powers might imagine that some steamer would bring them news of the “unconditional surrender” of the rebels. We think that on some day sooner or later either a steamer, or the Atlantic Telegraph that is to be laid, will convey such intelligence to the nations of Europe.

The Richmond Dispatch admits that they must “cease to place an absurd dependence upon the superiority of our individual courage.” It concedes it possible that discipline by this time may have converted Northerners into “first rate fighting machines.” It is impossible for the rebel leaders always to deceive their followers. The rebel soldiers know that they can not whip five Yankees to their one. The rebels admit that we have three men to their one, and they have not one word to say concerning Yankee cowardice. Rebel hopes are rapidly falling. We trust that the Rebellion itself will soon fall.

•••••

Washington, D. C., Nov. 23, 1863.

The following letter, which we copied from the original, is valuable as showing the generous humanity of individuals at the South, whatever may be the cruelty of the rebel leaders. The soldier, so tenderly cared for, was a Sergeant in a Pennsylvania regiment. The name of the writer is withheld for obvious reasons.

Middleburg, July,  1863.

Mrs. Hathaway,

Dear Madam: It becomes my painful duty to inform you that your husband died June 23d, at the hospital in this place, from wounds received in a battle fought near here at that time. Of course, as Southern people,  we are all secessionists, but, I assure you that every care and attention was bestowed upon your husband, both by Dr. Powell, who is the Confederate Surgeon here, and by the ladies who attend the hospital. Mr. H. expressed a perfect willingness to die. His only regret was that he could not again see his wife and children in this world, but he hoped to meet them in a better land, “where there will be no more sorrow, no more partings, and where all tears will be wiped away from all eyes.”

He desired that you should be informed that every care and kindness had been bestowed upon him by the surgeon, and by the Southern ladies.

After he was prepared for burial, I placed upon his breast a beautiful collection of flowers, and cut off the lock of hair which I enclose to you. I did this, because I have sons in the army, noble young sons, of whose sad death I may hear at any moment now, and I deeply sympathize with you. A battle is now being fought in Pennsylvania, and before many days I, too, may be bowed down with bitter sorrow and affliction. The enclosed daguerreotype your husband requested should be sent to you. A neat coffin was made for him, and his remains were carried to our cemetery.

Should you desire further particulars, direct to

Mrs. _____
Middleburg, Loudon Co., Va.

I hope you will receive this. I send it by a Northerner.

An Inside View of the Confederacy.A Vicksburg letter to the St. Louis Republican gives accounts from central Alabama and Mississippi, brought by refugees, that reveal the wickedness, suffering and desperation now prevailing in the heart of the confederacy. On the 12th of October, the bodies of six men were found hanging side by side, in the woods near Talladega, at which place there is a large conscript camp. It is supposed these men were hanged for resistance to conscription. Two women were publicly hung at Talladega on the 13th for refusing to divulge the hiding places of their husbands, who had fled at the approach of the conscripting officers. A perfect reign of terror exists in this part of the country. The woods are full of refugees trying to evade the relentless conscripting officers. All men from the age of eighteen to forty-five, regardless of wealth or station, are conscripted for the confederate army. Another conscription for state service has been made of boys from sixteen to eighteen, and men from forty-five to sixty, who are able to hold up a musket and are not otherwise in the employment of the government. The people are yearning for peace at any price and upon any terms. Mechanics are very scarce, hence none are conscripted for the army except for criminal conduct. Three months ago, two gunboats were commenced at the mouth of the Tombigbee, but work thereon is now suspended from want of mechanics. There are five thousand bales of cotton at Selma, awaiting transportation to Savannah to run the blockade. The price of cotton is only 23 cents per pound. Orders have been issued that all found west of the Pearl river shall be burned or transported to Montgomery, Alabama. The iron foundry at Selma is actively engaged in the casting of guns, from six pounders to those of ten -inch bore. About three are cast per day. A large majority of them, however, burst upon testing. Few can be fired over six or eight times with safety. A large rolling mill is being constructed there. Three papers are published in this place, upon half-sheets of inferior paper, viz: The Jackson Mississippian, Selma Register, and the Dispatch. The schools are all closed. A majority of the Negroes driven into the state from Mississippi are working in the coal mines in Talladega county, for which the rebel government pays twenty dollars per ton, delivered at the Alabama and Tennessee river railroad, six miles distant. The people are generally in favor of conscription of the Negroes, though such has not yet taken place. Several papers have come out in advocacy of the abolition of slavery upon the ground that emancipation would have the effect of gaining an earlier foreign recognition of the confederacy.

•••••

Crinoline.There never was a stronger illustration of the power of fashion, than is afforded by the reign of crinoline. Though in everybody’s way, and often inconvenient to the wearer, it still maintains its position about the feminine person. It is a little curious that where it is most inconvenient it is sure to take the largest proportions, as in the kitchen, where the servant girls can hardly swing around without knocking over half a dozen pots and kettles with their expanded skirts, yet would sooner lose their place than discard them. In one of the Staffordshire potteries, the proprietors, finding the breakage by hoop skirts amounted to £200 a year, have obliged their female operatives to leave them off while at work. A New York firm attempted the same plan, but the Yankee girls preferred to leave the establishment rather than lose their hoops. A London paper says that a lady with an immense crinoline knocked overran unfortunate gentleman in that city by a single sweep of her skirts. His head struck the curbstone, and the shock was so severe that he died in a short time. But what cares Crinoline? It is another Juggernaut, crushing its victims without remorse.

1 Edward Everett, the main speaker, addressed the audience for two hours–a typical 19th century oration. Lincoln spoke for three minutes, delivering his now-famous “Gettysburg Address.”

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