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SUNDAY
FEBRUARY 21, 1864
THE DAILY PICAYUNE (LA)

Things as They Are.

Those persons who believe that vigorous fighting will bring the war to a speedy close will be pleased with the programme published widely at the North and South, and promising most active military operations in the spring. The plans of the Administration are freely exposed, the United States government makes no secret of them whatever, and, indeed, they are so obvious to any reader of the public prints, that secrecy, if it were desired, would be impossible. These plans, as almost officially announced, are: a new expedition up the Peninsula; a new expedition to the South; reinforcements to the army and naval force and renewed exertions before Charleston; a strengthening of the military arm in North Carolina; reinforcements to departments which now hold portions of the South, to enable them to extend their lines; and large additions to the forces now operating eastward with Vicksburg as the base. If all these plans can and are to be carried on simultaneously, the military sagacity evinced is but a tardy adoption of the scheme planned, as is claimed, by a deposed general, two years ago–and its adoption now, it is stated, will result in an end of the war and a return to peace.

But to the adoption of the plan which is too thus result must be added one more thing–its success.  If the credit all that appears in the public prints, what is said in the United States Congress almost daily, and what is, no doubt, the subject of frequent Cabinet councils in Washington, there is a similar activity and earnestness in raising men and means to carry on the spring campaigns at the South.  And as any one who is at all conversant with military matters knows very well, the situation this spring is simplified, and for the southern armies strengthened, from the acknowledged fact that all the preparations at the South our for defense and not for attack.  The operations of the Federal armies we'll be offensive.  If the plans–in a military view so well proposed–should be successful, they will, as the papers confidently predict, "crush the rebellion and close of the war."

The experience of three years past, however, has firmly impressed upon the American mind that there is an immense difference sometimes between promise and performance.  In all battles the generals on either side expect and hope to win; their sympathizers expect and hope with them; but only one side wins.  The failure of a part of the proposed plan would seriously disturbed the entire programme, and the piece which is predicted to follow the short and sharp spring campaigns would be postponed, perhaps indefinitely.  People are too apt to confound beliefs and hopes with facts and events.  A large class of the leading minds and men in the country believe that war, and war only–sharp, vigorous, violent war will bring back piece and restore and reconstruct the integrity of the Government.  Other men, who are quite as able and quite as competent to express an opinion, believe no such thing.  To call the latter class traitors and copperheads is simply flying from argument and taking refuge and abuse.  A man endowed with common sense is entitled to his own honest opinion.  If he is in error, he may be convinced; but he cannot be brow-beaten or bullied into a belief.

Meanwhile, whether the plans for the spring campaigns are in part the failure, or wholly and completely successful, no one believes that the war will end with the month of March.  The General commanding this department, in a recent quarter, tells the people to "look at things as they are," and looking at things in this light, we note the indifference, the apathy almost, with which the Northern papers view the vast military schemes that spring promises to develop, and the avidity everywhere manifested with regard to cotton, sugar, the products, and the plantations of the South.

All this is natural enough. In forty years, from 1820 to 1860, the Southern (slave) States exported products amounting to $3,581,291,381 against a free State export, four of the same period, amounting to $1,275,581,987--in other words, the South produced 74 per cent of the exports, and the North only 26 per cent. In addition, the South paid hundreds of millions of dollars every year to the mechanics and manufacturers all of the North. This enormous wealth was produced by the plantations. It is capable, under certain circumstances, of an enormous increase.  It is not at all surprising that military plans should be accompanied by plans for the control of labor and for raising the products of the South. The Customhouse and the Internal Revenue Collectors follow close upon the heels of the armies. Another army of speculators, of successful and unsuccessful merchants, of played-out people who propose to become planters, bring up the rear; and the great valley of the Mississippi is to be peopled by a new race that by some system of labor, enforced or voluntary, will raise crops and will forward them to the new race of factors and commission merchants in the cities. This is the plan. Those who abandon their plantations must expect that others will take their places–their literal “places”–their plantations; and almost two years ago the then Commanding General of this Department plainly told the people of this city that if they did not open their stores and resume their business, other people would do it for them.

The valley of the Mississippi is too valuable in itself and to the world to be greatly affected by any possible combination of circumstances. Its products will be raised as long as the world lasts; the river will be the greatest highway for their conveyance; and New Orleans will always be a great receiving and exporting city. It is believed at the North by those who know anything about it, and universally at the South, that so soon as the war closes, the mass of the Negroes who survive the struggle will return to their old homes and will labor, for pay, or for food and clothes, on the plantations where they were bred, raised, or where they once worked. The proposal to free slaves does not suggest their support in idleness. The Negroes themselves would in nine cases out of ten voluntarily return to their old masters. If these “old masters” remain on their old and their own plantations, they will doubtless receive back, upon some terms or other, a portion at least of their old laborers. If the old merchants and factors of New Orleans continue to resume their business, they need not fear that their old connections with the interior will be transferred to a new class of citizens.

The resumption of business–of planting in the country and of commerce in the city–is of vital importance. The subject specially commends itself to those who understand and who once controlled these matters; and any, every, or the best plan that proposes a revival of the activity and a renewal of the prosperity that once distinguished New Orleans should be adopted.

MONDAY
FEBRUARY 22, 1864
THE MACON DAILY TELEGRAPH (GA)

The Situation.
[From the Mobile Advertiser & Register, of the 18th.]

From the information received up to this hour, it looks as if the first judgment of Gen. Polk, about the destination of the enemy, was correct, and that he is really moving on Mobile.  He was certainly at Enterprise on Monday evening, and we have just heard that he has made his appearance at Quitman, ten miles further South.  It is, however, the opinion of the last officers, and others, left Meridian and Enterprise, that Sherman's principal force is pushing after Gen. Polk's retiring forces, towards Demopolis.  If the Yankee soldiers are not like chameleons, and live on a year, it is difficult to see how they can march 30,000 men, and the horses for their transportation and artillery through so barren a country, and for such a distance.  The twenty days' rations which they are said to have started with are exhausted–at least the twenty days are gone.  There is nothing on the way down upon which to subsist man or beast.  They are said to have had only 500 wagons, and the Lee has destroyed some of these.  But if they cannot come on for lack of food, neither can they go back, unless trains come out from Jackson to meet them. If Sherman pushes on to the Bigbee river, or the country towards Okalona or Columbus, there is corn enough to feed any force, but how he is to live coming this way, passes our comprehension.  Still, the fact is that some of his troops are coming this way.  A day or two must solve the mystery of his purpose.

Later and fuller information from above relative to the late movements, induces us to believe that Gen. Polk has acted with prudence and energy, with the means at his command.  The enemy certainly got the start of him, and was in full march before is scattered forces were got in hand.  The consequence was very rapid movements and heavy work for our soldiers, causing the usual loss of strength and spirit.  But in saving the public stores and other property, and in getting all the railway transportation out of the enemy's reach, there has been displayed extraordinary energy, resulting in complete success.  Everything was saved at Meridian, including 2000 bales of Government cotton, several hundred hogsheads of sugar, immense supplies of commissary, quartermaster and ordnance stores.  In this the General was seconded by the energy and experience of Col. Fleming, the superintendent of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, who further succeeded in removing all the movable property of the road, even to the machine shop at Enterprise.

Gen. Sherman is making a very hazardous movement, and one that could be turned to his ruin by prompt and decisive measures on the part of the Government.  If a reinforcement to Gens. Polk and Maury could be sent to make them strong enough to meet the invader on his march, and the feed him, not only would his whole plan be frustrated, and the situation relieved, but his capture and destruction would be complete.  This would give us a surplus of prisoners, and compel Butler to give up to us the 30,000 Confederate soldiers in his custody.->

Ten thousand additional troops hastened down by the interior line of railways would be enough to accomplish this great result, and to deal the enemy the severest blow of the war.  We take it for granted that the Richmond Government and Gen. Johnston are not blind to the dangers of this hostile movement, if left unopposed and unobstructed.  It is easier to strike the enemy before he halts and begins to dig and burrow.  After that it would take a far heavier force to oust him.  But whatever the Government does our duty is plain.  To send off the non-combatants, clear the decks and stripped for the fight.  Besides our brave garrison of regular troops there is many a man here who can pull a trigger and deal death to the invader in the trenches.  And for this work there is no weapon like the double-barrelled gun loaded with buckshot.  Send off the women and children, and get your weapons ready, for in a few days we may have used for them.  Let us remember Charleston and emulate her gallant and successful defense.  The name of Alabama stands high on the roll of fame in the field.  Let her chief city prove herself worthy to share it.

P.S.--since the foregoing was written the news received the leaves little room to doubt that Sherman's whole force is moving this way.

•••••

Spiritual Doings.—In Glasgow, (Scotland,) at the last accounts, there was a revival of the spiritual rapping business. The Herald, of that place, has a long account of the phenomena, which, in startling instances, remind one of what occasioned so much speculation in this country. The ghosts operate there just as they do here. Our special purpose, however, is to state that one of the spirits called for was “Stonewall Jackson.” He instantly came to time. What he divulged is very brief. That part, as follows, we give to the reader:

“The spirit of Stonewall Jackson also announces itself, and states that he is now an abolitionist; but intimates that New Orleans will be retaken by the Confederates next month; that the war will end in October 1864; that the South will establish its independence; and that the Potomac will be its boundary line. This would be encouraging news for the Southern sympathizers among us, were it not that ‘J. B.’ has discovered, from experience, that no reliance is to be placed on the predictions of these rapping visitants. How much more is to be placed in their statements regarding the past and present, people can judge for themselves. The spirits are evidently a ‘kittle’ lot.”1

These rappings, we suppose–for there is no date to the extract from the Herald–occurred in the early part of January.–Charleston Courier.

TUESDAY
FEBRUARY 23,
1864
THE BOSTON HERALD

War Matters.

A New Orleans letter says the troops sent across Lake Pontchartrain we will probably try to co-operate with those under Sherman from Vicksburg, the object being to cut off rebel communication between the Northern and Southern portions of the State; also to prevent reinforcements being sent to Mobile.  Everything denotes that the opening campaign will be one of unusual activity.  The building of pontoon bridges and the rapid hurrying hither and thither of troops and immense quantities of army stores indicate that more than one grand movement is on foot.

Returns from the various States show that the average receipt of recruits under the call for 500,000 men is about 2000 daily.  The universal credit given relieves many districts from the draft.

The report that the Governor of Georgia has ordered the abandonment of that part of the State west of the Chattahoochee furnishes a most striking a proof of the desperation of the rebel cause.  The attempt to make a desert of a large part of Georgia, by the compulsory removal of families and property, will be resisted or evaded by the people.  It is acknowledgment of defeat by the rebel chiefs, who say by this order that they are no longer able to resist the advance of Grant with arms, but depend upon an alternative so costly, so ruinous, and so cruel to the people who are its victims, that no people have ever of their own accord adopted it--only a despotic power, reckless of consequences, can enforce it.

It appears probable, from the present aspect of affairs in the Southwest, that after all his preparations for a desperate defence of Mobile, both by sea and land, the enemy will be compelled to evacuate that place. General Grant appears to be developing another of those immense flank movements by which, two years ago, he forced the enemy to retreat from Mumfordsville to Corinth--a distance of nearly three hundred miles--with but one battle.

A letter from the rendezvous of the rebel the prisoners at Point Lookout says recruiting is still in progress, and is in the hands of Lieut. Norcross, of the 30th Mass. regiment, who gets daily from thirty to forty recruits for our army and navy.

•••••

The Union Sentiment in Alabama.–A correspondent who accompanied Gen. Smith's resend reconnaissance to Sand Mountain, Alabama, says almost the entire population all of that section of Alabama through which the expedition the passed, and for miles about it, is honestly, intensely loyal.  Officers who were in East Tennessee, state that the loyalty of that part of Alabama is as genuine and reliable as any they obtained knowledge of in East Tennessee.  There is no whining about slavery and abolitionists if, such as one hears in Nashville; no ifs or buts; they are for the old Union.  Man who had lived in the mountains two years to avoid rebel service, came in and asked to be mustered as soldiers in that the Federal army. One Alabamian, during the expedition, made up a company, enrolled their names on a piece of brown paper with a pencil, borrowed arms, and actually went out with his men and captured a company of bushwhackers, called home guards, and brought them into our camp.

Information was obtained all of a regiment, stationed in that part of the country, which has determined to a man to march into our lines at the first good opportunity.  Deserters come in daily, both at Huntsville and Larkinsville.  The results of all the reports is that, although the rebel army is largely reinforced by conscription, desertions are quite equal to the increase.  Soon after the battle of Mission Ridge, if and order was issued offering two every enlisted man who produced a recruit a furlough of furlough days.  That order has been revoked, for the reason that furloughed men seldom returned, and the recruits frequently deserted.  It would seem as if the rebel army was wasting under this crumbling a process.  Still there is a force of armed traitors in the field, and hard blows must be given and received before the war is ended.

Important News from the Southwest.

Cairo, Ill., Feb. 20.–An officer from the Big Black reports that just before reaching Jackson, a skirmish ensued between a part of General Sherman’s forces and a body of 4000 or 5000 rebels, in which the rebels were defeated, and 40 of them captured.

Our army passed through Jackson in two columns, the enemy retreating across Pearl River precipitately. His pontoons, two pieces of artillery and a number of prisoners fell into our hands.  Our forces seized provisions of all kinds. Great dissatisfaction is said to exist among the Tennessee, Kentucky and Mississippi rebel regiments.

Large numbers of deserters are coming into our lines.

General Sherman reached Meridian 10 days after leaving at Vicksburg. A portion of General Tuttle's division got behind, was cut off and returned to Vicksburg.

Gen. McArthur is in command at Vicksburg, Gen. McPherson having accompanied General Sherman with most of his corps.

Refugees from Mobile report that the inhabitants in that city feel safe from attack.  The Union sentiment prevails to a considerable extent, which would be expressed as soon as protection is offered.  Nothing was known of the reported revolt at Fort Morgan.

The report that Gen. Smith's command had a fight with Forrest near Grenada, Miss., Is not confirmed.

The guerrillas keep up musketry firing on the steamers below Memphis, but little damage is reported.

Gen. Buckland is in command at Memphis, and is gaining much favor there by a judicious administration of affairs.

The ice is moving heavily in the Mississippi at Cairo, and for 50 miles below.

•••••

The “Border Babes.”–It is now well established that can late raid upon the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was committed by a gang of freebooters under command of one Major Henry Gilmore.  The band, or, as they call themselves, "Border Babes," has been outlawed by the rebel military authorities, and is composed indiscriminately of deserters from both armies.  When robbing Union families they claim to be guerrillas; and when they make a descent upon a rebel community they are "Jessie Scouts" or raiders, and so they rob both parties and claim the protection of both.  In Virginia these rogues have a splendid a country (for their purposes) to operate in.  Between Martinsburg and Harper's Ferry on the north and Woodstock and Front Royal on the south, and from the Blue Ridge of the east to the North mountains on the west, they have for their operations an intricate network of roads, which they scout at night with all the impunity of infallible familiarity and impenetrable disguise.

 

 

WEDNESDAY
FEBRUARY 24, 1864

THE NEW HAMPSHIRE PATRIOT & GAZETTE

The Obstacles to Peace.

The following is from the Newburyport Herald, a supporter of the war and the administration. We commend it to the careful attention of our readers. There is no question that its general statements are true; and especially is true that the radicals, the Abolition-Republicans, are the only obstacles to peace. There is no reasonable doubt that we could have Peace and Union long before the next 4th of July, the leaders of the Republican party would permit it. Let the people of New Hampshire ponder this fact, when they go to the polls on the 8th of March; and if they desire a continuance of the war, let them vote the Republican ticket, but if they desire peace with the Union restored and the Constitution preserved, let them vote the Democratic ticket. This is the issue–the sum of the whole matter–the plain question for them to answer by their votes:

“Since winter suspends operations, why cannot this time be employed to make peace? Virtually it is an armistice; though not having been so declared, the government and the people make no use of it. On our side we should at once commence the discussion of reconstruction; and on the rebel side the pent up feeling against the Richmond dynasty, that has been growing stronger in consequence of their defeats in 1863, would find vent; and they, too, would talk about their future condition. Reconstructionists like those in North Carolina and Georgia would speak, and a fuller announcement of loyal sentiments would be made in three months than we have had in three years of war. It would be the death of rebeldom; and it would produce a revolution in public sentiment here. When Charles II returned to England to be received with gladness, he said he would have come back years before had he understood the sentiment of the nation. As long as men stand with arms in their hands or in hostile attitude, they fear and hate each other; but when they speak and look into each other’s eyes, if reason is not overcome by madness, they may be friends. All that is needed for the restoration of the Union–since the people on both sides are tired of war–is that the parties should speak to each other. There would have been no rebellion if we had known each better–and the war could not continue, if now we would come to that knowledge.

The South acted on its fears, which were groundless. If they could have seen the facts as they were, that three in four at least of all the people designed them no harm, but would have shed their blood to defend the rights of South Carolina, Georgia and Mississippi as quick as that of Massachusetts, New York and Michigan, they would never have lifted an arm in rebellion. They were deluded and cheated. They conjured up a phantasm–a devil, and gave themselves to its direction; and like Sinbad carrying the Old Man of the Sea, they will be slaves to that deception till they rid themselves of the burden and lift themselves to the light.

If we have not been as much deceived, it is very evident that many of our people are laboring under erroneous impressions. Hence comes the universal denunciation; the assumption that every man in the South is an enemy to the North; affirmation of the Wendell Phillipses that there is no loyal man in the South who had not a black skin; and the resolutions and ->

propositions of the half-insane radicals in Congress, that the war should be for conquest, subversion of all former institutions, the subjugation of the white race, the raising to an equality with ourselves the African population, the abolition of States, and the forcing upon a million square miles of territory and six millions of people the ideas, opinions and mode of life that belong to New England, and which can be done just as easy, and no more so, as England can implant her civilization and religion on Ireland. We give it as our opinion that we labor under a delusion; and if the people of the South can ever speak, we shall find that we have been fighting against a majority in many of those States who have been overcome and held in subjection and led to the battle field by the armed traitors, while they desired nothing more than the perpetuation of the Union and Constitution their fathers gave them. As long as this is an actual conflict of arms, we must war upon all engaged in it. We cannot inquire how they came to be in battle against the government; but we have the duty of destroying all who are so arrayed. But victories over the rebels gained by the uprising of the Southern people would be of much more value in restoring the Union than victories in the field; and they would obviate the necessity of more bloodshed. To this we hope to see it come at last–a party in rebellion against the rebellion; and that we shall see, whenever the people there dare to discuss the question.

“The reason why there can be no suspension of arms and no consideration with the people of measures looking to reunion and peace is simply this–that the radicals will not permit it. Jeff Davis and his friends are contending for independence; they will not admit the idea of re-union. They would rather lose ten battles than have one State like North Carolina hold a convention to consider that subject; for every word spoken would be more disastrous to them than a bullet from a loyal rifle. They have staked all, and will die rather than submit. So on our side we have a party that are fighting for emancipation. It is all they care about. They have no more desire to see a restoration of the government than Jeff Davis has. They do not hesitate to declare everything and in the most open manner that they prefer disunion to the old Union, with the Constitution as it is now. And this they term loyalty, and denounce restorationists as traitors. Strange enough they make a large part of the people believe that it is treason; and there are very few public men in the country who dare to discuss–farther than the parties will permit them–the question of restoring the Union as it was established by the fathers of 1776, and understood by Jefferson, Madison, Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams. While, therefore, the Jeff Davis party rules the South, there can be no peace, no approach to peace, as there can be no cessation of war, and while the Garrison and Phillips men control the popular current of the North, there can be nothing but such measures as will be resisted at the South so long as a man can be had; and in the end, if they rule in that end, they will not restore the Union, but give us a conquered country, to be held as Russia holds Poland, and Austria holds Hungary.”

THURSDAY
FEBRUARY 25,
1864
THE FARMERS’ CABINET (NH)

Rally for the Country!—No intelligent man needs to be informed that the approaching election is of national importance. The Rebellion is to be weakened or strengthened by the result. Davis & Co. are to sing for joy or weep in silence over the next election in New Hampshire. If the Government is triumphantly sustained, the rebels will shake like Belshazzar; if an adverse result is reached, they will gather up for the most desperate fighting of the war. A vote now given against the Administration is equal to an additional bullet sped by powder against a son of New Hampshire serving his country in the field. A vote for the Administration is a vote to bring the War to an end, by making it apparent to the rebels that there is no hope for them.

The election being of national importance, and certain to raise or depress the rebel hopes, the invitation is not a partisan one, when men are asked to rally for the country! It is the nation that that is to be vitally affected by the result next March. It is the nation that is to be set on toward final dismemberment or joyous restoration by the turn of affairs take with us in March. It is the nation, and not our candidates on the ticket, for whom patriots exercise their warmest aspirations, and Christians make the most fervent prayers. It is the nation that calls upon the Men of New Hampshire to rally for her defence, by quenching the last hope that sustains the leaders of the Rebellion. This can be done only by the triumphant election of the UNION REPUBLICAN TICKET!–Statesman.

•••••

A Full Vote a Union Victory.—Republicans and Union Men, War Democrat, and others, who wish to see New Hampshire give a steadfast support to the Government in the present crisis, should remember that, taking the vote of the State at the last election as a test, there is but a small margin for losses, and that to make the result certain, no town should suffer its majority of last year to fall off. The vote, as officially declared, was 32,833 for Eastman, the copperhead candidate, and 33,710 for all others–showing a majority against Eastman of 877. A change of less than 500 votes, therefore, would have elected him. A republican loss of four votes in a town at the coming election will use up all our majority of last year, and elect the “peace on any terms candidate,” provided his party should get out as many votes as they  did for Eastman. The vote of both parties at this election will doubtless be somewhat smaller than it was at the last.  We do not believe that the copperheads now can poll over 30,000.  Still it is not safe to count upon any great falling off.  They are secretly at work, and it is better to take it for granted that they will bring out the last live man who can be induced to vote their ticket.  Let the friends of the Union be equally vigilant and active.  Let them canvass every school district, and see to it that every true man's name is on the check list, and that he does not fail to deposit his vote on the day of election.  It would be most disastrous to the country, at the present time, to have any of the loyal States fall off from the support over the government.  It would give more joy to the rebels than a battle gained in the field, because it would be to them an assurance, that to the Northern Democracy were coming to their rescue, and that by holding out but a few months more, they would be sure of success.  That no man in the State then, who loves the Union, and wishes to see the rebellion put down, fail to do his utmost to prevent such a dire calamity as a copperhead triumph in New Hampshire.  We must throw a full vote if we would make sure of the Union victory.–Dover Enquirer.

Night Soil.–“Science, after long experience and most careful tests, finds that the most fertilizing and effecting of manures is that of man.

“The Chinese knew it for ages past.  No Chinese peasant, Eckeberg tells us, ever goes to the city without carrying back, at the two ends of his bamboo, two buckets full of night soil.  Thanks to human fertilization, the earth of China is still as young as in the days of Abraham.  Chinese wheat yields hundred and twenty fold.  There is no guano comparable in fertility.  To employ the city to enrich the plain is true economy.  If our gold is filth, on the other hand our fields is gold.”–Victor Hugo.

The Lodi Manufacturing Company for the past twenty-four years have been manufacturing an article which they call Poudrette, from the night soil of the city of New York, of all of which they have exclusive control.  See their advertisements in another column.

•••••

The Wisconsin Legislature has passed resolutions declaring its opposition to “any armistice, intervention or mediation from any source whatever, so long as rebels are found in arms against the government,” rejecting all party lines, names and issues, in recognizing but two parties–patriots and traitors.

•••••

Senator Grimes, in a recent speech in the Senate, read a letter from Daniel McKay, the great ship builder, showing the superiority of our war vessels over those of France and England. He says our Engineer officers are abler than those of England, but below those of France. He also says that there are vessels building in our dock yards much superior to any afloat. It was also stated that it was not the superior speed of the rebel privateers that saved them, but the restrictions placed upon our vessels by foreign powers. The Navy was stated to have increased from 80 to over 500 vessels, and had maintained a blockade of a coast over 3500 miles in extent.

•••••

War has again drawn its blood-red hand on the Continent, between Denmark and Germany. They attacked the Danes at Massunde. Their outposts were driven in, but the assault on the place was repulsed. We have also reports of the evacuation of Schleswig, probably the city, and not the whole province. The position of England is undecided on the Danish question, and great interest and great importance attached to its decision and action.

 

FRIDAY
FEBRUARY
26, 1864
THE SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN (MA)

Manifesto of the Rebel Congress.
All About “This Wicked War.”

The rebel congress before its adjournment adopted a long address to the southern people, prepared by a joint committee.  It is skillfully drawn for the purpose, which is to make the southern people believe they are resisting a wicked war upon their rights, and that if the United States government succeeds they will be robbed of their property and treated as slaves.  They start by confessing that they seceded because of Mr. Lincoln's election and that they based their new confederacy “on the proper relations of labor and capital,” which is a careful and yet a very broad statement of the real doctrine of slavery, which prominent southern states men have long held, that the capitalist ought to own the laborer.  They profess that they were disappointed and shocked when they found the North would not let them go in peace, and they entered upon a defensive war with the greatest reluctance.  They have longed for peace ever since and been ready to accept it, but it could not be had except on dishonorable terms.  As to the present war policy of the United States they say:

“It is absurd to pretend that a government, really desirous of restoring the Union, would adopt such measures as the confiscation of private property, the emancipation of slaves, systematic efforts to invite them to insurrection, forcible abduction from their homes and compulsory enlistment in the army, the division of a sovereign state without its consent, and a proclamation that one-tenth of the population of a state, and that tenth under military rule, should control the will of the remaining nine-tenths.  The only relation of possible between the two sections, under such a policy, is that of conqueror and conquered, superior and dependent.  Rest assured, fellow-citizens, that although restoration may still be used as a war cry of the northern government, it is only to delude and betray. Fanaticism has summoned to its aid cupidity and vengeance; and nothing short of our utter subjugation, the destruction of your state governments, the overthrow of your social and political fabric, your personal and public degradation and ruin, will satisfy the demands of the North.  Can there be a man so vile, so debased, so unworthy of liberty, and is to accept peace on such humiliating terms?”

They have some hope, however, from a political revolution in the North:

“It cannot be possible that this state of things can continue.  The people of the United States, accustomed to freedom, cannot consent to be ruined and enslaved, in order to ruin and enslave us.  Moral, like physical, epidemics, have their allotted periods, and must soon are or later be exhausted and disappear.  When reason returns, our enemies will probably reflect that a people like ours, who have exhibited such capabilities and extemporized such resources, can never be subdued; that a vast expanse of territory, with such a population, cannot be governed as an obedient colony.  Victory would not be conquest.  The inextinguishable quarrel would be transmitted from "bleeding sire to son," and the struggle would be renewed between generations yet unborn.  To impoverish us would only be to dry up some of the springs for northern prosperity–to destroy southern wealth is to reduce northern profits, while the restoration of peace would necessarily re-establish some commercial intercourse.”

The part of the address meant to be most effective and stirring the South to resistance and vengeance is this catalogue of outrages:

“Instead of conducting the war as betwixt two military and political organizations, it is a war against the whole population.  Houses are pillaged and burned.  Churches are defaced.  Towns are ransacked.  Clothing of women and infants are stripped from their persons.  Jewelry and mementos of the dead are stolen.  Mills and implements of agriculture are destroyed.  Private salt works are broken up.  The introduction of medicines is forbidden.  Means of subsistence are wantonly wasted to produce beggary.  Prisoners are returned with contagious diseases.  The last morsel of food has been taken from families, who are not allowed to carry on a trade or branch of industry.  A rigid and offensive espionage has been introduced to ferret out ‘disloyalty.’ Persons have been forced to choose between starvation of helpless children and taking the oath of allegiance to a hated government.  The cartel for exchange of prisoners has been suspended and our unfortunate soldiers subjected to the grossest indignities.  The wounded at Gettysburg were deprived of their nurses and inhumanly left to perish on the field.  Helpless women have been exposed to the most cruel outrages, and to that dishonor which is infinitely worse than the death.  Citizens have been murdered by the Butlers and McNiels and Milroys, who our favorite generals of our enemies.  Refined and delicate ladies have been seized, bound with cords, imprisoned, guarded by Negroes, and held as hostages for the return of recaptured slaves.  Unoffending non-combatants have been banished war dragged from their quiet homes to be immured in filthy jails.  Preaching the gospel has been refused, except on condition of taking the oath of allegiance.  Parents have been forbidden to name their children in honor of ‘rebel’ chiefs.  Property has been confiscated.  Military governors have been appointed for states, Satraps for provinces and Haynans for cities.”

The emancipation proclamation is complained of as the greatest outrage of all; it is argued at length that it is in violation of the recognized principles of civilized warfare, and the discussion is wound up with these vigorous sentences:

“Disregarding the teachings of the approved writers on international law, and the practice and claims of his own government in its purer days, President Lincoln has sought to convert the South into a St. Domingo, by appealing to the cupidity, lusts, ambition and ferocity of the slave.  Abraham Lincoln is but the lineal descendant of Dunmore, and the impotent malice of each was foiled by the fidelity of those who, by the meanness of conspirators, would only, if successful, have been seduced into idleness, filth, vice, beggary and death.  But we tire of these indignities and enormities.  They are too sickening for a recital.  History will hereafter pillory those who committed and encouraged such crimes in immortal infamy.”

The address describes in detail the terrible effects of subjugation by the Yankees, exhorts to further sacrifices in the hope that something will turn up, and reaches this pious conclusion:

"Moral aid has the 'power of the incommunicable,' and by united efforts, by an all- comprehending, self-sacrificing patriotism, we can, with the blessing of God, avert the perils which environ us, and achieve for ourselves and children peace and freedom.  Hitherto the Lord has interposed graciously to bring us victory, and in His hand there is present power to prevent the great multitude which come against us from casting us out of the possession which He has given us to inherit."

SATURDAY
FEBRUARY 27, 1864

THE NEWPORT MERCURY (RI)

Mortality among Army Horses.–The report of Dr. Turner, late Chief Veterinary Surgeon of the Army, gives some interesting facts in relation to mortality among the horses of the army. In the Eastern Department alone the mortality is three thousand per month, and an equally large number are condemned. These seventy-two thousand horses per year cost the Government nine millions of dollars! Add the losses in other Departments and the number killed in battle, and we have some insight into the vast expenditures involved in the present struggle for our national existence. This great waste of horse-life must surely be felt in every section of our country, where the raising of horses is made a matter of business, and result in giving a strong impulse to the breeding of that kind of farm stock. Wherever farmers can raise colts without actual loss, at present prices, we can safely advise them to raise as many as they can, because prices must yet be even higher than now, and the demand for horses will continue to be large for years to come.–Mass. Ploughman.

•••••

The case of the Alexandra still drags its slow length along. On a motion for a new trial in the Court of the Chief Baron, and which was argued before a full Court, it appeared that the Court were divided in opinion, though a formal decision was given against the motion. Perhaps it was from this circumstance mainly that an attempt was afterwards made to take the case up in the Exchequer Chambers at a subsequent date. The statement now comes that Sir Hugh Cairns, who appeared for the defendants, took exception at once to the jurisdiction of the Court above as not being competent to entertain the appeal. That the Judges deferred their decision until the 8th instant, when by a majority of one in a Court of seven Judges, they decided to dismiss the appeal on the ground of want of jurisdiction. The case will therefore, it is said, be carried up to the House of Lords. Sometimes it has been denied in Rhode Island, that such a practice is still in vogue in England. But it should be remembered, that the English constitution is never suddenly changed. And whatever practice prevailed in the time of Blackstone, may be pretty safely considered as not yet obsolete. But it may be well, and it may be otherwise, that questions of the kind involved in the instance of the Alexandra, should not be finally decided more promptly. The delay may in some instances be more injurious to the parties, than a speedy decision against their claims. The public have long been waiting to know what will be the final decision of English authorities in relation to alleged infractions of the English Foreign Enlistment Act. The so called “rebel rams” must still be lying inactive for any good purpose as well as guarded and prevented from doing any evil. And all this because a final decision in the case of the Alexandra has not yet been given. And besides what is more important, the relations between England and the United States are not perhaps beyond the possible consequences of such a decision.

•••••

At a dancing match at Chicago recently, a buxom Dutch girl danced nine hours constantly, when her partner acknowledged himself fairly beaten and very tired. The damsel then took six glasses of lager and quietly went to breakfast.2

Later dates from Europe expressly confirm the evacuation of the Danewerke, and detail many other events showing the disastrous course of the war so far as Danish power is concerned. While the Danes were retreating from the town of Schleswig towards Flensburg, and engagement took place on the 6th, near Oversee, between the Danish and the Austrian troops, in which the Austrians under their chief commander Gen. Gablenz are said to have completely routed the Danes, after a desperate resistance. The greatest excitement appears to have prevailed in Copenhagen, mingled with dissatisfaction with the proceedings or rather recedings of Gen. de Meza, if not also with the King. The Prussians are reported to have crossed the Schlei on the 6th by means of boats and pontoons, and the greater part pushing forward to the North to cut off the Danish army retreating to Jutland or Denmark proper–but a late telegram says, that while the Austrians were attacking the Danes before Flensburg, a body of Prussians were cutting them off on the right. And, according to a telegram of the 8th, the Danish army may be dissolved before making the expected attempt to reach Jutland. Perhaps this circumstance will settle the controversy, if Denmark will consent to surrender her claims to the Duchies, and the other powers will release Austria and Prussia from the London protocol. The London Post is waiting to learn what is the policy of the Allies–which must soon be known. A telegram from Kiel on the 7th may furnish a key to what the conquering parties are expecting, by saying that the Danes are evacuating the Duchy of Schleswig, and are retreating in full haste to Jutland, with this significant addition; an armistice is daily expected. A correspondent of the London Times writing from Vienna, says that the Austrian government will on no account consent to cross the Northern frontier of Schleswig. A pause in the mad career of arms may therefore follow these signal successes of the Allies. But will all the other great powers who were parties to the London protocol be induced to waive that protocol, and not insist upon making it the basis of negotiations? And the London Post of the 9th says it would be a great error to suppose that the war in Schleswig is already ended.

•••••

A young lady of sixteen summers lately arrived in Louisville who had served eighteen months in the army, being connected with seven different regiments, participated in several engagements, being seriously wounded twice, and had been discovered and mustered out of service eight times. She is a Canadian by birth, and is bound to fight for the American Union.

•••••

From information in possession of the Navy Department it appears that the rebels have entirely suspended work upon their ironclads. Three are completed at Charleston and two are in process of construction there. The scarcity of material, however, will delay their completion several months.

1 kittle means “ticklish or fidgety.”

2 Dutch was typically applied to Germans, being a corruption of the word deutsch, meaning German (in German).

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