FEBRUARY 5, 1865
The Free Labor System Regulations.
elsewhere publish the Regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury
providing for the employment and general welfare “of all persons
within the lines of National Military Occupation within Insurrectionary
States formerly held as Slaves, who are or shall become free.”
the transition state in which Maryland, Missouri, Tennessee and
Louisiana now are, these Regulations are of deep and abiding interest;
indeed, their importance cannot be over estimated, embracing, as they
do, he means of guiding and guarding vast populations from an old and
deeply-rooted system to a new one. A complete change has taken place and
these Regulations at once record the momentous fact in the world’s
history, and provide, as it seems best to the authorities, the powers
and appliances by which the change is to be vindicated to civilization,
which eagerly looks at our every movement, and anxiously awaits the
Regulations, which are issued under orders from Washington, by Mr. Wm.
P. Mellen, General Agent of the Treasury Department, are very lengthy
and seem to embrace provisions for every possible contingency which may
arise on the part of either the freedmen or the employer, or out of the
circumstances attending the turning over of this new leaf in our
course those personally interested will carefully peruse and preserve
the interesting document. We advise all to read it, and with the hope of
inciting a curiosity as to its details, present a brief but general
review of its salient points and provisions.
1 provides for carrying out the system as herein laid down by the same
agents, and under the same supervision as are provided for commercial
intercourse. 2 provides for the establishment of Home Colonies in each
Special Agency. 3 defines the duties of the Superintendent of Colonies.
4 makes it incumbent that all Negroes, when received, shall be
classified for the purposes of labor; and also settles the wages of
these respective classes. Sound male persons of class 1, over 18 and
under 40 years of age, shall receive not less than $25 per month. The
other classes will receive $20 and $15 respectively; females $18, $14
and $10 per month. 5 provides that no one over the age of twelve shall
be permitted to remain in idleness. 6, planters hiring parents must also
take the children, unless the parents prefer to leave them in the
colonies. 7 defines the agreements to be entered into between employers
and employees, and also the penalty for violation of contract. 8 shows
that an interest in the profits of labor may be given instead of wages.
9 and 10 allude to the care of the aged and infirm, and suggest that
benevolent associations may, under certain conditions, be assigned the
charges of the Home Colonies. 11, 12 and 13 provide for the
establishment of Freedmen’s Labor Colonies, to promote habits of
industry out of abandoned and confiscated lands; their assignment to
associations on certain conditions; and the establishment of schools
therein. 14 prescribes the penalties for ill-usage of freedmen. Ill
usage is to be regard as sufficient ground for a forfeiture of contract;
and if the case is an aggravated one, the lease of the plantation can be
cancelled. Superintendents are charged with the investigation of
complaints. 15 states that each Superintendent must furnish the
Secretary of the Treasury, and the proper Supervising Special Agent,
with a monthly record of all transactions and accounts relating to his
colony; and that all expenses must be authorized and approved by the
Secretary of the Treasury. ->
the fifteen regulations thus indicated, and each of which might be made
the subject of interesting and extended comment, is appended an extract
from the Commercial Intercourse Regulations of the Treasury relating to
order to carry out the provisions of the law on the subject, to provide
employment for Freedmen, superintend their welfare, encourage the
cultivation of plantations now abandoned, and to induce planters to work
their lands, Mr. Mellen, as General Agent, promulgates a series of local
rules for the administration of the first, second, and third agencies.
These, with the regulations condensed above, forma
complete system which might truly be designated the
notice some of the most important features of these Local Rules. Lessees
shall deliver to the Supervising or Assistant Special Agent of the
District one-eighth part, and each owner of a plantation, one-tenth part
of all the products raised on such plantation for sale, except that in
sugar planting, not less than one-thirteenth shall be delivered in
addition to the cane left for seed, which share shall be promptly
gathered, prepared and delivered ready for transportation, in full
consideration for the leasing or registering of such plantation, and the
protection and privileges conferred by the Government; and they shall
not be subject to the payment of any other tax or charges upon the crops
produced, except State taxes, the internal revenue tax, and commercial
intercourse fees. In cases of loss occasioned by the enemy coming upon
any plantation, the lessee or owner shall be compensated out of the
proceeds of the sale of the above share, to an amount not exceeding
one-half of the same.
and owners shall be compensated for supporting helpless freed persons.
When a doubt rests in the mind of the Agent as to the capacity of an
applicant for a plantation, a deposit of a dollar an acre will be
required, which will be forfeited if the lessee does not work all the
tillable land leased. One-half of the laborer’s wages is to be
punctually paid every month, and the other half at the end of the year.
The employer is to furnish a suitable and separate tenement for each
family, with fuel, medical attendance, and an acre of ground for garden
purposes. For all work over ten hours, daily, the laborer is to be paid
extra. He is not to work on Sunday, and to have half of every Saturday
to cultivate his acre. Neglect, absence or refusal to work on the part
of the laborer shall cause him to forfeit the wages due him, one-half
going to the Government and the other to the employer. All children
between the ages of six and twelve must attend school; and the marriage
contract and the assumption of a family name be enforced.
General Canby, Rear Admiral S. P. Lee, commanding the Mississippi
Squadron, and Commodore J. S. Palmer, commanding the West Gulf
Blockading Squadron, have also issued orders directing the co-operation
of their respective commands in carrying out the Freedmen’s Code.
MACON DAILY TELEGRAPH (GA)
The Certainty of Our Success.
the faint-hearted and the doubting in this contest–those whose lack of
faith in the success of a great and a just cause leads them to believe
we are to be subjugated and blotted out of existence–would read the
philosophy of past events, and confide in the moral sublimity and
certain triumph of truth and justice, their ill-grounded fears would
disappear in the promises of the future; whilst hope, like a beautiful
rainbow, would light up the darkness of their souls. Such as were
prompted by principle and a well grounded faith in taking up the cross
of the South did so because they honestly believed they were right. They
trusted to the justice of the act, and confided in the certainty of
final success. They believed an overruling Providence was on our side,
who would conduct us safely to the desired end. And who is so weak in
faith as to doubt it?
furnishes many instances of the success of just rebellions, in which
nations and people have been permanently sundered by civil strife. The
empire of Alexander the Great, composed of a like people, governed by
the same laws, speaking the same language, and owning the same
literature, in course of time was permanently separated by internal
affords another instance of a people for ages divided by similar causes,
without any distinction in law, language or literature, with no natural
barriers to a permanent union, aside from the existence of inherent
causes. The rebellion of the British colonies, and the severance of the
Spanish dependencies in Europe and America are still more striking
illustrations. In all these, as in the present rebellion, there were
causes at work against which the combined powers of the world could not
us cite, however, another instance more directly to the point, in which
the special Providence of God was manifest–the secession of the Ten
Tribes of Israel. Those Tribes were all of the same people–divided by
no natural boundary, and living in a compact union; yet they were
separated from each other and were never united again. God severed that
union, that individual nations might be built up in honor of Him; and
they became such for hundreds of years.
certain as the wisdom of the Almighty may be seen as the ruling agency
in these affairs of men, will it manifest itself again in the building
up of this into a great nation.
creates nations, fixes their boundaries, and rules them through
invisible agencies, with an eye to the good of his people.
weak-kneed and the timid may as well cease to strive against the decrees
of destiny, for however dark the periods, and however perilous the
ordeals through which we pass, we believe the God of Heaven has ordained
us a separate people, and that he will vouchsafe to us independence in
his own good time, despite the misgivings of the weak in faith, or the
blind who may not see in the current of events, the certain tide that is
to bear us safely into port.
may not be near the end in view; yet it is none the less certain of
attainment. The enemy may occupy sections of country hitherto untouched
by him; yet like Hannibal, after sixteen years of almost undisputed
possession of Italy, which country he had come to view as his own–they
will sooner or later be forced to abandon our territory, give up the
fruitless task, and return to their land, from the hopeless attempt to
enslave a people determined to be free.
Home of Jefferson.
gentleman who attended the sale a few weeks ago, furnishes the following
particulars: The day of sale of the confiscated estate if the late Capt.
Uriah P. Levy, U. S. N., at Monticello, attracted a large concourse of
visitors. Among them was Capt. Jonas P. Levy, brother of the deceased
owner of Monticello. After the Deputy Marshal had proclaimed the decree
of the District Court, C. S. A., and the terms of the sale, Captain Levy
stated that he did not come there to interfere with or prevent the sale
in any way, and that while he, for the present, waived his rights in the
premises, he intended to bid for the property himself.
Deputy Marshal then stated that one acre of the place, the Cemetery of
Thomas Jefferson, was reserved in the sale, and Captain levy said his
mother was also interred on the place, and he hoped whoever became the
purchaser of Monticello would let her rest in peace. Monticello was put
up, and he first bid was $20,000, the last $80,500, and Lieutenant
Colonel B. F. Fickin the purchaser.
land at Buckeye, 961 acres, bought, it is said, for the Confederate
Government, at $88 per acre, $81,685, by J. H. Parker.
Negro fellows sold respectively for $5,400, $7,000, and $7,850, and
three girls from 5 to 9 years old, for $11,000.
bust of Mr. Jefferson, which stood in the hall on a fluted Corinthian
pedestal, brought only $50, and will retain its place, as Mr. Fickin
re-purchased it. The piano forte brought $5,000. The model of the U. S.
frigate Vandala was bought by J. P. Levy for $100. The bust of Voltaire was
sold, but what it brought I do not know. It was said to have been Mr.
Jefferson’s. The amount of the sale was $350,000.
one of the rooms in the upper story was the body of a chair or one-horse
sulky, which Mr. Jefferson used to ride in from Monticello to
Philadelphia, when he was Secretary of State.
in front of the house, a piece of land of 200 acres, was pointed out to
me by Mr. Randolph, which Mr. Jefferson purchased for a bowl of punch,
and several hundred acres for 5 cents.
have defaced the walls of the house by scribbling their names over them.
Hundreds of them can be seen and read on each side of the front entrance
to the hall; pieces of the bust of Mr. Jefferson were chipped off,
chairs, tables, mirrors, vases, broken and destroyed, and in some cases,
mementoes of rare virtue an art have been purloined, while the family
resided there, as well as in their absence. And the monument of the
immortal Jefferson has been sadly defaced, and the fragments carried off
as trophies or mementoes from a sacred shrine. Shame, shame, upon our
thoughtless countrymen; why should they be so disrespectful to the
sepulcher of the great patriot of the Revolution.–Richmond Courier.
FEBRUARY 7, 1865
The Hampton Roads Peace Conference.
matters pertaining to what will probably be known in history as the
Hampton Roads Conference continue to possess a general interest, we give
below some details of the conference from a correspondent of the Tribune:
conference opened with reminiscences of the old Washington life and
inquiries after common friends and acquaintances. Stephens was worn, and
had a look of anxiety and weariness. This justly should be imputed to
the disease which unceasingly saps and wastes the vitality of the ablest
and bravest of Americans. Hunter was in fine condition, and lofty and
confident as of yore. Campbell, too, was his old self. All were marked
with strength, assurance of the future, and consciousness of power.
There was no one of them a trace of suppliance; not one was in look,
word or carriage a suitor for peace.
salver of the Plenipotentiary from Africa (Stephens’s servant) bridged
the passage over topics of kindly and pleasant talk to a significant
inquiry of Stephens how nearly the extension of the Capitol was
completed, and the expression of a desire to go to Washington to see.
Mr. Seward told him of the condition of the work, and invited him to
come and look at the Capitol of a reunited Republic. The terms of peace
were thus gradually approached. When fully reached on the rebel side
Stephens took the parole and surpassed all his old exhibitions of
persuasiveness, shrewdness, force, tact and courage in putting the
demands and the rights of the Confederacy. In the midst of them, and at
the conclusion of one of his points, Mr. Lincoln swung forward on the
lower hinge of his back and interrupted: “That reminds me of the story
of a man out in Illinois!” Stephens, Hunter and Campbell instantly
jumped up in a roar of merriment.
interruption caused by this characteristic outbreak, and the apt story
which followed being through with, the Rebel Vice President resumed, and
pursued to the end of his statement the rights of the Confederate States
and the terms on which he thought they would be willing to stop the war.
Recognition was the first of them. The proposition for an armistice was,
of course, logical sequence.
is very certain that Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Seward were surprised at
striking this snag in the very outset of the conference. The preliminary
groping and feeling around by our pioneer of peace and his assurance and
convictions, had led to the belief that the three envoys had entered our
lines to talk of a restored Union and a common country. They had stayed
about two days at army headquarters; in conversations there with Gens.
Grant, Meade and one or two other generals, Stephens professed to love
the old Union, to be as much as ever in his feelings as an American of
the United States, and deplored the necessity which politics placed him
and all the leaders of the Rebellion in to have something to give to the
decimated and impoverished people of the South for their sacrifices. It
is understood that they declared at headquarters, that if we would
recognize them for only a week, or any suitable length of time, to
satisfy the pride of their people, they would pledge their honor to
bring about reunion. ->
was the precise character of their admissions or intimations, our peace
prospectors went to Fortress Monroe on what they felt was a sure thing.
the whole character of the whole interview the country can judge from
what Mr. Lincoln said to a general officer on Saturday: “We could not
do anything with them whatever.”
stood on recognition. Mr. Seward considered their claims
argumentatively. He kindly and courteously spoke of our larger
resources, and of our certainty of victory in the end. They insisted on
recognition. The utter inadmissibility of this demand and of their other
and consequential demands was demonstrated. They were immovable–they
stood for recognition.
Stephens, more flexible and polite than his associates, proposed and
argued his craft scheme of a temporary recognition, repeating at length
the considerations he had urged at Gen. Grant’s headquarters; but on
recognition, absolute or temporary, the three Commissioners stood like
editor of the Tribune is not
inclined to believe, maugre all reports to the contrary, that the peace
effort was a failure. He says: “We believe in an early peace; but we
do not even guess just how or when it will come, and we feel certain
that it will be hastened by the most prompt and vigorous provision for
continuing the war.”
National Intelligencer of
yesterday says editorially: “We almost state by authority when we say
that the rebel leaders who attended the recent Conference, declared that
civil war would follow in the South were a proposition of restoration to
be submitted to the Southern people. Now this sentiment is either a
wanton misrepresentation of the facts in the South, or it means that
there is a formidable Union sentiment in the Southern States ready to
take up arms for the old flag. For certainly we cannot suppose that
these men meant by such declaration that they would be glad to hazard
the proposition as a government for restoration if they were not fearful
that the unpopularity of such a step might lead to revolt against
financial writer for the N. Y. World
says peace is considered more than probable by the business men of
that city, and that it is desired by a very powerful and numerous party
in the rebel States.
FEBRUARY 8, 1865
HAMPSHIRE PATRIOT & STATE GAZETTE
Capt. Marcy and the Soldiers.
following letter illustrates the character of Daniel
Marcy. The case it describes is but one of many of similar
description that might be given, the facts of which are known only to
the few directly interested. The main facts of this characteristic
instance of Capt. Marcy’s noble generosity were given last summer by
the correspondent of the Statesman, who stated that it was but a sample of his charitable
doings in the same line. Let the fathers and brothers of soldiers read
and reflect upon the touching tale of this bereaved and grateful father,
and let them bear in mind that they and their sons and brothers may be
in a condition to need just such aid as was so generously given in this
case. This cruel war is to continue for years, and hundreds of New
Hampshire men are to suffer and die far away from home and friends; and
what a consolation it would be to their friends to feel that there is a
man near the suffering ones who has the heart and the means to minister
to their comfort. This feeling alone should be sufficient to induce all
such in this district to cast their votes for Daniel
Bridge, N. H.,
January 20, 1865.
My Dear Sir:–You
inquire of me for the facts in the case of Henry, my son, whose recent
death has caused me and my family so much distress. Also, what agency
the Hon. Daniel Marcy had in that melancholy affair. I certainly can
have no hesitation in giving them to you. They are substantially these:
Henry enlisted in Co. D, 12th N. H. Reg., in August, 1861, and was well
and active in the Union cause until the battle of Cold harbor, which, as
you will recollect, happened on the 3d day of June 1864. At this time he
was acting as Sergeant, and as far I can learn had won by his military
conduct the good will of his superior officers as well as that of the
soldiers. During that engagement he was wounded severely, and as it
proved, mortally. He was carried from the field and, as soon as could
be, sent to Emery Hospital in Washington. I was notified of his
dangerous condition and immediately left home for the purpose of
visiting him. I found him suffering extremely, and at once entered upon
the duty of doing all that I could for him. I was a stranger and alone
in the city. The terrible scenes which were there continually passing
before me, together with the sad condition and almost certain fate
Henry, unusually depressed me. I can truthfully assure you that I have
no language in which I can adequately describe my feelings to you. While
in this state, I was one day approached by a noble looking man who at
once entered into conversation with me and Henry. He soon learned I was
from New Hampshire and took a deep interest in Henry’s case and seemed
to manifest towards him and myself great sympathy. He assured me of his
disposition to do all in his power, and most nobly did he redeem his
promise. On parting he gave me his address and urged me to call on him
for anything I should need. It was then that I learned for the first
time, for I had never seen him before, that this kind and generous
hearted man was a Member of Congress, and that his name was Daniel
Marcy. God bless him, as he comforted my poor dying boy, and aided me in
my forlorn condition. ->
subsequently saw him almost every day in his visits to the hospital and
know that on all these occasions he had a kind word and a generous deed
for the poor, sick and wounded soldiers. At one time I saw him give a
poor man who had lost his son $50 to pay his expenses home. Nor was this
the only instance. I know of his frequently doing similar acts while I
was there, but I have no knowledge of any other person in Washington
giving any such sympathy or aid, certainly not to me.
died August 29th. Capt. Marcy soon after came to me and with much
feeling inquired into my circumstances and wishes in bringing my son’s
body to New Hampshire. I frankly told him I should like to do so, but
had not the means, as you know I am a poor man. Well, said the noble
hearted man, if I were in your condition I should like to do the same,
and I will do by you as I should wish others would do by me in similar
circumstances. It shall be done. He at once procured the body to be
embalmed, and paid $40 for it. He then gave me $20, and subsequently $10
more, and either paid my board bill or persuaded the officers in charge
to give it in, I know not which. Nor was this all this Samaritan did for
me. He kindly on several occasions showed me all that I wished to see in
and about our National Capital, and finally said to me that if I needed
anything more, to call on him.
my dear sir, have I briefly given you the facts in relation to the death
of Henry and the kindness which he and I received at the hands of the
Hon. Daniel Marcy. By his generosity I was enabled to bring his remains
to our own home. They now rest quietly in our family burying ground,
where the bugle blasts of war shall wake him no more. I can assure you
it is a continual source of comfort to us all, father and mother,
brother and sister, that they are now so near us, where we can easily
care for his narrow home. O, what a grief to us it would ever have been
had I been obliged to have buried him far away from our home in a land
of stranger! Yet such must inevitably have been the case had it not been
for the sympathetic and large hearted Daniel Marcy. All honor to him
then, who so gloriously honors his official position as well as our
understand he has been nominated for a re-election. I have no doubt if
the soldiers who know him could settle the question, he would be most
triumphantly elected, as I sincerely hope he will be.1
PITTSFIELD SUN (MA)
of Printing Currency.–In
a debate in the U. S. House of Representatives on Thursday week, Mr.
Washburne of Illinois asked Mr. Garfield (one of the committee) this
question: “Whether it did not cost over $300,000 to print $312,000 (of
postage currency) under the experiment” of dry printing? Mr. Dawes
intimated that the head of the bureau who made the contract for the
printing is part owner of the patent under which the paper is made for
the new kind of printing. At that rate of expense it would be a question
whether it would not be cheaper for the country, as well as better, to coin
money at the Mint than to print
it in Washington–says the Worcester Palladium.
December last, Mr. Elizur Smith of this town (says the Lee Gleaner of the 2d inst.,) inaugurated a new and happy feature in
social life in this village, between manufacturers and employees, by
presenting to each family in his employ a nice fat goose for Christmas.
Of course such recognition by
their employer was very happily received by his work people, and now
they have very handsomely retaliated by procuring, unbeknownst to him, a
splendid chased silver tea service, consisting of 45 pieces, and valued
at nearly $500. The was procured by the men in his employ, and was
placed on exhibition in the show window of B. A. Morey’s drug store
through the day on Wednesday. The women and girls employed by him have
also procured as their token of kind regards a beautifully bound family
Bible, valued at $50, and a splendid photograph album, of about the same
cost, all of which are to be presented to Mr. Smith this evening.
Smith has also arranged to give all his hands an oyster supper this
(Thursday) evening, in one of the halls in the 2d story of Northrup’s
Block, and provides music for a dance in the large hall above at the
same time. Such harmony existing between an employer and his help,
embracing some 400 persons, is really very commendable, and we trust it
may long continue.
tea service is inscribed as follows: “Presented to Mr. and Mrs. Elizur
Smith, by his employees, Feb. 2, 1865.”
Elizur Smith of Lee made a splendid party on Thursday evening last, on
the occasion of his marriage, for some 300 of his friends. The
refreshments and music were brought from the city.
at Lee.–At 4
o’clock on Thursday afternoon, the “Crow Hollow” Paper Mill of Mr.
Elizur Smith, formerly owned by White & Hulbert, was totally
destroyed, with its contents, by fire–the work, as believed by some,
of an incendiary. The mill has been recently refitted by Mr. Smith, and
placed in fine order, and its product was 4,000 lbs. of news paper
daily. The mill was purchased by Mr. Smith at a low figure, and could
not be rebuilt and filled with machinery for less than probably $30,000.
There was a partial insurance on the building, machinery, stock,
&c., but the precise amount we do not learn.
Smith was married on Thursday afternoon, and about the hour of the fire,
and it is greatly regretted by his friends that such as event should
have occurred to interrupt the enjoyment of the happy occasion.
loss in the burning of the Columbia paper mill, belonging to Mr. Elizur
Smith, at Lee, on Thursday afternoon last, is estimated at $50,000; insured
for $30,000, in the Western Mass., Home of New Haven, Corn Exchange and
Security of New York, Fire & Marine of Springfield, each $5,000; and the
People’s and Bay State of Worcester, $2500 each. Preparations are already
being made for rebuilding the mill, of brick and stone.
young lady was addressed by a young man, who, though agreeable to her, was
disliked by her father. Of course he would not consent to the union, and she
determined to elope. The night was fixed, the hour came, he placed the
ladder to the window, and in a few minutes she was in his arms. They mounted
a double horse, and were soon at some distance from the house. After a while
the lady broke silence by saying, “Well, you see what a proof I have given
you of my affection; I hope you will make me a good husband.” He was a
surly fellow, and gruffly answered, “Perhaps I may and perhaps not.” She
made no reply, but after a silence of some minutes she suddenly exclaimed,
“Oh! what shall I do? I have left my money behind me in my room!”
“Then,” said he, “we must go back and fetch it.” They were soon
again at the house, the ladder again placed, the lady re-mounted, while the
ill-natured lover waited below. But she delayed to come, and so he gently
called, “Are you coming?” when she looked out the window and said,
“Perhaps I may and perhaps not,” and then shut down the window, and left
him to return upon the double horse alone. Was that not a happy thought on
the lady’s part–a famous joke?–Life
of Dr. Raffles.
capture of the 8th Ohio cavalry at Beverly, Va., a few days ago, was
effected while the officers were at a ball to which they had been invited by
secesh citizens. Some of Rosser’s men, dressed in Federal uniform,
relieved the tired sentinels, and when everything was ready, the trap was
sprung, and the whole regiment captured without a shot being fired. If a few
of the officers should be shot by sentence of court-martial, such affairs
would be less frequent in nature.
managers of the Erie Railroad have determined to put a telegraph line in
Bergen Tunnel, and to light it up with Drummond or calcium light, to insure
safety. Every tunnel in the country used by railroads should be lighted.
hat which Gen. Sherman wore in his victorious march through Georgia is now
in the possession of J. V. Browne, Esq., of Salem, Mass., who received it
direct from his brother at Savannah. The Gazette
affirms that the “pedigree of the hat is unquestionable.”
meal of victuals in Richmond costs $15, and a glass of whisky $5.
devoured 3,000,000,000 imported eggs last year.
colored citizens of New Orleans own real estate to the value of $15,000,000.
Pennsylvania Legislature is considering the propriety of taxing dogs.
REPUBLICAN FARMER (CT)
Confederate Navy: What it has Accomplished.
[From the Richmond Sentinel.]
total expenditures on account of our navy, since the beginning of the
war, does not exceed $80,000,000, or as much as it had cost the enemy to
build its condemned Monitors up to June, 1864. What have we to show for
this sum? In noble efforts, that the open hostility, if not the secret
perfidy of foreign powers have frustrated, we could show enough to do
full credit to the whole amount. That, however, would be profitless in
all except proof of glorious endeavor. But we can show this–the
destruction of one hundred and ninety-one vessels belonging to the
enemy’s commerce. That, for a direct blow, dealt at the very vitals of
our foe, is much; there is much more within it and beyond it, and
because of it, of an equally telling character.
have to be concise and cautious, but may be precise at the same time.
Take, then, a hurried résumé of some particulars to which we have
gained access. The steamer Sumter,
under the gallant Semmes, captured seventeen vessels in her cruise, from
July 3, 1861, to January 17, 1862–three ships, five brigs, six barks,
and three schooners, for a half year’s work. The Alabama,
under the same naval hero, captured sixty-three vessels from Sept.,
1862, to January, 1864. The greater number of these were very valuable
ships, and all but nine of them were burned at sea. In the number is
included the United States gunboat Hatteras
(eight guns, one hundred and eight men, and eighteen officers) which was
sunk in open fight on the 11th of January, 1863. To this list of the Alabama’s
captures have to be added two vessels brought by her tender, the Tuscaloosa.
One of her captures was subsequently commissioned as a cruiser under our
flag, as in the case of other captures by other cruisers.
steamer Tallahassee, under the
command of the intrepid Taylor Wood, captured thirty-three vessels
during the month of August, 1864. His dashing cruise along the American
coast, northward, was shorn of its richer fruits by the chilling
courtesy of the British authorities in Nova Scotia, on whose unfair
conduct we had occasion to animadvert at the time. Of the captures made
by Commander Wood, two were ships, four brigs and four barks, the
remainder being, for the most part, sea going and large tonnage
schooners. Only five of the whole number were bonded and two released,
all the rest having been either burned or scuttled.
Chickamauga, under the command
of John Wilkinson, who has no professional superior in the service, in a
short cruise last November, captured and destroyed seven vessels–one
ship, four barks and two schooners. The Georgia,
in a few weeks, captured and destroyed seven ships and two barks. The Florida–but
enough of such details. Here are the shorter mathematical results of
all–Fifty-eight ships, thirty-two brigs, forty-one barks, fifty-seven
schooners–pilot boats and small steamers “extra”–all disposed of
at sea since the war by a Power which has, popularly, “no navy.”
estimate the value of these captures let us strike an average. The Jacob Bell–one of the most valuable–as set down as worth at
least $2,000,000, ship and cargo; the Orelea,
at proven value, $950,000; the Star
of Peace at $900,000; the Anglo-Saxon
at $85,000–others more and others less. Allow for the few bonded, and
then draw a moderate average–say $500,000 for each ship and cargo, and
you have about $30,000,000 worth of property in ships destroyed at once.
The brig Estelle was valued,
under mark, at $130,000, the Windward at $44,000–say for each brig and
cargo, $50,000, and you have $1,600,000 additional.
out the great moderation of this estimate, set each bark down at $40,000
and each schooner at $25,000, (several of both were three times either
amount,) and you have an aggregate of $34,605,000 destroyed directly by
our navy. Is that nothing? ->
the New York Chamber of Commerce and take its doleful answer. But that
is only as to the direct loss inflicted. How are we to give, or get, an
approximate estimate of the indirect damage done to the enemy’s
commerce? Only by indirect means, and we take these to be some such.
1850 the aggregate United States tonnage sold to foreigners was 13,647;
in 1860 it was about the same; while in 1863 it was 1,500,000. This
covers the “white washing” process, and has sent more than one line
of American clippers, usually hailing from New York or Boston or
Baltimore, to sea as Liverpool or London vessels.2
Has that change of figures no tale to tell for the little navy? Does it
say nothing “eloquently well” for “indirect loss?”
more: In 1830 there was employed in the United States coasting trade
(deducting the Southern coasts) an enrolled and licensed tonnage equal
to 406,978; in 1840 this had augmented to 983,518; ten years later it
stood at 1,300,210; and in 1860 it had swollen to the splendid
proportions of 1,735,863. What is it now? On Yankee semi-official
authority, in 1863, it had dwindled down to what it was in 1840. In
giving these diminishing numbers, the Shipping
Journal (Weymouth, England,) significantly says: “The ravages of
Confederate cruisers will soon have frightened the Federal coasting
trade into its narrow dimensions of 1830.”
more: The New Bedford Standard,
of a recent date, (as quoted in the United States news of this journal
on the 4th inst.,) tells us that, whereas the tonnage engaged in the
whale fishing in 1846 was 230,218, it does not now
reach 80,000 tons. In the first of this set of figures we detect an
under statement; for the official records show that, in 1846, the
American tonnage in the whale fishing was 439,580.
would not do to note the vastness of the fall–its force had to be
lightened. To allow this fact its full weight, we should remember that,
in 1846, whale oil sold at 60 cents; now it sells, according to the
above Bedford paper, at $1.95½ a gallon; and bone that sold in 1846 at
a dime a pound now brings nearly $2.
these self-reasoning waifs add this most suggestive one: “The
insurance on vessels trading with the States is alarming,” cries the
Portland Gazette of September 21st, 1864.3
“None of us can be blind enough not to see that our own direct
shipping interests are in a ruinous condition, as well from the effects
of exorbitant insurance as from the cowardly prudence of ship owners.
policy pursued at Lloyd’s, which sets the example of the insurance
office, is an evil that may do us permanent harm if it is not at once
corrected. Between the poltroonery of ship owners and Confederate
privateers, our shipping interest must give way. At present we know of
few American ships–genuine American bottoms–except such as carry
guns aboard. Is not this deplorable?” Very; but we hope the condition
that has brought it about will increase daily, until only peace shall
make room for other American vessels than gunboats.
have exhausted our space, but by no means the evidence, direct and
indirect, which we could adduce in proof of the pleasing fact that our
little navy has been vehemently, yet, in some sense, noiselessly at
work, wherever it could accomplish most. The subject, with the
attestations that pertain to it, is one to which we shall recur for the
further information and gratification of the public whom it so nearly
FEBRUARY 11, 1865
THE HARTFORD DAILY
Makes a Speech.
rebel peace commissioners have returned to Richmond and made their
report, which was duly transmitted by Mr. Davis to Congress. On the
evening of the 6th, a large concourse, in response to the invitation of
Gov. Smith, assembled at the African church, to fire anew the flames of
Richmond papers give glowing accounts of the earnestness and spirit that
characterized the speeches. Davis himself addressed the assemblage,
saying that he had appointed the best men of the South to see what terms
could be obtained from the federal government, without ever entertaining
much hope that they would succeed in attaining a satisfactory
adjustment. He asserted peremptorily that no condition of peace save the
independence of the confederacy could ever receive his sanction. He
doubted not the approval of Providence, and with the united resolve of
the southern people, he believed that victory would certainly crown
their efforts. At the close of his speech, a series of resolutions were
passed, spurning the terms of the President of the United States, and
pledging lives, liberty and honor to the cause.
Sentinel compares the
condition of the South to that of Rome after the battle of Cannæ. It
proceeds to fire the southern hearts in the following strain:
decree has already gone forth confiscating our lands and liberating our
slaves. Nay, more; the latter are now enlisted in the armies of our
enemy, and made to fight against us; and, with a refinement upon the
usual arts of irritation, constituted police guards in our captured
cities, to visit insolence upon their late owners. If we be subjugated,
it will be the first instance in which the white man has been forced to
act as a menial to the African. That all this, and worse, if possible,
is in store for us if we do not speedily repel or check the invader, is
apparent enough in the coarse, savage , taunting reply of Lincoln to our
commissioners. That reply has filled to overflowing the cup of our
overbearance. We see and feel around us that there are no more
reconstructionists, no more submissionists, no more peace men. A
terrible reaction is inaugurated. The spirit of 1861 is revived. We are
reinvigorated with the resolve to conquer or die. Deserters will return
to our ranks, and those who delay to do so will be hunted and shot down
in their lurking places like beasts of prey. Concert of action, zealous
co-operation is all that is needed to insure success, and the insulting
reply of Lincoln to our commissioners will beget these on the instant.
Every man now sees and feels that a fate worse than death awaits him if
we do not win success. Under such circumstances it should be easy to
emulate, if not surpass, Roman virtue.
correspondent of the Chicago Journal
writing from Nashville under date of the 3d inst., says the war may be
considered as practically at an end in that section. “True, the 50,000
cavalry under Thomas and Canby will sweep over the States of Mississippi
and Alabama as soon as the weather will permit, and many places now
nominally held by the rebels will fall into our hands and numerous
railroads, at present useful to the enemy, will be destroyed, and two or
three rivers of great importance will be opened to our gunboat fleet;
but all this will require no serious fighting; it will not be war, as
that term has been understood the last three year–only a mere raid
will be required.” ->
says the latest intelligence from Dick Taylor’s (late Hood’s) army
is to the effect that it has been concentrated at Tupelo, Miss., and is
in a miserable condition. The men are very much demoralized, and not
twelve thousand of these could be collected for fighting purposes.
is stated on good authority that secret peace meetings are being held
all over Alabama and Georgia and in a portion of Mississippi. In some
places the peace men are so bold as to assemble openly. There is a
strong pressure upon Gov. Watts of Alabama to send commissioners to
Washington to arrange for a return of the state into the Union; so
strong is this demand, it is said, that he must either yield or prepare
for a counter-revolution, which will be led by no less a person than
Gen. Roddy. He is at the head of a considerable forces, and is only
awaiting the conclusion that the Governor will arrive at; and he will
not tarry much longer.
a knowledge of this disaffection, Gen. Thomas was emboldened to send at
least ten thousand more men to the East than he would otherwise have
done. He knows, also, that Hood’s army is reduced and that recruits
cannot be obtained to strengthen it. Thomas was to start the middle of
this week from Eastport to move immediately “on the enemy’s
Union men of Tennessee are doing all in their power to reorganize the
State. They are confident of polling sixty-five thousand votes, which
will secure the State recognition at once.
staff officer of the 9th corps writes that as the rebel peace
commissioners were being escorted out of our lines, one of them turned
to Gen. Grant, and said:
I am anxious to have peace, and I would be willing to leave the
settlement to you and Gen. Lee.”
replied Grant, “I propose to settle it with Lee this summer.”
company of forty-three women recently attempted to flee from the bonds
of Mormonism in Utah, but they were overtaken and carried back to their
lads, all under thirteen years of age, were arrested last night for
stealing money from the store of N. W. Loomis, corner of Main and Avon
streets. Thursday night $1.75 was taken, and last night $3.00. With the
funds thus obtained, the youngsters attended the minstrel performance at
Allyn Hall, where they were found by Officer Warburton and conveyed to
the station house. We omit their names out of respect to their parents,
to whose mortification we have no desire to add.
story is supported by genealogical records, although Elias Buzzell (or
the newspaper) got Henry’s death date wrong: he succumbed to his
wounds on 29 June (as per his tombstone), not 29 August 1864. His
service record, as presented by his father, is accurate and, given the
ferocity with which newspapers pounced on trumped up reports in
competing journals, Marcy’s supposed generosity and compassion can
also be assumed to be true. Daniel Marcy was not, however, reelected.
washing” refers to reflagging a ship to register her in another
country, so as to make her a neutral vessel.
in this instance means “a stray item or article.”
irony of Jefferson Davis addressing a meeting at “the African
church” to rekindle Southern enthusiasm for maintaining the
slave-holding aristocracy is too incredible to resist comment, but there
is really nothing more that can be said!
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