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SUNDAY
APRIL 2, 1865
THE NEW ORLEANS TIMES (LA)

From Washington.
The Rebels Talk of Surrendering.
Lee and Davis Give up the Ship.

Washington, March 21.–The evidence is fast accumulating that the rebellion is near its end. Its last gasp cannot be far distant. The Administration has received direct intelligence from Richmond, within the last forty-eight hours, to the effect that Jeff Davis, as well as Gen. Lee, give up the ship. Jeff Davis has also proposed to withdraw from the contest himself, and leave the arbitrament of the whole affair to Gen. Lee and Gen. Grant. Let those two Generals settle the terms of adjustment.

This fact has become so well authenticated to the Administration that the President and Secretary Seward have had lengthy consultations over it. But it seems that they do not agree. Secretary Seward urges that they had better accept that mode of settlement, but the President opposes it. The latter declares that if there are no more negotiations the rebels will soon accept his terms offered at Hampton Roads, and we will then get rid of their leaders. But if we leave it to Grant and Lee to arrange terms, the later will try to retain his place in the United States Army and secure offices for all his associates, even Jeff Davis. Says the President: “It is said that you are a candidate for the Presidency, Governor; who knows but that the Copperheads may not yet run Jeff Davis against you for this office if we settle this affair without getting rid of their leaders.”

An arrival from Richmond to-day represents things in the rebel capital as almost in a state of chaos. Every person able to render military service of any kind has been seized ad put in the ranks. The operations of Sheridan had created the wildest panic, and everybody is looking out for himself.

The person bringing this information had no difficulty getting to our lines. He says that the price of everything had more than doubled since Sheridan’s wholesale destruction of the canal and railroads. Flour is selling at fifteen hundred dollars per barrel, meat at ten dollars per pound, whisky at four hundred dollars per gallon, and other things in proportion. Board at the hotels is one hundred dollars per day, and the commonest board per day for laborers is ten dollars.

There was a special Cabinet meeting here this afternoon, it is understood, in reference to the news from Richmond and the impending breaking up of the military forces of the rebellion.

The hasty adjournment of the rebel Congress indicates a desire on the part of its members to escape from the doomed city before capitulation. The horrors of starvation, now at its door, through the exploits of Sheridan, have wholesome terrors for them. Previous to the late raid it had been supposed that there was an outlet for civil officers and members of the bogus Congress, if not for Lee’s entire army, by way of Lynchburg or Gordonsville; but Sheridan has cut off these elements, and left them only the Danville route, which is threatened by Sheridan and is not deemed safe. Bets are freely offered by high officials that Lee will attempt the evacuation of Richmond in ten days; but the important question is, provided he can succeed, where can he go and still obtain supplies for his army? It can hardly be believed that Sheridan’s cavalry will remain idle. That General is already famous for his activity. He has consulted with Grant, and doubtless received his orders for a new expedition. We shall soon hear from him and Kilpatrick in a new sphere of action, and in their next efforts they will give the rebellion in Virginia its coup de grace. Starvation is now at the doors of Richmond. Escape involves a desperate fight and great loss of life. If successful, will it procure food? Quién sabe.1

Affairs in Mississippi.
Forrest’s Army Breaking Up.
Texas Cavalry Deserting by Hundreds.

We learn from a gentleman who has just come in from Mississippi that the rebel army under Forrest is going to pieces. About one hundred and fifty of the 11th Texas Cavalry passed through Liberty about the 1st of March, having deserted in a body. They had their colors flying and their arms with them, and swore that they would “rather go to h--l than back into the army.”

Gen. Forrest telegraphed to Woodville to stop them, and a regiment 400 strong was sent in pursuit, and overtook them near the Mississippi river. The Texans, on their approach, drew up in line of battle, and sent word to their pursuers that they would rather die than surrender, whereupon the latter wheeled around and marched off. The Texans crossed the river in small boats, and are now well on their way home.

A report was in circulation at Liberty that another party of 400 Texas cavalry had crossed the river between port Gibson and Natchez, and gone home.

The formerly loud-mouthed secessionists in this portion of Mississippi are now very quiet, and have nothing to say against the Yankee barbarians.

•••••

Two Monitors Damaged by Torpedoes in Mobile Bay.
The Osage and Milwaukee Sunk in Shoal Waters.

Torpedoes have served the enemy a good purpose again in Mobile Bay, by temporarily disabling the monitors Osage and Milwaukee, which were sunk in shoal water while attempting to get up in range with Spanish Fort. It is said they were not very materially damaged, and can be easily raised and put in working order again.

•••••

An Excellent Order.–Gen. Washburne, as we learn by the Memphis Bulletin, has issued a general order for the purpose of urging the reorganization of civil institutions in the district of West Tennessee, and promising protection to all law-abiding peaceable people. It recommends the organization of civil posses, that upon giving proper security, will be furnished with arms and ammunition. It guarantees that horses and mules shall not be pressed for military service except under express orders from headquarters, when, if absolutely necessary, it may be done, but when vouchers shall be given for the value of any property thus taken. All unauthorized foraging is strictly forbidden, and will be severely punished. Facilities will be given to farmers to hire freedmen, and injuries done to refugees who may return to their homes will be summarily punished.

MONDAY
APRIL 3, 1865
THE HOUSTON TELEGRAPH (TX)

Disinterested Patriotism.

A soldier travelling to his command stopped at a house about mid-way between Navasota and Anderson, and earnestly plead to buy some fodder for his jaded horse. The article was abundant about the premises, but not a blade could he get.

Another made a similar effort at a house near Huntsville with similar want of success.

To the benevolent of Grimes and Walker counties:

Near Prairie Plains, in Grimes county, lives a man called ___, who is an object of charity. Unless something is done speedily for the relief of himself and family, they must soon starve.

I have rarely seen such an exhibition of want as is made there. A soldier came to his house late at night and asked for accommodations. The old gentleman came out and assured him that the traveling public and soldiers had eaten him out, and he had nothing for his family. But the soldier knows he has several cribs of corn, seven or eight stacks of fodder, chickens, turkeys, hogs, etc., in abundance; but these things weigh light as air against his own statement that “he is eaten out, has nothing for his own family,” and this appeal is earnestly made to the citizens of the adjacent county to prevent a case of starvation in another family, black and white.

Another case. A member of Terry’s Rangers (I am credibly informed) returned home some two months since, after an absence of two and a half years–called at a house in Washington county, near Independence, and asked for his breakfast, stating that he had no money to pay for it. He was sent away breakfastless. Served him right; for what business had a war-worn, dirty, penniless soldier to stop at the house of a wealthy planter, and ask for his breakfast. And yet others.

A man living west of the Brazos, who some four or five months since had at his gin one hundred bales of cotton, which he proposed to pay for ten young Negro men, had his own daughter and her child placed on the list of indigent soldiers’ families. And another whose only child is in the army, placed his daughter-in-law and child on the same list. This man works six or seven hands–has corn, cotton, meat in abundance.

These are samples of disinterested patriotism–benevolence which I will forward from time to time. I have a good many more on the docket.–16th Tex., near Crockett, March 28, 1865.

•••••

Near Courtney, Grimes County,
March 29th, 1865.

“In the midst of this revolution, the education and training of the rising generation appeals with peculiar force to the whole society and to the authorities of the Government, as far as they have control over the subject.” “The lapse of but a few years will introduce the youth of the land upon the stage of active life, to act their part in society, for good or evil.” “Every consideration as to the welfare of society and of government, under our institutions, requires that they should be trained, educated and prepared for the stern and varied duties that lie before them as citizens.”

The above extracts are taken from the Inaugural Address of our able and distinguished Executive, and they should be written in letters of gold upon the hearts of the people. In the present disturbed condition of the country, with an interminable war before us, it becomes us to consider this subject in a military as well as in a moral and political sense. This subject, Mr. Editor, does address itself “with peculiar force” to the intelligence and the welfare of the country, and it is well to reflect seriously upon it in connection with our military status.

Let the people–the fathers of the present generation in Texas–give this subject the enlarged and earnest consideration its merits are entitled to. Practical questions like this should be discussed and dealt with by practical men in a practical way. In an hour like this, the people have as much to do in developing the minds of the children and young men under seventeen years of age, as the farmers have in developing the resources of the State, in an agricultural way.

It is the business, it is true, of the Legislature and the duty of the Executive to aid the farmers and the fathers in cultivating and enlarging the usefulness of their respective spheres. You are aware that past legislatures have been lavish in their appropriations and donations on this subject, whilst the Executive has urged it upon the people on all proper occasions. Hence, Mr. Editor, the awful responsibility of not training the young minds of the preset day, and preparing them for the part they are to take in the busy scenes of the public affairs of our bleeding country, rests upon the fathers and not the authorities of Government.

This war may last, Mr. Editor, for ten years. It is impossible to see the end of this war, and it does seem to me that the editors and the people should adopt a policy on this subject, and accord it with the necessities that exist.

Look, if you please, at the children of our towns and villages running to seed–idle, mischievous–and how long before they will become troublesome if permitted to pursue the evil tenor of their way? Whose fault is it? These children for the most part have parents, and they, though it be said in shame, have become unconscious, useless and unconcerned. Many of them are the children of those noble band of brothers who have trod the path of battle, and have given their life-blood in defending the liberty we now enjoy. Thrice bound are we to watch and look after their offspring.

These children are soon to become the rulers of our Government in one way or other. Then, woe unto us as a proud and independent nation if we neglect this important trust for one generation. Where then would be our boasted liberties–freedom of speech–freedom of the press? Then would our system of government–the whole fabric of republican liberty–totter, and crumble an fall, as quickly as mist before the noon-day sun. Neglect it, if you will, and of what value to future generations will be the blood and treasure expended in this long struggle for independence? Better, far better, to have remained a colonial dependent than now to run into anarchy and domestic strife.

Ignorance is the bane and evil of all ages and countries. Means have been wisely set apart by our State; money and land enough appropriated to school a nation of children. It is the fault of those into whose hands the present generation has fallen. Our executive marked out the policy which should have been pursued. Time has proven the soundness and correctness of his foresight. In the language of his address: “Let the spirit of enterprise be diffused, and let the good work go on, until every man, woman and child in Texas, if need be, be clad in homespun, or in domestic manufacture, and until every field be ploughed with iron from our native ores.”–Quid Nunc.2

TUESDAY
APRIL 4
, 1865
THE BOSTON HERALD 

THE FALL OF RICHMOND!
REJOICINGS ALL OVER THE COUNTRY.

Washington, April 3.–Although the fall of Petersburg and Richmond was believed to take place soon, the official announcement of the fact itself this a.m. occasioned great surprise mingled with rejoicings and huzzahs in all directions. Flags were thrown out more plentiful than at any other period of the war. Many of the merchants closed their stores and business generally was suspended. The clerks in the Departments unable to work under the effect of the good news, joined the throngs in the principal avenues in congratulation of the important event. A crowd assembled in front of the Interior Department and was addressed by the Commissioner of Patents. Secretary Seward made a speech from the steps of the State Department.

Vice President Andrew Johnson made a stirring address, and proposed three cheers for the capture of Petersburg and Richmond and three cheers for Gen. Grant and the officers and men under him. They were most enthusiastically given. Senator Sherman, recently returned from a visit to his brother General Sherman, and ex-Senator Preston King of New York, were among the speakers. During the latter part of the proceedings salutes were fired. There has never before been such a day of rejoicing in Washington. The Secretary of State recommends that the public buildings be illuminated this evening in honor of the fall of Richmond.

Foreign Ministers called this morning at the Department of State to express their congratulations on the fall of Richmond. The first who called was the Austrian Minister, then the Consul General of Switzerland, and the next the Swedish Minister.

Second Dispatch.

Washington, April 3d.–The fall of Richmond and Petersburg became known a few minutes after 11 o’clock this morning. The intelligence soon spread throughout the city, occasioning intense and joyous excitement. The employees of the several departments of the Government deserted their desks to join in the rejoicing of the streets. The Secretary of the Treasury issued an order relieving the clerks from duty for the remainder of the day. Whether the heads of the other Departments issued a similar order or not, it is certain their respective clerks indulged in the holiday.

Public business was altogether suspended. The municipal offices were closed as also many of the stores. When the news reached the Court House, so great was the excitement that the two Courts then in session immediately adjourned. The teachers in the public schools dismissed their scholars. Work was suspended at the Navy Yard, in the Government Printing Bureau, and in other public as well as private establishments.

Numbers of persons chartered whatever conveyances were available, and passed through the streets with their vehicles profusely decked with American flags, and at one time the Avenue was very gay with equipages. The steam and city fire department and hook and ladder companies turned out with their apparatus decorated with flags, and the steam whistles screaming triumphantly. Flags were raised on houses and thrown out in front of the public Departments and places of business. The Avenue was crowded with pedestrians. Great was the anxiety to hear the latest news. Boys with extras somewhat allayed the general demand for news from Richmond.

•••••

$25 Reward.–Strayed from the premises of Richmond, Va., a boy, about fifty-five years of age. Nearly white–answers to the name of Jeff. Has one bad eye and is knock-kneed. When last seen he had  pair of rag-carpet trowsers, very much frayed out in the seat, a “popped” hat and a horse-blanket. He is supposed to have in his possession a carpet bag containing papers of no account to any body but the owner.

THE END OF THE REBELLION!
GRANT’S COMBINATIONS TO CLOSE IT UP.

New York, April 3.–The Commercial’s Washington dispatch says it is believed in that city that the war is over and that an understanding to that effect exists. The programme of Gen. Grant anticipates all possible movements of the enemy.

He did not merely provide for the evacuation of Richmond and Petersburg. He anticipated this contingency and Lee will find his retreat cut off at all points. Grant, Sherman, Thomas, Sheridan and Hancock are closing upon the fragments of the rebellion.

The military organization of the Confederacy will cease to exist during the present week.

Sherman has yet to be heard from. He is not inactive during the great operations now pending. Peace through war has been the object of the administration, and it seems to be now within reach.

•••••

Let the bells ring and the cannon roar! Bring out all your flags! Float “Old Glory” from every steeple and flag-staff! Give cheers for our heroic soldiers! Thank the God of Battles for the Victory! Babylon has fallen! Hurrah! Hurrah!! Hurrah!!!

The thunderbolt has fallen even sooner than we expected. The victorious army has proved itself irresistible, and the demoralized power of the rebellion staggers towards its final doom with the heaviest blow yet delivered.

The superb generalship which has secured this glorious result is shown by the remark of Gen. Grant to President Lincoln, advising him to remain at City Point, and promising to take Richmond in forty-eight hours.

The rebel capital has fallen, and with it all the prestige that the rebel army possessed, and every vestige of nationality in the bogus Confederacy! Lee is sneaking away with the fragments of his army, while our heroes are pushing forward to cut off even this remnant of the rebellion. This army must be a discouraged, panic-stricken mob, of no avail, wherever it finds temporary refuge from its pursuers, and it needs no prophet’s eye to see the end.

We await the thrilling details of this grand triumph and its momentous results.

THREE CHEERS FOR THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC!

•••••

Probable Capture of Mobile.
The War Substantially Ended.

New York, April 3.–The Commercial’s special Washington dispatch says intelligence received from the headquarters of our forces warrant the assurance that Mobile is now in our possession. Important positions have been taken which promised to place the city at our mercy. It is said that a great battle remains to be fought in Virginia, and that General Lee has still the means of making a formidable resistance, but it is believed the war is substantially ended, and that humanity will induce the enemy to end the contest. It is reported that Major General Robert Potter was dangerously wounded.

 

WEDNESDAY
APRIL
5, 1865
THE CONSTITUTION (CT)

The Army Moving!

It has been the earnest wish of the American people that the rebel capital should be taken by the soldiers of the Army of the Potomac. That wish is now gratified. During the past eight days, movements have been made in progress which have caused the evacuation of both Petersburg and Richmond. A terrible battle lasting three days, in which the whole strength of both armies have been engaged has been fought, and the rebel leaders are driven from the field. It is the opinion of many that Grant found Lee endeavoring to get away, and therefore brought on the fight. Whether this is so or not we have the comforting assurance from the Secretary of War, that Richmond is now held by United States colored troops, under Gen. Weitzel, who says that the citizens received him with the most enthusiastic expressions of joy. What a transition from a state of despotism and tyranny, to the protection of the national flag, must it be to those of Union sentiment in that city. Unless he has already met retributive justice, Jeff Davis is now a fugitive in this country. All honor to the noble army who have accomplished that for which it was created. Disasters have not subdued or broken its spirit, but rather urged it on in heroic deeds. By their efforts and persistency the once proud army of the confederacy is now broken, and its opportunity for destruction entirely gone. The Waterloo of this country has been fought, and the old flag waves in triumph over the field. Our generals are closing around what remains of the rebel army, and it will soon cease to exist. Connecticut sends greeting to the brave soldiers. They have driven traitors from their strongholds, while she has driven their sympathizers to their holes!

•••••

Rebel News.–Some interesting facts about affairs in Richmond are given by a person who escaped from Castle Thunder a few days ago. He says that there were evident signs of evacuation; the assets of the banks had been sent off by the Danville road; the machinery of two percussion cap factories had gone in the same direction, and some of the machinery of the Tredegar iron-works had been packed up ready for shipment. There were not more than ten days’ supplies in the city for the army. The same person sold a gold dollar for one hundred in rebel currency. Tea was $100 per lb; coffee $50; bacon $18; beef $15; and eggs rose in consequence of Sheridan’s raid from $12 to $35 per dozen. It was thought that Alexander H. Stevens had abandoned the cause of the confederacy. Several intelligent Georgians who visited the Philadelphia Inquirer office recently, say that the desertions from Lee’s army average over a hundred every day. In their estimation, the whole rebel force in front of Grant cannot exceed forty thousand men, and if it should be depleted at the rate mentioned, cannot long be available for evil. They say that Stevens left for the South immediately on his return from the late peace conference, and refused to have anything more to do with the confederacy.

•••••

Geo. B. McClellan and lady are now traveling with August Belmont, chairman of the national democratic committee. Fernando Wood will soon join them, and it would not be surprising to hear that Jeff Davis was following after Fernando. What a re-union of “old friends” will then occur.

•••••

The Prospects for Peace.

The time when this country can sheath the sword and turn its strength and energy to mechanical and agricultural pursuits is near. But at the present time the armor of the warrior is buckled on, and will not be put off until the rebels submit. The prospect that the strife will soon terminate is most encouraging. The rebel army are being surrounded by federal bayonets, and unless they strike soon the opportunity will be gone. Napoleon the first was a great and successful general. When he first assumed command of the armies of France, he confounded his opponents by adopting what was at that time a novel mode of warfare. The military leaders of that day allowed the forces of the enemy to concentrate, and then if deemed advisable, fight them. But the “little corporal” thought that by attacking the opposing army at different points before it could concentrate, he would be able to fight at better advantage, and the result was that he came out victorious in nearly every campaign. The policy adopted by the hero of Austerlitz would not have been bad if imitated by the leaders at the south. The strength of the federal army lay in concentration. It has fought at great disadvantage in having to maintain large armies at remote points. As long as the south could keep her center lines safe and protected, she was safe. When Sherman’s victorious army left the defences of Atlanta to march to the seaboard, was the time for the southern leaders to prove their generalship. Every step through their country hastened their ruin. His march to the seaboard, and from thence to the rear of the rebel capital, uniting his forces with those of Schofield and Terry, will make him too strong for the rebels to attack. The towns and cities which have furnished the material for maintaining the rebel armies are within his grasp. Sheridan with his gallant cavalry has started a new raid with may isolate the rebel capital. The late fight at Fort Steadman proved that it would be impossible for Lee to make headway against his old adversary, the army of the Potomac. They have fought him too long, and are now determined on victory–a surrender by the south of its claims and a return to the arms of the Federal Union.

•••••

The Blockade Runners.–Advices from London, England, announce the failure of Thomas S. Begbie and Zachariah C. Pearson, Mayor of Hull, caused by the capture of the blockade running ports in this country. The first named gentleman has appeared before the public before, as the character of the bark Springbok, the condemnation of whose cargo by our courts has been said to be sufficient cause for war. These failures are but the initiatory steps for others. The public will soon have a chance to judge of the character of the men abroad, who have helped on the rebel cause, because it helped to increase their wealth. The saying of Joe Hooker proves true, that the victories of our armies, “Kill rebels at both ends of the line.”

THURSDAY
APRIL 6,
1865
THE PROVIDENCE EVENING PRESS (RI)

Further Particulars of Grant’s Operations.

War Department, Washington,
April 5-8, 1865.

Maj. General Dix:

The following telegram gives all the details received by this department in relation to the military operations at Richmond, not heretofore published.

Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War.

-----

Aiken's Landing, April 5,1865—11.30 p. m.

E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War:

Little is known at City Point. Few officers left, and those overwhelmed with work.

Lee telegraphed Jeff. Davis 3 p. m. Sunday that he was driven back and must evacuate. This was announced in the churches.

Jeff Davis had sold his furniture previously at auction and was ready to leave. All the leading men got away that evening. Rebel iron-clads were exploded. Virginia lies sunk in James River above the obstructions. Ewell set the city on fire. All the business portion of Main street to the river was burned. The bridges across the river were also destroyed. Many of the families remain. Mrs. Lee remains at Petersburg. The public stores were burned, and a few houses caught fire, but not much damage was done to the city.

I will fully report from Richmond. I cannot get a clear idea of our loss. The only general killed is Winthrop. Potter is dangerously wounded in groin. General Grant has commanded armies in person since the commencement of operations.

C. A. Dana, Ass’t Secretary of War.

-----

War Department, Washington, April 5,1865—10.00 p. m.

Maj. Gen. Dix:

A telegram just received by this department from Richmond states that General Weitzel captured in Richmond 1000 well prisoners, and 5000 rebel wounded were found in the hospitals.

Five hundred pieces of artillery and five thousand stand of arms were captured.

The President went to Richmond yesterday and returned to City Point to-day.

The Surgeon General reports that Mr. Seward, who was thrown from his carriage this evening, is doing well. His arm was broken between the elbow and shoulder. His face was much bruised. The fracture has been reduced, and the case presents no alarming symptoms.

E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War.

-----

War Department, Washington, April 5,1865—11.00 a. m.

Maj. Gen. Dix:

Gen. Grant telegraphs to this Department from Nottoway Court House as follows:

Last night Gen. Sheridan was on the Danville Railroad south of Amelia Court House, and sent word to Gen. Meade, who was following with the Second and Sixth Corps by what is known as the River Road, that if the troops could be got up in time he had hopes of capturing or dispersing the whole of Lee’s army. I am moving with the left wing, commanded by Gen. Ord, by the Cox, or direct Burkesville road. We will be to-night at or near Burkesville. I have had no communication with Sheridan or Meade to-day; but hope to hear very soon that they have come up with and captured, or broken up, the balance of the army of Northern Virginia. In every direction we hear of the men of that army going home, generally without arms. Sheridan reports Lee at Amelia Court-house to-day.

Edwin. M. Stanton, Secretary of War.

-----

War Department, Washington, April 5,1865—10.20 p. m.

Maj. Gen. Dix:

The following details respecting the capture of Richmond, and its occupation by Union forces, have been telegraphed to this Department from that city.

E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War.->

Gen. Weitzel learned, at 3 o'clock in the morning of Monday, that Richmond was being evacuated, and at daylight moved forward, first taking care to give his men breakfast, in the expectation that they might have to fight. He met no opposition, and on entering the city was greeted with hearty welcome from the mass of the people. The Mayor went out to meet him and to surrender the city, but missed him on the road.

Gen. Weitzel finds much suffering and poverty among the population. The rich as well as the poor are destitute of food. He is about to issue supplies to all who take the oath. The inhabitants now number about 20,000, half of them of African descent.

It is not true that Jeff Davis sold his furniture before leaving. It is all in his house where I am now writing. He left at 7 p.m., by the Danville Railroad.

All the members of Congress escaped. Hunter has gone home. Carson Smith went with the army. Judge Campbell remains here.

Gen. Weitzel took here one thousand prisoners, besides the wounded. These number 5,000, in nine hospitals. He captured cannon to the number of at least five hundred pieces. Five thousand muskets have been found in one lot. Thirty locomotives and three hundred cars are found here. The Petersburgh Railroad bridge is totally destroyed; that of the Danville road partially, so that connection with Petersburgh can easily be made. All the rebel vessels are destroyed except an unfinished ram, which has her machinery in her perfect. The Tredegar Works are unharmed, and the machinery was taken to-day, under Gen. Weitzel’s orders. Libby Prison and Castle Thunder have also escaped the fire, and are filled with rebel prisoners of war.

Most of the editors have fled, especially John Mitchell. The Whig appeared yesterday as a Union paper with the name of the former proprietor at the head.

The theatre opens here to-night.

Gen. Weitzel describes the reception of the President yesterday as enthusiastic in the extreme.

•••••

Washington Matters.–Washington, April 5.–Hon. G. W. McLellan, Second Assistant Postmaster General, to-day received the following dispatch:

Richmond, April 4.

I have taken possession of the Richmond post office, in the name of the Post Office department of the United States. I find a large quantity of United States property–pouches, locks, safes, &c. Mails that should have left this city to-day are all here, pouched and billed. I have not yet had an opportunity of conferring with the military authorities, but the provost Marshal kindly placed a guard over the building and effects.

D. B. Parker, Special Agent.

The Navy Department has received the following telegram:

“Steamer Harriet DeFord was captured at Fair Haven, in Chesapeake Bay, thirty miles below here, at 4 o’clock this morning by a rebel party of 27 men, headed by Captain Fitzhugh. She is a one masted propeller, upper works painted drab. The captain, mate, and white passengers were released; the crew taken. She immediately sailed after a propeller towing two Government barges down the bay.”

Mrs. Lincoln left here this morning at 11 o’clock on the steamer Monahassett for City point, to join the President. She was accompanied by Senator Sumner, Secretary Harlan and family.

Information has been received direct from Richmond that Gen. Weitzel succeeded in extinguishing the flames after a considerable portion of the business part of the city had been destroyed. The offices of the Enquirer and Dispatch were among the buildings consumed by fire, but it is understood that the other newspaper offices were saved.

FRIDAY
APRIL 7
, 1865
THE CALEDONIAN (VT)

All Right.

Those who recognize the beautiful doctrine of [the] “eternal fitness of things” will find much to their enjoyment among the incidents of the capture of Richmond.

It was all right, as everybody feels, that the Negro troops of the army of the James should be the first to enter the city. On the necks of their race the foundations of the “Southern Confederacy” were avowedly laid, and the whole structure was to be reared by, and for the sake of their unrecompensed toil and blood. But, happily, their feet are now among the first to march in triumph through the captured capital where this Heaven-daring iniquity was concocted. While Jeff Davis was fleeing for his life from the scene of his four years of “fantastic tricks” of “little brief authority,” the once despised slaves, now feared soldiers of the Union, were marching in, probably to the the sublime strains of John Brown’s anthem.

It was all right that the President of the United States should be on the ground during the fight which routed the defenders of the rebel capital. He thus had a chance to witness the heroism and the terrible sacrifices by which the Union has been saved, as he stands in the rebel source from which danger was so often menaced to the capital of the Union, he will be far better enabled, if e so chooses, to speak the right word of the moment to all the wayward and the steadfast children of the republic, than if he had remained all the time in Washington. It is fit, also, that he whose elevation to power was the pretext of the slaveholders’ revolt, whose first war proclamation was received by the rebel executive and cabinet with “bursts of laughter,” and who has been steadily calumniated at Richmond with terms of abuse which are too well remembered to require repetition, should be among the first to visit the headquarters of the exploded confederacy.

It was all right, too, that the long-suffering, ill-requited army of the Potomac, and the patient, unobtrusive General Grant should have the privilege of dealing the death-blow to the only force which kept the rebellion alive. All men will now see that the army of the Potomac can conquer as well as endure, and, like a spring of the purest temper, can strike with a resistless energy proportioned to the months it has waited under the repression of events. Neither can any now fail to discern the surpassing merits of the Lieutenant-General, who has, through the round of seasons, held the great army of the rebellion in his vice-like grasp–sending out his generals, Thomas to strike in one place, Sherman to probe the vitals of the “Confederacy” in another, Sheridan to give an effective blow in another, and so on, rejoicing in the success and the laurels of all, taking no credit to himself, but still waiting and holding on till, at the right moment, he burst like a thunderbolt on the enemy and hurled him into utter rout and confusion. Here is a new revelation of greatness which posterity will put beside that of Washington himself.–Boston Journal.

•••••

Items and Incidents.

The Washington correspondent of the Tribune says that about mid-day on Sunday, four large eagles were observed lurking about the dome of the capitol and over the head of the Goddess of Liberty. Their appearance was almost simultaneous with that of the bulletin from Richmond.

Kennedy, who was executed at New York, made a confession in which he said himself and eight others came to New York to set fire to buildings in retaliation for what Sheridan had done in the Shenandoah Valley. He set fire to Barnum’s Museum, Lovejoy’s Hotel, Tammany Hall, and the New England House. The others simply set fire to the houses at which they were stopping, and then fled. The scheme was concocted among rebels in Canada.3 ->

Senator Sherman has just returned from a visit to his brother, Gen. Sherman, and states that nothing is more heartily desired by the General than an opportunity to encounter Lee’s entire force, as he feels confident that his army can thrash the whole Southern Confederacy.

The proposed excursion to Charleston excites much interest. Rev. H. W. Beecher is to deliver the oration on the hoisting of the flag over Sumter on the anniversary of its fall in 1861. Mr. Beecher and the invited guests of the government will sail from New York in the steamer Arago, near the close of this week, and several steamships will take excursionists, the secretary of war having made Charleston a free port for the occasion. The fare for the round trip is but $100, and the prospect is that there will not be vessels enough to accommodate the crowd that will wish to go.

•••••

Terrible Accident at Sea.

The transport Gen. Lyon took fire off Cape Hatteras on Friday morning last. At the time  there were on board from 550 to 560 souls, only some thirty of whom are known to have been saved. The steamer left Wilmington on the 29th ult., with nearly six hundred passengers, consisting of discharged and paroled soldiers, escaped prisoners and refugees, among whom were about thirty women and twenty-five small children. The fire was caused by barrels of coal oil in the engine room, and in less than five minutes, the flames were belching out on deck, and with the assistance of a strong gale, spread very rapidly. The mate of the ship at once went to work to get out the hose, but the alarm and excitement were so great that but little progress could be made toward extinguishing the fire. In the meantime, the captain of the ship came up, and in the most frantic manner exclaimed, “She’s gone! She’s gone! There’s no use trying to save her!” A rush was then made for the life boats, of which there were but three on board, and they were soon launched. Two of the boats were on the bow of the vessel, and as soon as one was launched, the captain sprang into it and pushed off, intent on saving his own life. Capt. James Weber, of company K, 56th Illinois regiment, succeeded in getting I to the same boat, which in a moment after was struck by the wheel, and the captain of the ship was instantly killed. Capt. Weber afterwards drowned. At the time the fire broke out, nearly 400 soldiers were below, as but a few were allowed on deck at one time; and as soon as the alarm was given, the ladders were pulled up from the hatches, thus precluding the possibility of escape, and there can be no doubt that they were burned to death.

•••••

St. Albans Raiders Released.

The St. Albans raiders, who have been on trial at Montreal for a long time, have been released upon the first charge, that of robbing banks. Judge Smith released them on the ground that they were belligerents and the extradition treaty was not therefore binding, as the United States did not recognize them as belligerents. The judge also held that by Gen. Dix’s order to shoot down the raiders, he recognized them as belligerents and not as robbers.

Such two-sided logic may pass before a Canadian court, but it wouldn’t be accepted here. The raiders have yet to be tried for assault, with intent to kill, upon citizens of St. Albans, and after their release upon the first charge, they were at once re-arrested for violation of the neutrality laws. Their trial was to be resumed on Saturday.

SATURDAY
APRIL 8, 1865

THE SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN (MA)

“Anxious and Aimless.”
None Around in the State.

The report of the special committee of the legislature on the recommendations of the governor’s address as to the emigration of young women to the West is rather sarcastic in its tone. The committee do not find that there are any “anxious and aimless” women in Massachusetts. The surplus women are well employed in our various manufactories, and they come chiefly from other states and countries; we have no women to spare for Kansas and Oregon, except such as they do not want, and the committee therefore see no occasion for the state’s encouraging the emigration of its women. The committee do not believe that the excess of women damages the morals of the state. As to the men in the far West who need wives, the committee say:

“Those who would make good husbands will provide for themselves in due time; and without sending their published appeals for conjugal relief, across the whole breadth of the continent. We know of nothing peculiar in their circumstances, which demands of us, in their special behalf, the organization of a bureau of matrimony. But it would seem that ‘the surplus of men’ there,—if in need of any of our ‘excess of women,’—can well afford to come themselves; and, according to the usages in such cases provided, may make their overtures in person, with the advantage of a wider range for taste and choice. When they themselves shall ask for the sympathy and charitable assistance of Massachusetts, it will be time enough to consider their claims.

“The exposures and perils of life are the smallest item in the liabilities of the venture. And the bare fact of liabilities, to which we can only allude, ought to be fatal to any conceivable scheme of emigration, to be conducted by State or National authorities. Nothing more need be intimated to those who have known but a very little of the unpublished results of British female emigrations,–for example, to Australia,–and of which it would be ‘a shame even to speak.’ We may also just allude to the early history of our own Virginia.

The committee doubt whether the state has the right to aid any such scheme of emigration as the governor suggests:

“The main office, if not the office of government, is, to afford protection to all its subjects, and not to interfere with the pleasure of any, so long as they do not infringe the rights and liberties of others. It is not for government, in its legitimate functions, to provide business or means of support to the people, as a whole, or in classes. The very moment the attempt is made, whatever the excellence of motive, the State begins to exceed its office of protector, and also to lose protective power. Not a single supplementary service can it attempt, without producing dissent; and in proportion to the amounts of dissent so produced by it, the State defeats the end for which it was established.”

As to the excess of women, the committee give tables to show that it is confined to the manufacturing counties and towns:

“Instead of such ‘a surplus of women in all our towns,’ there were, in 1860, more than one hundred and forty towns in which there were actually more males than females. There were five towns in which the males and females were just equal in number. One was Holliston, with a total of 3,338. There were also nearly twenty towns in which the males exceeded the females by only one, two, three, four, or five. And in all the towns, we believe, except the manufacturing–which were ninety- three–the excess of females was very inconsiderable. This will be credited the more readily, when the fact already mentioned is borne in mind, that in the great and flourishing county of Worcester, there was less than 600 excess of females in a population of almost 159,000. ->

“It is surprising that those so particularly interested in providing young women the means of emigration, with ultimate or immediate view to matrimony, do not seem to be aware that it is not the single women who have most need of sympathy, as regards maintenance and happiness. Some of them, doubtless, may be considered unhappy. But they are, as a class, as industrious, as successful, as independent and as cheerful as are their married sisters. Compared with widows, who have children's wants as well as their own to supply, they have a decided advantage in means of comfortable living, and quite as good prospects of marriage. Many of them are not only in easy, but in affluent circumstances ; for their proportion is great in the upper classes of society. We refer, of course, to those of good character.

“Besides, our young women of marriageable age have, in general, no such reason to anticipate celibacy as can give them unhappiness. If we take the whole period of life into view, it will be seen that it is a very small proportion of our females, who are of reputable character, that die without having been married. It is comparatively seldom that, in our obituary notices, we read of the decease of a miss over fifty or over forty years of age.

“More than all, why does it seem to be taken for granted by some of our Quixotic champions for the rights of women, that the very best thing is to secure husbands for them? From the talk of some circles, and not the lowest, one might conclude that, in truth and soberness, the chief end of every man is to get money, and of every woman to get married. And hence, perhaps, the course of some parents, whose conduct is as amazing as it is disgusting ; since they cannot but have known of unspeakable misery, and sometimes of revolting or shocking crime, in marriages of convenience or interest, without con- geniality and sincere love.”

A large amount of testimony on the subject from prominent men throughout the state is given–all agreeing in substance with this:

“Stephen A. Chase of Salem, a gentleman of large experience in manufacturing and other business, and whose financial abilities are of high order, appeared before the Committee, by request of the chairman. He stated that he had never known any ‘disorder in the market for labor,’ in consequence of ‘the excess of women,’ nor any interference with the means of support to families by the competition of women with men; nor any competition whatever ‘for employments fitted for men alone.’ But there were men employed in services for which women were equally, or better fitted ; and there were no more women in the State than were needed in the various departments of labor. He thought that the statements which had been made, as if it was necessary to aid the emigration of our young women, were entirely erroneous, and not at all in accordance with the knowledge and judgment of practical men. If the legislature wished to do something for the improvement of the condition of females, money could be more wisely expended, in promoting the intellectual and moral culture of the operatives in some of our manufacturing towns. Such testimony we might accumulate to any degree. With- out a single dissenting voice, and without any concert with each other, competent witnesses of the first standing have united in expressing their surprise and astonishment, that such a proposal as has been made respecting our young women should ever have been suggested or conceived.”

The conclusion of the whole matter is that, though the governor’s rhetoric over the “anxious and aimless” is very sympathetic and “sweet pretty,” his suggestions are quixotic, and the balance of the sexes had best be left to regulate itself without state interference.

1 Spanish, meaning “who knows?”

2 The exact translation of quid nunc from the Latin is “what now?” The phrase means “a person eager to learn news and scandal; gossipmonger.”

3 See “Execution of a Rebel Spy and Incendiary” in the Caledonian of 31 March 1865.

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