JUNE 30, 1861



The Washington correspondent of the New York Journal of Commerce says:

The three months men are soon to be withdrawn from service, and their paces taken by three years men. All arrangements indicate on both sides preparations for a protracted war. The operations in western Virginia, and on the Ohio and the Mississippi, will, at an early stage of the war, be conducted on a large scale, under Gen. McClellan, now second to Gen. Scott in command of the United States army. A descent upon Memphis, with an overwhelming force, by a flotilla and an army, is one of the greatest operations embraced in the programme of the war. As this will require much preparation, it may not be attempted till next winter.

The removal of the Montgomery government to Richmond would be, as we have abundant evidence already, attended with a transfer of immense bodies of southern troops to Virginia. They are pouring in from all the southern states, and the prospect is that the southern crop of corn, wheat, &c., will be ample to sustain them. The non export of cotton during the blockade of the seacoast, and the prohibition of its export except from southern seaports, will cause a still further diversion of slave labor in the cotton states to the production of corn and cattle, during every successive season of the war. There will be less of luxury and extravagance, and perhaps even some lack of ordinary comforts , in the southern states during a seven years' war, and the same may e said in regard to a portion at least of the northern states; but it is evident that, on both sides, all the privations consequent upon the chances of the struggle will be accepted and endured with resignation and hope of a more happy future.

Pennsylvania Troops Sent to Their Aid

The following is  a portion of a leading editorial of the New York Herald, of Saturday morning, June 22:

The most exciting news we have to record to-day, is that which reaches us from Harrisburg, to the effect that the gallant Indiana regiment of Colonel Wallace, which has been so active in dispersing the enemy at Romney, has been surrounded at Cumberland, Md., by a force of 10,000 confederates, commanded, no doubt, by Gen. Joe Johnston, and all chances of retreat cut off. This disastrous intelligence reached Harrisburg yesterday, and immediately a strong force, consisting of Col. Biddle's rifles and Colonel Simmons' infantry regiments were ordered to start, with four days' rations, to the assistance of Col. Wallace's command. They left last night by way of Hopewell and Bedford, and we must await with anxiety the result of their mission. The regiment of Col. Wallace is comprised of a very brave and daring set of fellows; the same who, before they left Indianapolis, knelt in front of the state house, and took an oath to "remember Buena Vista," and there can be very little doubt, we think, that in the present desperate emergency they will make a gallant struggle, whether vanquished or relieved.


The Herald says that England shows no disposition to reply to the proposition relative to privateering. This, connected with the military movement in Canada and the increase of the American squadron, will make her designs apparent.

The Northern Soldiers Deserting to the Confederate Side

We find the annexed paragraph in the Vicksburg Whig of Friday last:

Mr. C. Buffenschen, orderly sergeant of the pelican Greys, of Monroe, Louisiana, arrived in our city yesterday from Virginia, having been honorably discharged by our government on account of ill health. Mr. B. will please accept our thanks for files of late papers. He informs us that our soldiers are all in fine spirits and enjoying good health generally. He says a great many Yankees are deserting and coming over to our side. They protest against invading the south, and say they were duped and deceived by the Lincoln government. At Fortress Monroe particularly they declare they will not invade the south, and all the three months soldiers intend returning home as soon as their time is up.


The Atlantic Magazine, always a pestiferous political publication, has gone mad on the war. That staid, drab-covered monthly, the Knickerbocker, keeps the Atlantic company in Bedlam.

We hope never to see these magazines sold again in the south. When the war is over, there will be an effort to vend northern politico-literary monthlies and weeklies. But if our people are true to themselves, they will indignantly repudiate not only the publications now hostile to us, but the men who endeavor to sell and circulate the worthless trash.


The New York Evening Post requests that the ladies of that city will get up "Union bosom badges" for the Falstaffian regiments about to leave, to protect the soldiers from killing each other in battle. By all means make the badges of flaming colors, so that they'll serve as a dead mark for our riflemen. The sooner the awkward squads of Lincoln are put out of pain the better.


The Charleston Mercury thinks the question of recognition of the confederate republic, will be settled not in Washington, Paris, or London, but in Virginia. It says:

The arguments of our brave volunteers are better than all the mendacious and intriguing diplomacy of Oily Gammon Seward, or the insolent threats of Lincolnism. It is with people as it is with men--those who recognize themselves can in good time command recognition from others. We do not underrate the merits of cotton and diplomacy, but we have great faith in the "moral suasion" which is administered by rifles and swords, well handled by brave men who know their rights and the truth and dare maintain them.


On Real-Estate, Slaves, Personal Property, Capital, Income, Furniture, &c.,


And payable at my office, City Hall. Tax-payers are respectfully requested to call and pay their Taxes. All bills not paid by 1st July, will be advertised according to law.

ADAM GIFFIN, City Treasurer

JULY 1, 1861



If young ladies knew how much their habits of life have to do with their beauty of form and feature, they would venture to set aside some customs of fashionable life even, to secure so desirable an end. Bayard Taylor gives the following account of the Polish ladies:

Now it is all perfectly natural for all women to be beautiful. If they are not so, the fault lies in their birth or training, or in both. An organism which is perfectly healthy in all of its parts will be harmoniously developed, and, whether male or female, it will be beautiful. Hence there can be no true beauty without health, and there can be no permanent health in manor woman unless the child is properly cared for. We would therefore respectfully remind American mothers, that in Poland, a period of childhood is recognized. There, girls do not jump from infancy to young ladyhood. They are not sent from the cradle directly to the parlor, to dress, sit still, and look pretty. No, they are treated as children should be. During childhood, which extends through a period of several years, they are plainly and loosely dressed, and allowed to run, romp, and play in the open air. They take in sunshine as does the flower. They are not loaded down, girded about, and oppressed every way with countless frills and superabundant flounces, or wear too much clothing. Nor are they rendered delicate and dyspeptic by candies and sweet-cakes, as are the majority of American children. Plain, simple food, free and various exercise, and abundant sunshine, during the whole period of childhood, are the secrets of beauty in after life.


Under the  call of the New York Times about a dozen representatives of the democratic papers in New York state met in conclave at the Astor House last week, to settle upon some line of policy regarding the rebellion. Most of the papers represented have been troubled with doubts and fears about the course of the administration. Indeed, with respect to most of them, they have kept up a continual din of fault-finding with all the measures yet adopted for suppressing the rebellion. The conclave, we are told, passed resolutions to the effect that our troubles are chiefly owing to the unwise policy of the government; that coercion is not to be countenanced; in short that they are for union and peace. This demonstration can hardly be regarded in any other light than a timid expression of a few traitors, who are only restrained by the overpowering sentiment of loyalty prevailing throughout the north.


The art of war, remarks the Transcript, consists in always being stronger than your enemy at the point of attack. The rebels, so far, have fairly beaten us in this respect. Our attempt on Great Bethel, Vienna, Aquia Creek, and Matthias Creek, were all made with insufficient knowledge and insufficient force. At the point of attack the rebels have either always been stronger than we, or been able to rapidly to make themselves so b y concentrating their troops. With thousands of men in camp, aching to fight, we have conducted a desultory warfare with only a few regiments, and have failed in attaining the objects we had in view.


On Friday, a spy was brought up by the boys of the Rhode Island regiment. A paper of arsenic was found in his pocket. A great excitement ensued, and it was only with great difficulty that the officers saved him from being shot.


At Charlestown, Friday night, the post office was robbed of nearly everything of value which could be carried off. About thirteen hundred letters were taken, including some registered ones, supposed to contain money.


The southern traitors tax their inventive powers severely in getting up reports of war movements. Witness the following:

General  Butler and General Pierce led six thousand of "Lincoln's hirelings" to the attack of the place, (Bethel) which was defended by one thousand five hundred confederates, and the "hirelings" were repulsed, and three hundred of them killed and one thousand wounded. In the attack on the Aquia Creek batteries, the southern papers have a report of twenty-eight men taken from the United States steamer Pawnee and buried on the Maryland shore, and the vessel itself was nearly a wreck. The troops in Fortress Monroe are decimated by typhoid fever. The French minister at Washington has received positive dispatches that his government will pay no respect to Lincoln's blockade. Lincoln has positively determined to hold the next session of congress in Chicago.


Major June is in town making arrangements for Lent's Great National Circus. hey will exhibit on the South Common on Tuesday, July 9, for one day. Particulars hereafter.


In a skirmish between the pickets at Shuter's Hill, near Alexandria, yesterday morning, one of the Pennsylvania men and two of the rebels were killed.

The weather is reported as "intensely hot" at Fortress Monroe. About one hundred men are on the sick list there, which indicates a fair state of health, considering numbers. They had copious rains of late.

The steamers Pembroke, Cambridge and Ben Deford passed up the Potomac to Washington navy-yard on Saturday, with Col. Cass's regiment and supplies. The Cambridge, in passing Matthias Point, threw grape shot into the bushes, under the apprehension that the rebels might be in their former hiding places. No response, however, was given from shore.

At the Washington navy-yard, two large scows are to be immediately built, each capable of mounting eight thirty-two pounders, with moveable barricades for the protection of the troops thereon.

The Freeborn, at last accounts, was reconnoitering between Aquia Creek and Matthias Point.


JULY 2, 1861



A few days ago it was reported that an energetic colonel of our forces had threatened to hang any newspaper correspondent found within his camp. It has also been said that the commanding general has declared that he would rather have fifty secessionist spies hanging about the army than one thorough-bred reporter. Probably neither story is strictly true, but each represents an idea which has been borne in upon the minds of a great number of observers, and which for our own part we think well founded, although it has raised the ire of some of the most active purveyors of news in New York to a painful degree. A fresh example, however, of the exact information which is given to the world by the northern press, seems to put the matter in a light sufficiently clear for any whose eyes are not blinded by interest.

A New York paper prints a map of Washington and vicinity, showing the position of the entrenchments thrown up by our forces on the Virginia side, with their bearing upon every cross road and stream between Arlington Heights and Fairfax Court House. The same sheet, with the issues of a day or two before, would furnish, if collected, tolerably precise information as to the troops within our works, where each regiment is posted, the condition of each, its number of men, the pattern of their muskets, and everything that in any way bears upon the effectiveness of the force. If any regiment is badly equipped, its place on the line is given. If our engineers were to decide to mine the ground in front of any work, the exact location of the mine would be pointed out, the quantity of powder placed in it, and if possible we should be told whether it would be exploded by means of a fuse or by an electric wire. If any officer seeks to keep any matter of military importance secret he is ridiculed and abused in the public prints, which cannot be kept from them, will furnish it with a clear conscience as a matter of business.

How is it on the other side? The rebel forces lie but twenty or thirty miles from the Potomac. Unless the war department has means of information vastly more accurate than is generally supposed, it cannot be told how many troops the enemy have within fifteen miles of Manassas Junction without an assurance that we are not twenty thousand out of the way. As to how they are posted we know absolutely nothing. We are told that the country around their positions is raked by masked batteries in every direction--which might be known from inference as well as from actual statement. One day we hear that they are encamped in the plain, and then that they are under cover of dense woods. Not a syllable is printed in any Richmond paper that explains the real strength or position of their troops. Their silence is absolute, and even correspondents writing to papers in the far South pride themselves upon a discreet reserve, as soon as they reach any subject where facts become interesting and might be valuable to us. If  the information furnished from our side for the enemy could be fairly bartered for news of their movements and condition, there might be an advantage in the exchange. But it is assuredly time that this giving freely when we get nothing, should end, and that there should be more reserve in explaining to the accomplished engineers on the other side the strength of our works, their weak features, and the nature of the resistance to be expected at every point. And if the reserve were enforced by the expulsion of a few correspondents and the punishment of a few letter-writing soldiers, the public service would be the gainer.


Fort Kearney, July 1--Reliable information from Denver, June 27, says: A rebel force set out from their rendezvous, 20 miles up Cherry Creek, today, for the avowed purpose of taking Forts Wise and Garland. They are well armed and equipped, and expect to be joined by a majority of the forces inside. The movement is watched, but we are comparatively powerless, and totally without authority or leadership.


The Brandon (Miss.) Republican says that one half of the papers published in that State have been discontinued, through the want of money to carry them on.


A Louisiana paper says, "A majority of our exchanges come to us printed on half sheets only. This is owing to the scarcity, as well as the high price of paper at this time. The city press have all got down to single sheets, and if we are not soon in receipt of a supply of paper at the South, the Southern press will have to suspend almost entirely, unless we immediately establish more paper mills."


The Fourth of July is not to be entirely ignored in the South as a holiday. We see that even in many places in South Carolina the day is to be observed, and the planters of Georgia are to meet in on the Fourth, " then and there to proclaim their eternal independence of Northern financial and commercial dependence."


A meeting of the British residents of this city was held last night at Bowdoin Hall, at which Mr. J. K. Lloyd presided. Patriotic addresses were made by several gentlemen, the burden of which was that the British residents of this country owed their allegiance to the United States, and that the Queen's proclamation ought not to deter them from taking up arms in its defence. A committee of five was appointed to solicit subscriptions in support of the project.


John Williams, who behaved so bravely in the last skirmish at Matthias Point, who carried the American flag out of the fight in safety, though it was completely riddled with bullets as he went, has been promoted to the post of Master's Mate for his gallant conduct.


The Richmond papers announce that Jefferson Davis has  conferred a commission of Major-General on Bishop Polk, of the diocese of Louisiana. Bishop Polk is a graduate of West Point, and was a contemporary of  Generals Lee, Johnston, and other military characters. His appointment will offset that of Rev. Mr. Greene of this State--another West point graduate--as a Colonel.


The following paragraph is read with watering mouths by the readers of the Charleston (S.C.) Courier:

FIVE TONS OF GOLD--Broadway, New York, presented quite a comforting sight  on Monday--five horse loads of gold coming up the street from the wharf at which the steam ship Etna was secured. £329,446, or over $1,627,000; weight in specie, 10,250 pounds, or five tons.

JULY 3, 1861



N. Y. Observer--The Constitution is of more value than all the Presidents, from Washington to Lincoln; of more value than fifty Souths or Norths; of more value than millions of lives or money. And when the daily newspapers speak of  setting aside the Constitution because its provisions make the work of war too slow, they are preparing the way for another revolution.

If this war cannot be carried on under the Constitution, then it is a wicked war, and the men who are waging it are tyrants and despots, whose feet are on the necks of the people already., One of the daily papers of this city, a leading journal, high in the confidence of the Administration, thus prepares the way for the approaching session of Congress:

"Congress will act as if invested with the power of a National Convention; for in merely sanctioning what the Executive has already done, in the levying of troops for three years, in the use of unappropriated moneys for extraordinary expenses, and its appointments, it will have to transcend the authority of the Constitution. And there can be no hesitation, not only in approving these acts, but, if necessary, resorting to other measures equally unwarranted by the precise measure of that instrument."

It may be useless for the friends of the Constitution to raise a voice of remonstrance at this stage of the business, and in the present state of the public mind. But we fear that the men who propose to set aside first the Government, and now the Constitution, are preparing to divide the North and inaugurate another war, far more tremendous than the one now on our hands. When the American people come to understand that it is seriously contemplated to make this war subversive of the Constitution, they will arise in their majesty, and in a way not to be misunderstood, rescue and preserve the charter of our liberties. These are perilous times, and the only man fit to be trusted is he who stands fast to the letter of the instrument that makes this a safe and permanent government.


This patriotic song has been issued in a beautiful form by James G. Gregory, New York, illustrated from drawings by Darley, with music. It is for sales at Eastman's.


Two expeditions have started, one from Sacramento and the other from Omaha, taking 600 miles of telegraph wire, to connect Carson City with Salt Lake City, over what is called the Simpson route. The two expeditions are expected to meet at Salt Lake City about December 1st, when, according to the Sacramento Union, the people in California "will have the news from the East about the time of its occurrence, and sometimes a few minutes earlier."


The people of Lane, Ogle Co., Illinois, lately amused themselves by hanging a man named Burke, who was suspected of having set fire to three grain stores and known to have expressed secession sympathies.


In Munroe county, Arkansas, about thirty miles west of Helena, three Negroes, two men and one girl, were hung as leaders of an insurrection. According to the confession of one of the party, the intention of the insurrectionists, after the white males had been murdered, were of the most fiendish character as regarded the treatment of the females.


The Philadelphia North American gives the following apparently authentic information:

"At the Quartermaster's Department an estimate has been made of the comparative cost of the Regulars and Volunteers, with the following result: The volunteers, reckoning the provision made by their respective States and municipalities, and the expense to the General Government, cost more than five times the amount the same number of regulars would. This seems incredible, but it grows out of the wastefulness in these organizations and the lack of system."

Another republican paper, the Cincinnati Commercial, thus explains "the lack of system":

"There is an organized band of thieves in Pennsylvania that have stolen the clothes from the backs and the food from the mouths of the Pennsylvania volunteers, until several regiments of that State are ragged and starved."

As the estimate of the Quartermaster's Department includes all the volunteers, it is very clear that these "organized bands of thieves" are not confined to the State of Pennsylvania.


Washington Star--It is very apparent to those who are acquainted with the Potomac, Rappahannock and York rivers, and other points on the Chesapeake, that the Southern forces, led by experienced resigned engineers and naval officers, are preparing batteries at various places on these rivers, which, before we are aware, will totally close their navigation--that of the Potomac in particular. Can nothing more be done to keep open the river by which the seat of government gets its supplies from Baltimore and beyond the Capes?


What has become of Jack Hale, that brave philanthropist? He has done all that lay in him to bring on the war, and now he seems to fade into the background. Come out, Jack! Pay your money, enlist, or do something besides lay and grunt like a lazy African hippopotamus.--N. H. Democrat

Jack has been here during the whole session, "lobbying" for various corrupt schemes, as usual. He has made "a good thing of it," too, as usual. He is the King of the Lobby, and commands big fees. When the Legislature adjourns he will have leisure to attend to the war and other such small matters; but as for paying money in support of the war, that is not his "style;" but he will "blow" for it, "for pay."


N. H. Democrat--People must show their patriotism one of these days, not in words, but in paying taxes. Farmers and real estate owners will take their brunt of the load. Monied men can shirk off their property to Canada and elsewhere, leaving the farmers to shoulder the load in a great measure. The million dollar war tax proposed by the present session of our Legislature alone will be about three dollars for each man, woman, and child in the State. If farmers get off with from $200 to $1000 each for the benefit of the negro, very well. We are not so unpatriotic as to complain; because we shall pay if we can muster the tin; but we wish our republican neighbors to remember that although a war may be brought on about nothing, it cannot be carried on for nothing.

JULY 4, 1861



New York, July 3--The Persia has arrived. She brings 154,000 in specie.

There are reports that the Galway line will be suspended until a settlement of the subsidy question.

Parliament doings were unimportant. Lord John Russell announced that France had rejected the proposition of Austria and Spain, that the Catholic powers should act in concert in maintaining the temporal power of the Pope. He also said that Spain had given a pledge that whether St. Domingo was annexed or not, slavery should not be introduced into the island.

A meeting was held in London for the benefit of the fugitive slave Anderson and his kinsman in Canada. He explained the necessity for telling a man to effect his escape. The meeting fully endorsed the act. A monster meeting was held at Exeter Hall, July 2.

The rumor has been revived that the Czar visits Napoleon at Chalon's Camp.

It is reported that Mr. Dayton had remonstrated against the assimilation of the Southern States with Italy in the article recently published in the Patrie and Moniteur.

The Southern Commissioners are in Paris. France will hold no communication except with the Washington government.

Capt. Russell went out on the Great Eastern on behalf of France. He is said to have expressed the opinion in an audience with the Emperor that a reunion of the North and South is impossible.

There is no official announcement of the recognition of Italy by France, but there is no doubt of the fact. It is asserted that the Italian Government replied to a French note in the affirmative and agreed fully to the views of France. It is also asserted that France sent an announcement of the recognition to all its representatives at foreign courts.

The Pope is again ill.

It is stated that Portugal refuses to acknowledge the New Kingdom.

The Upper House of the Hungarian Diet, unanimously agreed to the address of the Emperor.

The rumored death of the Sultan is denied.

The agitation in Hungary is increasing. Thirty thousand troops are concentrated near Pesth.

Maoud Effendi has been appointed Governor of Lebanon.

Disaffection is increasing at Warsaw.

An immense fire commenced at London, Saturday, and raged all night. It destroyed Colton's wharf and the ranges of adjoining warehouses in Fooley street borough. About 4000 bales of American hops were destroyed. The destruction of property was so great that the prices of many articles will be affected. Six lives were lost, including Bradwood, Chief of the Fire Brigade.

At Melbourne, April 11th, the mail steamer Tasmaman was wrecked. A part of the crew were murdered by the natives.



Everybody is still talking about the latest sensation, and calling upon the astronomers to throw some light upon the subject. The distinguished traveller was not observed in Boston until Tuesday evening, on account of a hazy atmosphere. Professor Bond, of the Cambridge Observatory, writes as follows about it:

The magnificent comet which has suddenly come in view, has taken astronomers, with the rest of the world, by surprise. It is not the expected comet of 1264 and 1556, or any whose return has been anticipated.

The train extends over an arc of one hundred and six degrees (106), from the head of Ursa Major to  a point ten degrees beyond Alpha Ophinchi. Besides this long narrow ray, projected almost in a straight line from the nucleus, a mass of diffused light sweeps faintly toward the stars in the tail of Ursa Major. This is intersected by two or three faint straight rays not discernible to the naked eye.

The vicinity of the nucleus resembles in its aspect through the telescope the famous comet of 1859, showing three or four misty envelopes.

Drawings of the appearance of the comet to the naked eye, with the neighboring stars carefully sketched, have a scientific value, and I should be glad to receive such from any one who may communicate them. The date and the time when the drawing was made should be noted.


Acting Master John W. Bentley, of the U.S. steam frigate Wabash, has arrived home on a short visit. He was detached from his vessel with a  crew of twelve men to bring home the ship Amelia, which was taken on the 18th ultimo, by the U.S. steamer Union, off Charleston harbor. The captain of the Amelia was an Englishman by birth, but a naturalized citizen and a resident of Charleston. He tried to run the blockade in the night, but daylight found him almost under the noses of Uncle Sam's vessels. He made no attempt to escape and was soon taken in hand.

The ship contained  a valuable assorted cargo. She was taken to Philadelphia by the prize crew, and handed over to the marshal.  It was judged that there had been a quantity of arms on the Amelia, which were thrown overboard to keep them from the hands of the U.S. officers, and this opinion was confirmed by a remark of the Captain to Mr. Bentley.

The squadron off Charleston consisted of  the steamers Wabash, Union and Flag, with the sailing sloop Vandalia


At the present time, just as the warm weather is upon us, there is a positive need with nearly every one, of something that invigorates and strengthens. In other words, nature needs to be helped along a little. We know of nothing equal to GREELEY'S BOURBON BITTERS,
which appears to be exactly adapted to give freshness of feeling, vigor of purpose, and a general strength to the system. Those who have used these Bitters for Debility or Weakness, Indigestion or any complaint of the Stomach and Bowels, most carefully give them the preference over every other preparation in the market. Sold by all respectable dealers.

JULY 5, 1861



Chicago Tribune--We trust that the order transmitted to Gen. Butler, to harbor no more slaves at Fortress Monroe, was based upon the fact that he is not prepared, by the condition of his quarters and the state of his commissariat, to give them a resting place; and that it is by no means an indication of the policy which the Government will order its commanders to adopt. The country needs and demands a practical assurance from the Government, that the war, brought upon the Republic by the insanity and folly of the South, is not on our side to be conducted with the gentle courtesy that marks the conduct of a man in his treatment of a rebellious and crying child; but that, as long as the Southern army wages wars upon the material interests and political propensity of loyal men, striking at our trade, our manufactures, our commerce and our agriculture, with the venom of a serpent; issuing letters of marque, threatening the safety of our commercial towns, and doing whatever else their malignity and ferocity may suggest–as long as they do these things, the blows aimed at them should be such that, when they fall, they will tell upon the general result, and tend to bring this conflict to a speedy close. This is not a war of bulletins and proclamations–not a contest between cologne water on one side and sugar-plums on the other; and if we enter into it, and carry it on, under the impression that the enemy will restrain their hands when they have the power to cripple our resources, destroy our property, or take our lives, we fight at the disadvantage which would attend the man who should attempt to tame a hyena by pelting him with soap bubbles. War means quick destruction. It means death to combatants by any of the means which civilized nations may employ. It means exhaustion of the resources of the parties engaged therein, in such a way that one or the other will confess inability to carry it on. Now, if there is any method by which the right arm of the enemy against whom we contend may be sooner paralyzed, or his intolerable boasting and arrogance be sooner subdued, than by striking at the main resource upon which he relies for his bread–the labor of his slaves–we should be happy to have some one wiser than we point it out!

We tell "the powers that be," that there has been enough sending back of prisoners, enough scrupulousness in regard to the sanctity of salve "property," enough mistaken leniency and forbearance  lest some right should be violated. The people, while offering their lives in countless thousands and their treasures in untold millions, that rebellion may be overcome, want the assurance that the Administration is in downright earnest, as they are–ready to seize occasions as they rise, to take advantage of any weak side the enemy presents, and to turn to quick and rapid account any disability by which he is embarrassed. If prisoners are seized, let them be sent to the rear of the base line, and put in camp, and treated as their crimes warrant. If traitors who are worth the trouble are got within Federal power, let them be tried, and, if guilty of the overt act, hung up like malefactors and assassins as they are. If slaves escape, let them run, and woe be to him who sends one back. They are the backbone of the rebellion.  They work while the traitors fight. They produce the bread that treason eats. They dig the trenches and throw up the embankments behind which traitors strut. They are more valuable to-day, man for man, to the rebel cause than the whites who defend it. Without them the war would end in a month. Wherever they are cleaned out, there the contest is ended. In the name of all that is prudent and patriotic, let our boys have their way, and hit hard where they can! Have we not dealt in cologne and sugar-plums long enough?


The New Orleans Crescent gives us an account of no less than five murders and several shootings and stabbings in that city in one day, together with robberies and assaults innumerable.


The Delta publishes  the following concerning the society of New Orleans--

"Personal security is fast becoming a matter of doubtful assurance. Men of high and low estate are met upon the street, assaulted, and in many cases  murderously used, with an insolent disregard of law which argues a conviction of escape from punishment."


Accounts from Charleston report the death, on the 10th ultimo, of Capt. Duncan N. Ingraham, formerly of the United States Navy. He figured, some years ago, in the famous case of Martin Koszta.** He deserted his flag, recently, in its danger, though he declared he would never fight against it.


A young damsel of eighteen years has been arrested by the Michigan Regiment, near Washington. She gave her name as Alice Kingsbury, and said she was a native of Washington City. Upon her person was found an accurate diagram of the fortifications on Shorter's Hill, the position of the guns being marked, as well as the weak points. She had been permitted to remain in the vicinity for some days, but suspicion being aroused, was arrested. She is in close custody.


Two regiments of Alabamians and Mississippians reached Harper's ferry this morning, and destroyed the balance of the trestle-work of the railroad bridge. They then came over to the Maryland shore, seizing all the boats they could lay their hands on, either breaking them up or taking them over the river. All the Union men of Harper's Ferry were again driven out by them.


Proceedings in the  East Tennessee Convention have been received here. All the counties of that portion of the State, except Rhea, are represented. A declaration of grievances quotes facts showing that the right of free suffrage has been obstructed by a disunion government; that they had been subjected to insults, the flag fired on and torn down, houses rudely entered, families insulted, women and children shot by merciless soldiers, citizens robbed and assassinated, and in view of these facts it is resolved that the action of the State Legislature, in passing the Declaration of Independence and forming a military league with the Southern Confederacy, is unconstitutional, and not binding upon loyal citizens; that in order to avoid a conflict with their brethren, a committee be appointed to prepare a memorial, asking the Legislature to consent to the formation of East Tennessee into a separate State.

Arrangements are being made for holding elections in the counties of East Tennessee to choose delegates to a General Convention to be held at Kingston.


The Government can now concentrate 70,000 men in the vicinity of the Capital in  three hours.

 JULY 6, 1861



It is gratifying to see that complaints as to the management of the war are not confined to our side alone. The Richmond Examiner thinks that mistakes have been made by the rebel leaders, having a very nervous serious bearing on the success of the South. That paper thinks that the inauguration of Mr. Lincoln might easily have been prevented, and Washington might have been taken at any time for two months after the inauguration, but the city is now well protected, troops having been poured in for defence faster than the South could levy for assault. If a contest had been forced with fresh levees on each side, the Richmond paper thinks that the South would have had the advantage from the habits of its people; but it adds that it is extremely doubtful whether a factory hand will not make a much better regular than a Kentucky hunter of a Texas ranger. It adds, too, that the Southern troops are men who are needed at home, and are therefore impatient, while the northern soldiers a re ready t make war their calling, many of them being out of employment.

To these tolerably solid reasons this ardent secession journal adds some complaints that the South does nothing but retreat, that the government was suffered to seize Newport News, and Arlington Heights and to push out thence, without any show or effective resistance, except a little partisan warfare carried on without orders and perhaps in defiance of orders. These complaints ought to make some of the fast critics on our side hesitate a little. The government probably see the advantages gained by its policy quite as well as this rebel.


A great many of the regiments begin as soon as they reach Washington to make complaint of their rations and the manner in which food is cooked and dealt out. We are disposed to think that in many cases this is due to the fact, that while in camp regiments have made some special arrangement for providing and cooking by contract, instead of coming directly down to the arrangements which must be relied upon in the service.

The army rations are generally excessive in amount and excellent in quality, and a regiment which learns how to use them as the regulars do can make itself perfectly comfortable with them, providing by judicious use of the surplus many extras which the government does not furnish. But actual experience is needed in order to learn this lesson. How to use and cook the rations must be learned, as much as the manual of arms, before the soldier can be contented and effective. It would be much better always to learn this while in camp before leaving home, instead of waiting, as some do, to require the necessary knowledge at the cost of a good deal of suffering and grumbling at the seat of war.


The Washington correspondent of the New York Evening Post says that there is good reason for believing that the crew of the southern privateer Savannah, if convicted of piracy by the court, will escape death by the executive clemency, their sentences being commuted to imprisonment for life. The reason urged for this are two. Other rebels taken in arms, although guilty of the capital crime of treason, have been released on parole by order of the President, while spies have been released on both sides from the extreme penalty assigned by military law, and it is apprehended that there is some inconsistency in beginning to punish at this point. Moreover, if the Savannah pirates are hanged the rebels will retaliate on the prisoners in their hands, and the result will be the inauguration of the most vindictive system of warfare.

It appears to us that the discussion as to the fate of these men is entirely premature. It will be time enough to determine their punishment after they have been found guilty by the court. But even then we should not care to see their sentences commuted; it would be much better to let them be under sentence of death, with a respite, until the  issue of the war is seen more clearly. In that way we should escape the awful results of retaliatory measures, without informing pirates that the punishment fixed by law for their crime is changed.


To be sure the city government gave up the dinner at Faneuil Hall on the Fourth, and so avoided an ill-timed expenditure there. But they substituted a more private entertainment at the Revere House which will probably cost the city as much as it would cost to uniform a company or two for the national army, or to keep a good many families of volunteers comfortable. We don't exactly see the retrenchment.


What a changing people we are! Only a few years ago everybody was wild about Shanghai fowls, the greenest, gauntest, queerest specimens of the feathered tribe that could be imagined. The meerschaum coloring excitement succeeded, and the younger part of our population, for one winter at least, were assiduously engaged in coloring their pipes and making themselves sick. It was really amusing to see two swells meet and exchange affectionate inquiries about their respective bits of clay. They nursed them as a mother does her first baby, and guarded them with tenderest care from every thing that could harm them. As might be expected this movement went out in smoke, and something else was needed to take its place. Fortunately, Dr. Windship made his appearance about this time and the muscle mania was inaugurated. Large chests and small heads were all the rage, and the leaders of society for a time, were not men of mind or men of means, but men of muscle. What effect this muscle movement had in exciting the war we are not prepared to say. Perhaps some historian yet unborn, may discover that this contest is after all only a great boxing match, got up by the disciples of Hercules just for fun. More absurd theories than this have been started.

Our people now appear to be crazy with a new excitement. We no longer hear the question, "how is your muscle?" but friend greets friend with the inquiry, "how many enveloped have you got?" It is astonishing to see how many of these patriotic emblems have been called into existence within the past three months. Collections of five or six hundred are quite common, and there is a gentleman in this city who has obtained over a thousand different varieties. Most of the engravings are of a cheap character, but many of them are costly lithographs, and can never come into general circulation for business purposes. More than half a million of these envelopes, of different patterns, have been printed at The Republican office, and this number appears small when compared with the issues of the larger cities.

At first thought there appears something slightly ridiculous in this mania for envelopes. But more seriously, it is only one of the ways we have of expressing our patriotism. True, it is insignificant, but straws show which way the wind blows. A few months ago our love of country was dead, or at least dormant, and we thought only of our own business and our own pleasures. Now all is changed, and we are unable to find outlets enough for the exuberance of our new love. If some of it can be expressed through the medium of patriotic envelopes, there should be no one found to say nay.

*This was The Great Comet of 1861; see



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