, 1863

The Source of the Nile.
Solution of the Oldest Problem Known to Civilization.

We copy the following most important and interesting article from the Boston Advertiser of May 30th:

Our attentive correspondent in Egypt has forwarded to us an extra (or Bulletino Stratordinario) of the Spettatore Egiziano, published at Alexandria, under date of the 7th inst., containing more full particulars than have elsewhere been published, of the discovery of the sources of the White Nile, by. Messrs. Speke and Grant, the intrepid English explorers. The fact that such a discovery had been made was telegraphed from Alexandria to London at the same time that this extra appeared, and some brief notices have appeared in the English journals; but we are gratified to be able to lay before our readers this more particular account in the characteristic phase the original tidings. The letter containing this news, as shown by the postmarks, reached Boston in only nineteen days from Alexandria, although by an unfortunate mistake in the Boston Post Office, it was not delivered to us until yesterday, two days after its arrival. We believe, however, that the intelligence has not been anticipated by any other publication.

(From the Egyptian Spectator, Extra–Translation)

We are indebted to the courtesy of Dr. Ori for the following communication, which we hasten to lay before our readers and the public generally, to announce the great discovery of the source of the Nile, for which we are beholden to two courageous English travellers.

We promise to lay before our readers more detailed information as soon as we are enabled to obtain it.

Khartoum, March 29, 1863.

Here is great news. Speke and Grant, the intrepid English travellers, overcoming all obstacles, crossing “under” the line, reached Kondogoro, and thence are now approaching this place. It seems almost a dream. Their portfolios undoubtedly contain the solution of the great problem that has puzzled us from the remotest antiquity, viz: the discovery of the source of the Nile. We have not as yet spoken with them, but leave immediately on camel back to meet them on their way, and to give them an ovation. If at the following station we obtain further details we will hasten to communicate them.

April 2, 1863.–I add another line about Speke and Grant, knowing the immense interest that you all feel in these matters.

Speke says but little, for two reasons: First, because, like a true descendant of John Bull, he is naturally taciturn; second, because he is only familiar with one language, precisely the one that none of us know anything about.1 We can glean but few ineligible sentences from one of the interpreters who attempts to make us understand him in a species of Arabic patois.

From his answers we learn that the Nile springs from a Lake Victoria that he professes to have circumnavigated, and found to be very extensive. That Kondogoro is five degrees (less some minutes) from the equator in the northern hemisphere, and about the same latitude south of the lake, which he says is the source of the Babr-el-Biad, or White Nile. They started from Zanzibar with seventy men. Of these only seventeen remain. The number was greatly diminished by desertion; others were lost by sickness and casualties. They had to fight their way to reach White River, but relate marvelous things of the subequatorial regions, and above all report large quantities of ivory. They may be considered very fortunate to have accomplished their purpose without meeting the unhappy fate of poor Peney.

It will be understood that Capt. Speke entered Africa from the eastern coast, about two years ago, and now comes down the river Nile. . .


It was long since ascertained by travellers ascending up the stream of the Nile, that near Khartoum, in north latitude 15 37, its waters divide into two branches, called respectively, the White Nile and the Blue Nile. Below this confluence the Nile flows fifteen hundred miles into the Mediterranean, and (with the exception of an unimportant tributary) it receives nowhere a single drop of water, while it is a fruitful source of supply to numerous works of artificial irrigation.

The sources of the Blue Nile, three springs in north latitude ten degrees, were ascertained by the Portuguese Jesuit, Father Lobo, and afterwards by Bruce; but those of the White Nile have hitherto defied discovery. Browne penetrated as far as north latitude seven degrees, Linant Bay, in 1827, not quite so far; Mr. Hoskins and Col. Laake, baffled in their efforts, declared that an armed force would be necessary to subdue the great extent of country through which the river passes. Werne went as far as four degrees of north latitude and M. Brun Rodet nearly as high. The former was obliged to return by reaching shoals which could not be crossed by his boats, and he dared not leave them. The river, where his explorations ceased, was 323 feet wide, “broad, surrounded by high reeds; the banks (he says) seem to be of a soft green color, formed by pale green aquatic plants—lilac, convolvulus, moss, water thistles and a kind of hemp—in which the yellow ambac tree flourishes, hung round with luxuriant deep yellow creepers.” The river seemed to stretch south southwest.

The latest expedition in this direction to discover the source of the Nile is that of Capt. Petherick, as a volunteer of whose party our fellow citizen Dr. Brownell, of Connecticut, lost his life last year in the manner herefore recorded in these columns. Dr. Brownell’s death occurred in north latitude 15 degrees. The fate of Petherick and his companions is unknown.

Meanwhile Capts. Speke and Grant entered the interior of Africa from the Eastern coast, and left Zanzibar September 25, 1860, to prosecute discoveries in the interior. On the 13th instant we printed an account derived from Mr. Goodhue, United States Vice Consul at Zanzibar, stating that they had been last heard from April 11, 1862 (a year ago, that is), in lat. 1° 30’ south; that they had been thwarted in their progress down a river which they had discovered, and which they believed to be the first certain branch of the Nile.

We now hear of them at the other end of their journey, which has been crowned with complete success. It appears that the adventurous travellers have indeed penetrated to the source of the White Nile, which they find to be a large lake, and to this they have loyally given the name of Victoria. Having made this discovery, the little band of explorers, reduced from 70 to 17, have sailed down the river—the grandest voyage ever known to geographer—and their approach to Khartoum is reported in the letter which we print. There is some obscurity in the account with regard to the position of the lake; the strict sense of the original (which our translation faithfully follows) would place it as far north as ten degrees of north latitude; but as previous discoverers have followed the river at least six degrees further south, we suspect that there is some inaccuracy in the report in this respect.

It has been given to the present age to solve this interesting geographic problem, as also that of the northwest passage; and although in neither case do the discoveries which we have made promise much practical advantage to mankind, we cannot be felicitate ourselves that the domain of knowledge has been enlarged by persistent and intelligent effort.

JUNE 15, 1863

From the Richmond Examiner.

European intervention—this ignis fatuus which was allowed to operate so injuriously to our cause in the beginning of this war, and the probability of which seems as remote as ever—has not lost all its terrors for the Yankees.2 The London correspondent of the New York Times, under the date of May 9, thus gives expression to his fears that something of the sort may yet come to pass. We give his comments upon the subject, without attaching much importance to them, but as an exemplification of the ever changing currents of public rumor in England:

“Quiet as everything now seems with regard to American affairs, there are many signs of a confidence, amounting to a certainty, that the American war is not to last much longer. The Government is about to employ the people of Lancashire on public works, so that they may not emigrate, but be ready to spin the cotton when it comes. A line of steamers of 3,000 to 4,000 tons is being built expressly to bring cotton from New Orleans. One, the Georgia, was launched this week. The manufacturers who have not been in any hurry about cotton, satisfied to get off a large manufactured surplus at an advance, are evidently in no trouble about a supply when they need it. They are even building new mills, and filling them with machinery. I have no doubt that they have an assurance from the very highest quarters that cotton shall be forthcoming at a fixed and not very remote period.

“On what is that assurance based? On the ability of the National Government to conquer the South and open her ports to the world? I cannot come to any such conviction. The Southern loan of $15,000,000 was not subscribed for, and is not kept at a premium by any such idea. There is, beyond reasonable question, a general understanding in England and France, and between the Governments of these countries, that if the South is not subjugated within a certain period—and of the probability of such subjugation they have no belief—her independence is to be acknowledged and guaranteed. They will say: You have had three years and the resources of the world to end this rebellion. If you cannot do it in that time you never can. The war is too great an injury to the commerce of the world to go on for an indefinite period. We must interfere for our own interests, and in the cause of humanity and civilization. They will say to you as they will to Russia, as France, at least, will say to Victor Emanuel: This has been going on long enough. It becomes a nuisance and must be put a stop to.

“There is another fact you are not to lose sight of. Englishmen, as well as others, have pride of opinion. They are not willing to be found in the wrong. Now, there is scarcely an Englishman of either of the great parties, from Derby and Palmerston, Russell and Gladstone, down, who has not committed themselves to the success of the rebellion. There is scarcely an Englishman of any political reputation who has not expressed, over and over again, the opinion, not to say wish, that the National Government can never conquer the rebel States. The Liberal Press—I mean the Times, Morning Post, Saturday Review, &c—have been as decided and contemptuous in the matter as the Herald, or John Bull, Press. The nation, with slight exceptions, is committed in opinions and hopes one way, and it is vain to think they will not ‘back their opinions,’ or attempt to realize their hopes. They look for cheap cotton and free trade from the Southern States, and a perpetual checkmate to Northern power and aggression.”->

All this sounds plausible enough, but the present aspect of European affairs is not very promising of such results. France, the only power whose sympathies for the South have been exhibited in a tangible form, is just now too busy with the Polish and Italian imbroglios, not to mention her Mexican expedition, to think seriously of any move in that direction, unless backed by the moral and material support of England; nor can this support and co-operation be hoped for so long as the Russell-Palmerston ministry shall remain in power. The liberalism of England is a very shadowy and unsubstantial foundation to build upon, as the Poles have more than once found out to their cost, and the Italians would also have experienced but for the bold and vigorous measures of Napoleon. In the mean while, let the South rely solely on the goodness of her cause and and the devoted patriotism of her sons. Let us continue to help ourselves, and Providence will most assuredly take us through the fiery ordeal.


News from the North, Mexico and Europe.

More Recognition Humbugs.

The Africa has arrived with news from Europe to May 31st.

It is expected that France will recognize the Confederates and other European powers not be slow to follow her example.

Mr. Roebuck will soon move in the House of Commons that England open negotiations with other Governments for the recognition of the Confederacy.

The Daily Post, of Liverpool, announces the fall of Vicksburg, and calls upon Lord Palmerston now to offer terms of peace acceptable to both parties.

Mr. Mason has arrived in Paris to co-operate with Mr. Slidell.

The London Times opposes Roebuck’s scheme.


Starving at Vicksburg.

So say all the Federal telegrams, but none of them are probably later than about the 2d instant, whereas ours are certainly as late as the 4th from Vicksburg and allege plenty of food and ammunition, and assert that Pemberton begs Gen. Johnston to take his own time, as Vicksburg can be held indefinitely. There is a lie out somewhere, and we don’t believe it came from our side. As for the story of the intercepted dispatch from Pemberton, it is incredible. If forced to send such a message he would not have put it on paper in such a manner that the Federals could read it.


The News from Vicksburg still continues cheering. Up to the 10th all was well—loss small, not exceeding 500 since the siege. Troops in good spirits, with plenty of ammunition and provisions. The movements of Price and Marmaduke are encouragingly co-operative. Kirby Smith’s whereabouts were not yet satisfactorily established, but he was believed to be at Milliken’s Bend. Grant was being heavily reinforced, but was hauling water for his troops eight miles, from Big Black. Weather hot. Terrible mortality among the Federals acknowledged in the fights. It is clear enough that the Yanks have not yet taken Vicksburg—and we hope and trust that they are destined to a signal overthrow.

JUNE 16,

If we may credit the meagre and incoherent telegrams received from Southern Pennsylvania and Baltimore yesterday evening, (and there is no reason to doubt their reliability), the advance of an invading rebel army is actually on Northern soil. The occupation of Chambersburg by the rebels at nine o’clock last evening is the latest announcement from that quarter.

The Union armies within twenty-four hours’ journey of the point of invasion cannot number less than one hundred and fifty thousand veteran troops—a force with which General Hooker must be able to confront and at least hold in check the advancing enemy. Meantime, if the entire fighting population of the Central States rally promptly in response to the calls already issued by their respective governors, within three days a force will be in the field sufficient to overwhelm and utterly destroy the invaders.


The Rebel Invasion.

The sources of the information respecting the advance of General Lee have not been made public. Gov. Curtin asserts that Lee is approaching Pennsylvania with a large army. The President evidently is or was of the same opinion, as his call for one hundred thousand militia from the States most likely to be invaded, and from New York, indicates. General Hooker has anticipated a movement of this kind, and the attack by Pleasanton upon Stuart’s rebel cavalry was planned and executed for the purpose of interfering with any proposed advance by the Confederates. But while it is not difficult for Lee’s army to march down the valley of the Shenandoah and even into Pennsylvania, that General is too experienced to overlook for a moment the fact that Hooker’s army is watching him, ready to take advantage of any false step which he may make. He cannot disregard the existence of this army in his plans. To ravage Pennsylvania and feast his army on the spoils of that wealthy state is undoubtedly a long cherished desire of the rebel commander. But he will remember that the descent to Avernos is easy, but to retrace one’s step, that is the difficulty.3 He may reach Pennsylvania and do much damage. He may at the same time place his army where its destruction will be inevitable.

Pennsylvania is not like Mississippi, robbed of its defenders. Stuart will not find the cities and towns of the former inhabited only by women and children, as Grierson did of the latter. Already the people of Pennsylvania are rallying for the defense of their homes, and under such experienced Generals as Couch and Brooks, both departments of that state will soon be in a condition of perfect security. The precautions which are being taken are wise, whatever may be the plans of the rebels. The security of the southern borders of the loyal states is essential to the untrammeled action of the army of the Potomac. The force which is now called into the field, and which will undoubtedly be raised under the pressure of an impending invasion, will render any further invasion this summer an impossibility, and the army of General Hooker will be left without embarrassment to watch the movements of Lee, and take advantage of events which may transpire.->

But, after all, it may well be doubted whether the danger is as imminent as represented. There can be no question that a large force of rebels is in Northern Virginia, and that detachments of their cavalry have entered Pennsylvania. But that Lee’s whole army is on the march for an invasion of the North we seriously question. The tone of the Philadelphia papers of yesterday is much less excited than on Saturday. The Inquirer, although urging citizens to respond to the call for troops, says that “while it is confidently believed General Hooker will not permit Lee to make any offensive movements, apprehensions of a raid by Stuart are still anticipated. Indeed, last night it was reported that a large body of our forces had advanced to a point where they would be enabled to circumvent the enemy in any designs they might have upon the border.”

The three battles which have taken place in the Shenandoah Valley were engagements of no small magnitude and indicate the presence of a large rebel force, though by no means the whole of Lee’s army. The question is simply whether this force is the advance of the main body of the rebels, or only a division to support Stuart’s Cavalry, and we must wait for the telegraph to settle it.


Movements of the Rebels.

New York, Tuesday, June 16.

The Washington Republican of last evening says: That Lee’s whole army is in the valley stretching nearly the whole length, and strongly reinforced from the Peninsula, Suffolk, Richmond, Gordonsville, and North Carolina, is almost certain. The whole of Gen. Lee’s army has left Fredericksburg, the last division moving out on the plank road toward Chancellorsville yesterday afternoon.


The Galena.—The thinly iron-clad gunboat Galena, which at the time of her construction was regarded as an experiment, can hardly be said to have proved a decided success. A contemporary gives the following account of her present whereabouts and condition:

The iron-clad Galena now at Philadelphia is such no longer; she has been entirely stripped of her coat of mail, and presents the appearance, at present, of an old hulk. This vessel is regarded as a failure. From the damage sustained by her during the attack on Fort Darling, it has been made manifest that iron-ribbed vessels cannot stand the fire of forts or shore batteries mounted with heavy guns. During the said fight seven shots went through her hull. The whole of her upper deck is being taken off, and she will be converted into a second or third rate gunboat. Her machinery is in good order.


Since the war commenced, Boston has lost as much coasting trade to and from the South as kept two hundred vessels of six hundred tons each in continual operation. To compensate for this great loss it has had nothing worth naming in an increase of other branches of business, although its foreign trade and commerce have been much more extensive and remunerative than any one would suppose it could have been after such a great withdrawal of business.  

JUNE 17, 1863


The War News.—The reports of yesterday, though not the most reliable, were quite exciting, a feeling of uncertainty and apprehension possessing the minds of most people. Gold, in New York, crept up to 48 and a fraction, owing, we are bound to believe, to the ugly look of the dispatches, some of which, it is quite possible, were prepared with an eye to Wall street. Yet the reports of reports of Lee’s progress and burning of towns on the Pennsylvania border were not exhilarating. It is, however, not to be believed that our leaders at Washington are asleep. They have known for weeks that this raid was laid down in the rebel programme, and we may be sure that Lee’s army, it it has penetrated Pennsylvania as reported, will very soon find itself in a tight place. Hooker, we are assured, is moving with rapidity, and our forces near Suffolk are said to be on the move toward Richmond.

At Harrisburg the Union troops were pouring in yesterday, and large details of men were at work on the defenses outside of the town. Most places of business were closed, and the citizens were organized. A great mass meeting had been held, Ex-Senator Cameron presiding, at which brave things were said. The latest dispatch from there, last evening, expressed the opinion that the rebel force, then at Carlisle, would be insight of Harrisburg this morning. A Philadelphia dispatch is couched in gloomy terms, saying, in effect, that everything south of the Susquehanna was at the mercy of the enemy, and it was necessary to destroy the bridges over the Susquehanna.

This morning’s papers bring us a great number of reports, many of which are of little account. We especially distrust a story which comes through the New York Express, representing Hooker as badly cut up, burning his tents, wagons, &c. The latest accounts from Harrisburg—to ten o’clock last evening—show that the rebel marauders were not then within forty eight miles of the capital, and the people were quite confident of being able to repel any attack. As to the armies of Hooker and Lee, there is very little reliable information. The rumor of a battle near Bull Run is not confirmed. Yesterday morning a dispatch reported all quiet in front. We print below the most important dispatches:

Albany, N. Y., June 16.—The Governor is receiving urgent messages from the authorities of Pennsylvania asking for troops, and is doing everything possible to hurry them forward. Gov. Curtin directs that they be transported via Easton. Secretary Stanton telegraphs that the men will not be needed for more than thirty days, and probably not for that period; that arms will be supplied to them at Harrisburg, and that they report to Gen. Couch.

Gen. McClellan arrived here at 4.30 this afternoon, and proceeded directly to Gov. Seymour’s residence. They are in consultation together this evening.

The 7th, 11th, 13th, 28th, 47th, 65th, 67th, 68th, 69th, 71st and 74th regiments are under marching orders. The 7th and 71st regiments leave to-night. Marching orders will also be issued to 1500 volunteers at Newburg, 800 at Rochester, and 500 at Plattsburg.

Trenton, N. J., June 16.—The governor of this state has issued the following proclamation: ->

Jerseymen: The state of Pennsylvania is invaded. A hostile army is now occupying and despoiling the towns of our sister state. She appeals to New Jersey through her Governor to aid in driving back the invading army. Let us respond to this call upon our patriotic state with unprecedented zeal. I therefore call upon the citizens of this state to meet and organize into companies, and report to the Adjutant General of the state as soon as possible, to be organized into regiments as the militia of New Jersey, and press forward to the assistance of Pennsylvania in this emergency. The organization of these troops will be given in General Orders as soon as practicable.

Joel Parker.
S.M. Dickinson,
Private Secretary.

Harrisburg, June 16, 10 p.m.—The telegraph offices at Carlisle and Shippensburg are still open, and business is transacted with them as usual. As Shippensburg is 20 miles beyond Carlisle, it is evident that the rebels are not advancing with much rapidity, and there is to-night a fair prospect of securing the capital against attack, if the rebels advance so far.

Midnight: Dispatches received up to this hour from Shippensburg, 11 miles this side of Chambersburg, show that the rebels are still at the latter place in force not exceeding 2000 cavalry, with no infantry. Gen. Jenkins, who commands them, ordered all the stores opened, which was complied with. The merchants were forced to take confederate money in payment for goods. To-day the rebels were drawn up in line of battle, anticipating an attack. Rebel cavalry to-day occupied Littlestown, 11 miles from Gettysburg, but at last accounts had not advanced beyond that point. Rebel officers at Chambersburg stated that they were waiting for infantry to move forward. The farmers in the valley are sending their horses and cattle into the mountains. The rebels are gathering up all the Negroes that can be found. Private property has been respected. They burned the railroad bridge across Scotland Creek, six miles this side of Chambersburg. The excitement here is subsiding. Several citizens, on leaving, were hooted and groaned [at] by the crowd at the depot.


From Vicksburg.—Official advices to the 11th have been received at Washington. They represent matters in a highly favorable light. Our artillery and mortars continued to play upon the town. We copy as follows:

Three females who were put outside of the city by Gen. Pemberton assert that the garrison is short of ammunition. Provisions are scarce and not to be bought at any price. The garrison is subsisting on quarter rations, mainly of corn meal and peas. The women and children seek shelter in caves from our shells, which fall heavily on the city, and consequently but few lives are lost among them. The enemy occupy Canton and Yazoo City in considerable force.

New from Vicksburg to the evening of the 12th has been received at St. Louis. A dispatch from the latter city, dated this morning, says, “there was no change in the progress of the siege. Gen. Lennis, in command at Milliken’s Bend, had been largely reinforced and started an expedition to Richmond, Louisiana, to attack McCullough, who is reported to have six thousand troops.”

JUNE 18,

The Fight at Milliken’s Bend.

A Cairo dispatch to the Cincinnati Gazette gives the following details of the fight at Milliken’s Bend on the 6th inst.:

On Saturday last our force at Milliken’s Bend consisted of about 717 troops and 800 Negro volunteers—some 1000 or 1500 in all. On Saturday evening the alarm was brought to the commander of the post that a large force of rebels, some 3000 in all, were outside the works at no great distance, marching upon the fortifications. The commander immediately sent out his cavalry, and held the colored troops for reserves, in case the cavalry had to fall back. It turned out well that this precaution was taken, for, after engaging the enemy and finding they were about to be overpowered, the cavalry did fall back and joined he colored infantry.

The rebels pressed forward on the white and black troops opposed to them with all their strength. Our troops had no artillery, and the rebels had. Yet, after a struggle of some hours, the enemy were driven off, leaving a great number on the field dead and wounded. Their retreat was not followed up, our men being so much exhausted. Our forces fell back to their works, and preparations were made for defense.

In the evening the steamer St. Cloud came up from below, and, learning the bad state of affairs, returned for reinforcements of artillery and a gunboat. Both were started up, and the gunboat Choctaw arrived on the spot early on Sunday morning to find that the rebels had returned. During the night they had busied themselves in gathering a large number of mules together, and when day broke started them forward, using them as a means of protection, while they followed close behind. They were promptly met by our troops this time, behind their breastworks.

Gradually the rebels moved their line, sacrificing their mules to the rifle shots, shot-guns and artillery; but they made little by their strategy. They had got fairly engaged, when the gunboat Choctaw came in for her share of the fight, using with effect her heavy guns, charged with shell. An unfortunate shot from the Choctaw, it is said, killed several members of the Negro regiment; it was owing to the fact that she was unable to raise her guns sufficiently to fire above them. This was remedied. The fight continued, and when the Choctaw succeeded in getting range, she sent such a storm of shot and shell into the rebel ranks, that, after being once or twice rallied, they broke in disorder and fled, taking off their dead and wounded.

It was impossible for my informant to learn the extent of our loss, but it must have been heavy. One hundred colored men fell. The enemy’s loss was also considerable, and, up to the latest dates on Monday, when the steamer Niagara left for Memphis, they had not returned to renew the attack. Should they do so, sufficient reinforcements of artillery have been forwarded to give them sudden and effectual quietness.


Language of Young Ladies.–The Rev. A. Peabody, in an address before the Newburyport Female School, which has been published, enlarges upon the use of exaggerated, extravagant forms of speech—saying splendid for pretty, magnificent for handsome, horrid or horrible for unpleasant, immense for large, thousands or myriads for more than two. “Were I,” he says, “to write down, for one day, the conversation of some young ladies of my acquaintance, and then to interpret it literally, it would imply that, within the compass of twelve or fourteen hours, they had met with more marvellous adventures and hair-breadth escapes, had passed through more distressing experiences, had seen more imposing spectacles, had endured more fright, had enjoyed more rapture, than would suffice for a dozen lives.”

Something to Quench the Thirst of Wounded Soldiers.–In acknowledging several responses to her recent call upon the charitable for “something to quench the thirst of wounded soldiers,” Mrs. Swisshelm writes as follows from Campbell Hospital, Washington, May 19, where she is engaged in her noble work of patriotic and womanly charity:

“I have been here, in the hospital, ten days, dressing wounds, wetting wounds, giving drinks and stimulants, comforting the dying, trying to save the living. The heroic fortitude of the sufferers is sublime. Yet I have held the hands of brave, strong men while shaking in a paroxysm of weeping. The doctors have committed to my special care wounded feet and ankles, and I kneel reverently by the mangled limbs of these heroes and thank God for the privilege of washing them.

“I want whiskey—barrels of whiskey—to wash feet, and thus keep up circulation in wounded knees, legs, thighs, hips. I want pickles, pickles, pickles, lemons, lemons, lemons, oranges. No well man or woman has a right to a glass of lemonade. We want it all in the hospitals to prevent gangrene. I will get lady volunteers to go through the wards of as many hospitals as I can supply with drinks. My business is dressing wounds where amputation may be avoided by special care. I write at the bedside of Arsanius Littlefield, Augusta, Me., wounded ankle—where I have been since two o’clock this morning, his life hanging in doubt.

“Four days ago I unclasped the arms of A. E. Smith, of Belvidere, N. J., from around my neck, where he had clasped them, dying, as I knelt to repeat the immortal prayer of the blind Bartemaeus—laid down the poor chilled hands, and ran to Mr. L., then threatened with lockjaw. Oh God, there is plenty of work; with the great advantages of the most skillful physicians, the utmost cleanliness and best ventilation, the exceeding and beautiful tenderness of the ward masters and nurses, there is much to do, if the right persons appeared to do it. Dr. Baxter, physician in charge, will not permit female nurses here, and from the manner in which he cares for his patients and the reason he gives for his decision, I have no reason to quarrel with it. The chaplain, the Rev. N. M. Gaylord, and lady, are indefatigable, and aid in the distribution of all comforts to the wounded.

“In answer to many letters, I would say we would rather have fruit and wines than money. All sent to me at No. 424 L street, will find gratuitous storage from the Hon. D. M. Kelsey, of Illinois. I will find a person to keep account of all that comes, and acknowledge it, without paying clerk hire, and God do so to me and more also if I do not use my best efforts to have everything committed to my care go to comforting and sustaining our sick and wounded men.”

Jane G. Swisshelm


Don’t Eat Too Much.–The celebrated Abernethy once remarked to a friend, “I will tell you honestly what I think is the whole cause of the complicated maladies of the human frame; it is their gormandizing and stimulating the digestive organs to excess, thereby causing irritation.”

, 1863

The Rebel Invasion.–The whirl of excitement that passed over the North in the early part of the week, caused by exaggerated rumors of a grand rebel invasion of the States of Maryland and Pennsylvania, in which sacked and burning towns and cities formed the foreground of the awful picture of carnage and desolation that was to follow, has considerably subsided, and the devastating horde that was to sweep over these States and dictate terms of peace in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, has dwindled down to an ordinary rebel raid for army stores and horses, so far as Pennsylvania is concerned. It has been the “biggest scare” yet. The excitement throughout Pennsylvania has been tremendous. All the bank valuables have been removed from Harrisburg as a measure of precaution, and the capital put in a state of defense. Troops are hurrying thither from every quarter. The rebel cavalry hold Chambersburg. It is a most humiliating surprise and panic.


Bravery of the Negro Troops.–Gen. Banks, in an official report dated “Before Port Hudson, May 30,” gives an account of the attack on that place, similar to the reports already published. In speaking of the Negro regiments, he says:

“They answered every expectation. Their conduct was heroic. No troops could be more determined or more daring. They made during the day three charges upon the batteries of the enemy, suffering very heavy losses, and holding their position at nightfall with the other troops on the right of our line. The highest commendation is bestowed upon them by all officers in command on the right.

“Whatever doubt may have existed heretofore as to the efficiency of organizations of this character, the history of this day proves conclusively to those who were in a condition to observe the conduct of these regiments, that the Government will find in this class of troops effective supporters and defenders. The severe test to which they were subjected, and the determined manner with which they encountered the enemy, leave upon my mind no doubt of their ultimate success. They require only good officers, commands of limited numbers, and careful discipline, to make them excellent soldiers.

“Our loss from the 23d to this date, in killed, wounded and missing, is nearly 1000, including, I regret to say, some of the ablest officers of the corps.”

Prisoners recently returned from Richmond state that the rebel leaders are watching, with intense interest, the Negro soldier movement now in progress in Massachusetts, Port Royal, Louisiana and the Southwest. In speaking upon this subject, the secessionists betray great excitement, and do not attempt to disguise their sentiments that it will have an important influence upon the future of the campaign.


Philadelphia, June 16.–A letter from Harrisburg, dated 1 p.m. to-day, says: “A train of 100 wagons, which left Martinsburg on Sunday, arrived safely. The rebel advance this morning was five miles east of Chambersburg. Col. Smith, commanding at Hagerstown, had a fight an hour and a half yesterday, when he was surrounded and forced to surrender.”

Washington, June 16.–On Sunday night, some slaves in the neighborhood of Annapolis, stampeded, taking with them a wagon and cart with horses, and a portion of their personal effects. They travelled all night, and at various points of the road were reinforced until their number reached seventy-five. Yesterday morning, they were stopped near Long Oldfields by a number of men styling themselves patrols, armed with shot guns and pistols. But the party of slaves massed themselves and pushed on. The patrollers attempted to stop their progress or to drive them from their teams, and when about one mile from Fort Meigs, fired into the fugitives, when, it is said, the slaves returned the fire. Several other shots were fired, when the fugitives separated and fled. The patrols also disappeared. As far as is known, two men and one woman (slaves) were killed, and five wounded. The remainder have reached Washington. One of the men supposed to have been connected with the attacking party has been arrested, and committed to the Old Capitol prison.


The “Peculiar Institution” Illustrated.–We have a photographic likeness of a Louisiana slave’s back, taken five or six months after a terrible scourging, and exhibiting from the shoulders to the waist great welts and furrows raised or gouged by the lash, running crosswise and lengthwise—the victim himself presenting a noble countenance and fine physique. “This card photograph,” says the New York Independent, “should be multiplied by one hundred thousand, and scattered over the States. It tells the story in a way that even Mrs. Stowe cannot approach, because it tells the story to the eye.” Price 15 cents. Sent by mail, by enclosing postage stamp. Seven copies for one dollar, or $1.50 per dozen.

Address Editor of the Liberator, Boston, Mass.


Baltimore on Slavery and Emancipation.–The city Union convention of Baltimore has adopted resolutions declaring that Maryland should at every hazard remain in the Union; pledging unconditional support to the government in any measures it may determine to be necessary in the prosecution of the war until its authority is acknowledged; that the continued existence of slavery is incompatible with the maintenance of republican forms of government in the States in subordination to the Constitution of the United States; that the emancipation proclamation of the President ought to be made law by Congress in the hands of the President; that traitors have no right to enforce the obedience of slaves; and that, against traitors in arms, the President should use all men, white or black, in the way they can be most useful, and to the extent that they can be used, whether it is to handle a spade or shoulder a musket.


The earthquake recently experienced in many places in Vermont was also felt in New York. Lake Champlain “shook all over,” and the fish jumped out of water in great numbers.

JUNE 20, 1863


From Harrisburg.
Operations of the Rebels.

Special Dispatch to the Traveller.

Harrisburg, June 19.—Rebel infantry are now in Hagerstown, four thousand strong; the force at Williamsport is much greater. About nine o’clock this morning, the enemy brought his stores and baggage to this side of the Potomac with the purpose, it is thought by the authorities here, of making that their base of operations for extensive raids into Pennsylvania.

Another special from Frederick, Va., via Washington, June 19, says all is quiet here to-day. A stage left here for Hagerstown this morning, and got as far as Boonesboro’, when it was stopped by rebel cavalry; number not stated. All is quiet at Harper’s Ferry.


From Hagerstown, Md.

Philadelphia, June 20.—A gentleman who reached Baltimore by the Frederick train this morning, and who left Hagerstown late Thursday afternoon, reports passing through rebel pickets on the road as far east as Boonsboro’ and vicinity, and says Hagerstown itself seems to be permanently occupied by some 9000 troops, mainly from North Carolina, under Gen. Rhodes.

A Major Osborn is acting as Provost Marshal, from whom papers have to be obtained to leave the town. Washington Hotel and others are crowded with their officers, who are paying $4 per day in rebel money. The forces that have gone into Pennsylvania are under Jenkins, and are said to be returning, bringing with them a large number of Negroes, who they allege had run away from their masters in Virginia and Washington county, Md. Those belonging about Hagerstown were being returned to their rebel owners, and those said to be from Virginia were sent back under guard.

Horses and other property taken from citizens of Maryland have been returned to them, and every effort has been made to make their raid as little offensive as possible to Maryland. It was said that a considerable infantry force was posted on the Virginia side, near Williamsport, some nine miles from Hagerstown, but of this our informant could not positively speak.

It was reported that another infantry force was located near Antietam or Shepherdstown, and about to cross. The position of General Ewell, or the main body of his corps, seems to be unknown. Our informant could not learn that he had made his appearance in Maryland at all, or near to it, although it was said at Hagerstown that the conciliatory policy alluded to was dictated by him. The hope of obtaining recruits in Maryland is no doubt the secret of this conciliatory policy.


Mr. Longfellow is at Washington. They say he is translating Dante, and perhaps he went to Washington in order to obtain a just idea of the Inferno; and in some respects it is not a bad place to acquire a practical knowledge of the abode of the wicked.

Rapid Movements of the Army of General Hooker.

New York, June 20.—The army correspondent of the Times, dating “On the March, Va., June 17,” says the army of the Potomac progresses with huge strides toward the supposed position of the enemy. A fearful collision cannot be avoided many days longer.

The weather is terribly hot. The air is filled with dust and the brave men suffer, but they march with a velocity such as never before has been known on this continent. One day has been spent since Saturday to let all the corps get up well in hand, and the whole army is now pushing forward with great rapidity.

On Monday, Gen. Hooker with staff and train broke camp at 8 o’clock, and before sundown were in a new camp 25 miles distant. Everything is reduced to the very lightest marching order. Trains are cut down, wagons and baggage are being reduced to a smaller limit than ever before.

Yesterday Gen. Hooker ordered his staff and the members of all the staff departments at headquarters to dispense with all their baggage, including valises, carpet-bags, &c., &c., and they were sent to the rear to-day. All they take is a change of underclothing. Headquarters go in lighter order than anything else.

Notwithstanding the intense heat, there is very little straggling. A strong provost guard of cavalry brings up the rear of each corps, and everything moves with great vigor.

A couple of days after the late cavalry fight, Gen. Pleasanton’s command made a requisition for 20 grindstones with which to grind up their sabres. This is a positive fact, and illustrates very pointedly the nature of the contest. Hand to hand, it was in earnest.


From Hagerstown, Md.

New York, June 20.—The Herald’s Washington dispatch says nothing has been seen of the enemy since the skirmish at Aldie on Wednesday evening, 25 miles N. W. of Bull Run.

It is evident that the main portion of Gen. Lee’s forces are still near the Gaps of the Blue Ridge Range, but on which side of the mountains it is of course not positively known.

It would require at least two days’ marching for the enemy to reach the Bull Run battle ground.

The Times’ Washington dispatch says a couple of deserters from Stuart’s cavalry, who have come within our lines, report that Stuart’s cavalry force is at Warrenton, 12,000 strong, and that Lee’s army is massed in the Shenandoah valley, near Front Royal or somewhere between that point and Winchester.

It consists of four corps, commanded by Longstreet, Ewell, A. P. Hill and D. H. Hill, and numbers about eighty thousand men. The forces which were sent to Martinsburg and Winchester to capture our forces there, have returned to the general rendezvous. They also state that the whole army is preparing to march, and will probably try to turn General Hooker’s right flank and cross into Maryland. The rebel soldiers have little confidence in this movement, remembering with wholesome fear the ill success attendant upon a similar movement last fall.

Remember that this article is a translation from an Italian newspaper. This line means that the reporter speaks no English and Speke no Italian.

2 ignis fatuus is a phosphorescent light sometimes seen at night over marshy ground, thought to result from the combustion of natural gases (a will-o’-the-wisp); hence, something deceptive or deluding.

3 The reference is to Lake Avernus in Italy, which the Romans considered to be the entrance to Hades. 

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