MARCH 27, 1864

Loss and Gain by the War.

A comparison, says the Richmond Whig, of the census of 1860 and 1863 shows, that of the number of slaves in the entire State in 1860, only 3,803 have been lost since then, above natural propagation and other causes.

Of horses in that portion of the State under our control, we have lost 25,201.

In 1860, the number of cattle examined for taxation in the entire State was 1,025,132–twenty-seven for every one hundred white persons. In 1863 the number of cattle within the territory, free from the occupation and incursions of the enemy, was 507,152, to which add 9 per cent, the usual difference between the actual and taxable numbers, and we have 547,724 cattle within our control in the last mentioned year, which is one hundred and five head of cattle to every one hundred white persons.

The returns show an increase of 72,336 sheep and a loss of 156,970 hogs in the counties and corporations under our control.


Yankee Sociology.

In looking over a late file of the Cincinnati Commercial, we observed in every issue about one-third of a column of new advertisements classified under the head of “Correspondences,” in which advertisers make known their desire for correspondence with the opposite sex, with a view of “fun, love or matrimony.” Leaving to the moralizing writers among us the task of commenting upon this fresh development of “Yankee sociology,” we copy a few random specimens of these epistolary invitations and literary curiosities–omitting the address, etc.:

Wanted: Correspondence–By two young ladies, with an indefinite number of young gentlemen. Soldier boys preferred. Particular attention paid to letters containing photos.

Four distinguished naval officers, respectively aged twenty, twenty-one, twenty-two and twenty-three years, are desirous of opening a correspondence with the same number of young ladies between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one. Fun is the object.

A very handsome ad accomplished young lady wishes to correspond with any number of young men who may wish to respond. Object, love and matrimony.

Three young ladies and one gent wish to open correspondence with any number of the opposite sex, with a view to love or fun. Please send photos and receive them.

Two soger boys of Milroy’s old division, but who now “phites mit Siegel,” wish to open communication with some of the fair daughters of the North. Object, phun and love.

Two modest young ladies, thinking profit as well as amusement might result from correspondence with unknown parties, request those with a surplus of ideas to employ them for our benefit.

Confederate Shoe Factory.

For some time past a Government shoe factory has been in operation on 22d street, north of Main, in the building formerly occupied as Greaner’s tobacco factory. About two hundred detailed men are employed in this factory, and they turn out daily about six hundred pairs of excellent shoes and brogans. The first floor is used as a store room for materials. The second and third floors are occupied by the workmen, with rooms partitioned off for cutting, assembling, packing, etc. It is quite an interesting sight to witness the operations of so large a number of cordwainers as they hammer, bore or sew the work upon their laps. General Lee, upon a recent visit to this factory, spent about two hours in viewing the process of making shoes, and in inspecting the work turned out. Each shoe is distinctly stamped with the letters “C. S. A.” to prevent their unlawful sale as far as possible, but past experience shows that the efforts of the Government to keep all the soldiers comfortably shod are defeated in numerous instances by the barter or sale of shoes drawn by barefooted men from the Quartermaster’s Department. At the present rate of shoe manufacture in the Confederate States, there should be no “barefooted men” in our armies. Since this report of the exemption of shoemakers by the last Congress, the number of workmen employed by the Government in this branch of industry has rapidly increased.–Richmond Examiner.



For some reason, the Charleston Mercury apprehends another invasion of Pennsylvania. Our army is said to be panting for another chance at the fat pullets, the crocks of apple-butter, the milk, butter and eggs of the Dutchmen in the Susquehanna Valley, but in the main we agree with our contemporary:

Our previous advance into Pennsylvania was the very thing the Lincoln Government wanted. They could not raise troops, and the war fever was dying out in the United States. Our invasion of Pennsylvania rekindled the war spirit, and enabled Lincoln to raise the troops he wanted. The United States are now in the same condition they were then, the greater part of their troops in the field go out of service in May. They have refused to re-enlist to so great an extent, that President Lincoln has ordered a conscription of a half million of men more to fill their places in the ranks of their armies. The campaign of this spring proves the reluctance of the soldiers in their armies to prosecute the war. If things continue as they are, there will be no volunteers, and the new conscripts will be reluctant and few, and in all probability we will be victorious throughout the summer, and win peace and independence by the fall. But if we invade Pennsylvania, the same result will, in all probability, be produced again. Our enemies will again fill up their armies, and prolong the war. We will do exactly what President Lincoln longs for–prays for, if such a blasphemous wretch can pray. He would hail our advance into Pennsylvania with triumphant joy, as sort of providential intervention in his favor. It is exactly what he would do, if he had the disposition of our armies. The lowest sort of wisdom is that which follows events. It is the wisdom of experience, not of anticipation. Shall we be destitute of even this sort of wisdom, which may inspire and direct the weakest understanding?

MARCH 28, 1864

From Washington.

There are decided demonstrations in the Franco-Mexican question. The Secretary of State is understood to be in favor of an immediate and energetic demonstration against the evident designs of the Mexican Empire, and the French in connection with the great rebellion. It is to be regretted if such a demonstration is really made, that it should have been postponed until the moment when its effect must be to precipitate us into fresh and most dangerous complications.

The presence of a fleet of nine or ten French frigates off the mouth of the Rio Grande, of which fact government is advised by telegraph this morning, has a large significance in connection with this junction.


Washington Special Dispatches.
Various Matters.

New York, March 28.

The Tribune’s special says it is understood that the ways and means committee will recommend a tax of one dollar on spirits, to take effect in May instead of July, and will also recommend a heavy tax on tobacco.

It is the opinion in treasury circles that taxes on these articles will be full one-half of all revenue, thus essentially relieving taxes on the necessaries of life.

The same special states that Mrs. J. Todd White, sister of Mrs. Lincoln, passed through our lines via Fortress Monroe, with a large amount of medicines and merchandise.

New York, March 27.

[Herald’s specials].  Gen. Grant, Gen. Ingalls and a few staff officers spent Sunday at the War Department.

Thirty-two vessels are now detained from service awaiting seamen, the War Department not allowing the transfer from the army to the navy of thousands of seamen who have made application.

There are very few officers now in Washington, all having been imperatively ordered to the front.

The World’s dispatch states that Grant favors the employment of all inactive Generals, and both Fremont and McClellan will soon have commands. Same authority states that Grant, after re-organizing the Army of the Potomac, will leave for the West again.

[To the Times].  Gen. Grant states that when the re-organization of the Army of the Potomac is completed it will be the finest army on the Continent.

It is reported that the President has sent for General Fremont to give him an important command.


From Kentucky.
The Fight at Paducah.

Cairo, March 27.

A dispatch from Columbus, Ky., says Forseth and Faulkner are between that place and Mayfield. Their forces are in a crippled condition. Their strength is much greater than was at first estimated.

From 1200 to 1500 rebel wounded are said to have arrived at Mayfield from Paducah. One regiment lost 100 and one company had 50 men killed.

The rebels were marching towards Clinton at last accounts.

Should they attack Columbus they will receive a still warmer reception than at Paducah.

The steamer Perry was fired into while passing Hickman yesterday. A large number of rebels were in the town. Many shots were fired but no one was hurt. The steamer Graham, brought up 600 men from New Madrid, who charged through the town, but the rebels had fled. They belonged to Faulkner’s command.

Three hundred rebels were killed at Paducah and over one thousand wounded. Several citizens of the place were killed in the fight. He place is nearly in ruins.


A street fight took place in New Bedford a few days since, which was quite terrific. Two soldiers and two sailors were the combatants, and they fought through Water to School street and thence back again. A loafer was drawn into the melee, and he succeeded in vanquishing the whole party, bringing away as a trophy the nose of one of the soldiers, which he had bitten off.

Dick Bowles, the notorious guerrilla, long a terror on the borders of Alabama, Georgia and Tennessee, has been killed by Ira O. Tuttle, chief of scouts of the army of the Cumberland. Tuttle went to Gilbertsville, Ala., and represented himself as being anxious to be employed by him. Bowles unsuspectingly told him his history, and handed him his revolver for inspection when requested to do so. Tuttle then told him that he had but a minute and a half to live. Bowles sprang forward, but was instantly shot through the head.

Alexander Milliner, Adam’s Basin, Monroe county, N.Y., was one hundred and four years of age the other day. He was a drummer boy in the Revolution, and now likes to beat the “long roll” for his friends, and does it with most remarkable vigor.

The prominent ladies of the Southern Confederacy have written a letter to the rebel soldiers at large, chock full of buncombe, the tenor of which is in regard to re-enlisting, which has been “adopted” by the “patriot Southern boys.” They denounce in fearful language those who have deserted the standard, and pile on the agony upon those who have made up their minds to go ragged and starved during the war.


Soldiers Voting.–The New York soldiers have obtained the right to vote by a very large majority, but in what manner that right is to be exercised, is yet to be determined by the Legislature. On this subject, the Tribune says:

“We should like to see the wives of soldiers in each Election District walk in procession to the poll and cast the votes transmitted to them by their respective husbands. If any one does not know that they might do so amid universal deference and respect, unassailed by even a coarse word, his thought grossly slanders the legal voters of our State.”


Washington, March 28.

The delegation of Indians in town this morning called on the Secretary of the Interior for a consultation in regard to the treaty made last fall with them by Gov. Ramsey. The Chief, Maydwagyonut, said that [at] the time the treaty was made he was away and did not know it was signed, which was without his consent, and they asked a day longer to think on the treaty, which the Secretary granted them.

They were told by the Secretary that the Great Father would do by them exactly as he thought their interests required, according to his judgment.


The Capture of Fort de Russy.
Account by Admiral Porter
of the Part taken by the Fleet.

Washington, March 28.–Rear Admiral Porter, in a dispatch to the Navy Department, dated Fort de Russy, March 15, gives the following particulars of the taking of that stronghold. The gunboats, it appears, arrived at Simmesport at noon and found the enemy posted in force about three miles back. The Benton landed her crew and drove in the pickets. The army came along in about half an hour more and landed next morning, taking possession of the enemy’s camping ground. That night General Smith concluded to follow the rebels by land, while Admiral Porter proceeded up Red river with all the gunboats and transports. In the meantime the Eastport had reached the obstructions and with the vessel that kept pace with her commenced the work of destroying the formidable barricade on which the rebels had been at work for five months. They supposed it impassable, but our energetic sailors with hard work opened a passage in a few hours.

The Eastport and Neosho proceeded to the fort, which at that moment was being surrounded by troops under General Smith, who had marched from Simmesport. A brisk musketry fire was going on between the rebels and our troops, and they were so close together it was difficult to distinguish the combatants. The Eastport, which had opened her battery, fearing that she might injure our men, ceased firing, when our troops proceeded to assault and carried the place in a few minutes, capturing 250 prisoners. The main body of the enemy, 5000 strong, under Gen. Walker, made their escape.

Admiral Porter says the whole affair has been well managed.

In a recent attack on Trinity by the gunboats a number of Negroes who were captured by the enemy in a recent attack on Goodrich’s landing were recaptured.


A Desperate Battle.
Official Dispatches to the Navy Department.

Washington, March 28.–The following dispatch has been received by the Secretary of the Navy:

Cairo, March 26, 7 p.m.–At 3 p.m. yesterday the rebels made an attack on Paducah and the steamers Peosta, Pawpaw and Fort Hindman at once opened fire. Capt. Hicks holds the fort. The front part of the city is destroyed, our shells setting fire to the houses on the levee. A brisk cannonading was continued until about 10 p.m. when the rebels’ fire ceased. The attack may have been renewed this morning. Our dispatches are received by boat, telegraphic communication having been destroyed. The fort made a desperate resistance.

A. M. Pennock.

Second Dispatch.

Cairo, March 26.–I have just received information that the enemy is still in force in front of Paducah. A flag of truce was sent in by them to negotiate an exchange of prisoners, which was refused. General Forrest has 500 prisoners from Union City. Reinforcements are going forward. There is no danger of a surrender.

Third Dispatch.

Cairo, March 26.–Paducah is safe. The rebels left at midnight.

Fourth Dispatch.

Cairo, March 26.–Information has been received that the rebels have retreated from Paducah. The rebel loss is 300 killed. Their number of wounded is unknown. Forrest’s force is said to be 6500 men, with four cannon. The rebel General A. P. Thompson is reported killed.

A. M. Pennock, Fleet Captain. ->

Cairo, Ill., March 28.–Gen. Forrest had about 7000 men in the attack on Paducah. His line of battle was two miles and a half long. The fight lasted all afternoon. Four assaults were made on the fort en masse, each of which was repulsed with great slaughter to the enemy. The gunboats fired 600 rounds. A large part of the town is in ruins. The rebels plundered the stores and carried off horses during the fight. Forty convalescents in the hospital were captured.

Forrest sent a flag of truce to exchange prisoners, but Col. Hicks refused. Three hundred rebel dead lie in front of the fort. Generals Harris and Burbridge were with the rebels.

Boats from Paducah at noon yesterday report all quiet. The citizens are returning to the town. Several women were killed during the fight. Our loss was 14 killed and 45 wounded. The gunboats opened fire simultaneously with the fort on the enemy’s advance into the city, and rendered invaluable service throughout the engagement.

After being once repulsed, Forrest sent a communication to Col. Hicks, demanding the surrender of the fort, troops and public stores, promising that if the demand was complied with, our troops should be treated as prisoners of war, but if compelled to storm the fort, they might expect no quarter. Colonel Hicks replied that he placed there to defend the fort, which he should do, and peremptorily refused to surrender. The enemy then made a second and third assault on the works, but were repulsed each time with great loss. The rebels then broke lines, formed in squads and occupied the houses, keeping up a fire until late in the evening, when they were driven away, our artillery making it too hot for them.

On their way into the city the enemy fired the railroad dépôt, which was consumed, and towards evening they burned the Quartermaster’s buildings and the steamer Dacotah (not the Arizona) on the marine railway. They plundered the stores of an immense amount of goods and took all the horses they could find. Some merchants have lost from $25,000 to $50,000. Early the next morning, the rebels again appearing, Col. Hicks burned all the houses within musket range of the fort. The enemy, however, made no advance, and after asking for an exchange of prisoners, which was declined, they returned in the direction of Columbus.

Towards the end of the battle it was discovered that our ammunition was nearly exhausted, when Col. Hicks ordered that when it should give out the fort should be defended by the bayonet as long as a man remained alive, which determination was received with hearty cheers by all the troops. The Negroes in the fort, 220 in all, fought with great gallantry.

All was quiet at Paducah yesterday, our forces being engaged in burying the dead.

The enemy had six small cannon. About 50 buildings were burned, including the hospital, gas works, and some of the finest residences in the town. The Custom House and Post-office were injured.

Our troops consisted of the 40th Illinois infantry, Col. Hicks, a battalion of Negroes and one regiment, name not known.

MARCH 30, 1864


The Tax on Tobacco.–Every one says we must have more taxation, yet when particular articles are named, at once all interested begin to exclaim, “Oh! tax everything else, but spare this or you will ruin us!” So the tobacco raisers are crying out against a tax on leaf tobacco, and have gone into statistics, and present a very plausible statement of the probable effect of the tax.

In 1790 we exported 118,460 hhds. of leaf tobacco, and in 1861, a period of 70 years, had only increased it to 160,816, at about the same price per lb. Of course the use of it has largely increased in Europe and elsewhere, but the demand has been met by home production, or production in countries that could easily compete with us, so that with all our advantage of free trade and cheap land, we have not been able to control the market. Unlike cotton, in which we can compete with the world, tobacco can be raised in many other places as cheap and as good as in America. It is produced successfully in Middle and Southern Europe, Turkey raising 43,830,000 lbs., Austria 57,797,20, France 33,700,000. Under an increased price and demand much of the vine land could be converted to the production of tobacco.

In France, as is well known, the government is the great tobacco merchant, purchasing where it can buy to the best advantage, and selling to the people through fixed agencies. It has bought annually about 86,000,000,000 lbs., one half of which has been from the United States, at a cost of about nine nine cents, the other half from other markets, where it could do as well. Were a tax of 20 cents put on the leaf in our country as proposed, we could not sell to France for less than 29 cents, which would cut us off from the European market, and leave us only our home consumption. As tobacco is raised in nearly every State, and has been heretofore one of the most profitable crops, it is easy to perceive how many are disturbed at what would interfere with its profits. If we lose the foreign market, and have only our home demand to supply, our present production is excessive, and must be largely curtailed. It may be that Congress will allow a draw-back on its export, in which case only home consumers would be obliged to pay the tax. Whoever drinks rum, or uses tobacco hereafter, must pay for it, and we are very glad of it.–Newburyport Herald.


Postponing the Abolition Convention.–The radical papers are urging the postponement of the Republican National Convention, which has been called to meet on the 7th of June. The N. Y. Post sums up a long argument on the subject thus:

We trust, then, that the National Executive Committee will reconsider its call, or if it cannot be got together again, that the loyal members of Congress, of all parties, may devise some mode of deferring the Convention to the first of September.

It is said that the real object of the proposed postponement is to get rid of Old Abe. The effort is to be made to induce him to withdraw, and if that fails, a postponement will be carried with the idea of putting it off to so late a day that the patronage of the Government will be shorn of its power. It is believed that if this is done, he can be floored, for it is well argued that at the closing of his term, no one is so powerless as a weak and selfish Executive, whose followers are turning from the setting to the rising sun of power and favor.


A Washington correspondent says the United States armies will number 1,200,000 on the 1st of April. At the same time we are told that the rebels have but 500,000; and yet our Government calls for 200,000 more! Four to one is not enough.

Blockade Running.–Wilmington, North Carolina, is a port of the most vital importance to the rebels. Nearly all their supplies from abroad are received at that port–run through our efficient blockade. The Wilmington Journal says “the statistics for the past year show that on an average only one out of twenty (blockade runners) has been captured.” The telegraph tells us that the report of Governor Vance, showing the amount of supplies received through this blockaded port, discloses a most startling state of things. Everything the enemy could ask for is received through this channel in great quantities. An experienced naval officer has remarked that owing to the peculiar situation of the coast and its numerous channels–embracing an area of thirty miles–the entire Navy of the United States could not make the blockade of Wilmington effective. Such being the case, it would seem to be the part of wisdom to capture and hold Wilmington–thus cutting off this immense source of supplies to the rebels and releasing thirty or forty ships from the blockading duty. But our authorities never adopt wise, practical and efficient measures; such measures would cripple the rebellion; and such measures in this particular case would cut off from the “loyal” friends of the administration a most prolific source of plunder and corruption. The officials of the New York Custom House and the “loyal” merchants in New York furnish a large share of the supplies received by the rebels through Wilmington; and they and their associates and friends will not allow that port to be closed to them!  That’s what the matter is. But for that, Wilmington would have been captured two years ago, we have no doubt.


Where are They?–The Provost Marshal General advises Massachusetts as deficient upon calls for troops previous to the last, to the number of 9,903! In addition to these, she is called on for 10,689 as her quota of the 200,000 recently ordered; making 20,592 now to be raised in that State. In view of the large deficiency on former calls, the question suggests itself–where are those “swarms” of earnest patriots who were to block up the highways in their eager rush to the field of battle as soon as a radical policy was avowed?


“Put Money in thy Purse.”–It is alleged that out of fifty thousand bales of cotton, which have been seized in the neighborhood of Vicksburg since its capture, less than one hundred bales have been turned over to the Government, the rest having been made the personal spoil of its treasury and military agents. This is the style along the whole line of the Mississippi.


What our best friends think of us is strikingly illustrated by the following from Washington:

“At a recent diplomatic dinner, the Russian Minister is said to have remarked that the United States was rapidly tending to despotism, while Russia is daily becoming republicanized.”



The National Resources.

The following interesting statistics are from the report made to the State Department by Mr. Samuel B. Ruggles, American delegate to the International Statistics Congress held at Berlin in September last:

During the last 60 years, while the population of France has increased but 37 per cent, and that of England 121 per cent, the increase in the United States has been 593 per cent. The food-producing Western States,1 embracing an area of 282,134,688 acres, form an immense natural garden in a salubrious and desirable portion of the temperate zone, into which the swelling stream of population from the older Atlantic States and from Europe has steadily flowed during the last decade, increasing its previous population from 5,403,595 to 8,957,690, an accession of 3,554,095 inhabitants gained by the peaceful conquest of nature, fully equal to the population of Silesia, which cost Frederick the great the seven years’ war, and exceeding that of Scotland–the subject of struggle for centuries.

The rapid influx of population into this group of States increased the quantity of the “improved” land, thereby meaning farms more or less cultivated, within their limits, from 26,680,361 acres in 1850 to 51,826,395 in 1860, but leaving a residue yet to be improved of 230,308,293 acres. The area of 25,146,054 acres thus taken in ten years from the prairie and the forest is equal to 7/8 of the arable land of England, said by its political economists to be 23,000,000 of acres. The area embraced in the residue will permit a similar operation to be repeated eight times successively, plainly demonstrating the capacity of tis group of States to expand their present population of 8,957,690 to at least 30,080,000, if not 40,000,000 of inhabitants without inconvenience.

The effects of this influx of population in increasing the pecuniary wealth, as well as the agricultural products of the States in question, are signally manifest in the census. The assessed value of their real and personal property ascended from $1,116,000,000 in 1850 to $3,926,000,000 in 1860, showing a clear increase of $2,810,000,000. We can best measure this rapid and enormous accession of wealth by comparing it with an object which all nations value, the commercial marine. The commercial tonnage of the United States in 1840 was 2,180,764 tons; in 185 it was 3,535,494 tons; in 1860 it was 5,858,808 tons. At $50 per ton, which is a full estimate, the whole pecuniary value of the 5,858,808 tons, embracing all our commercial fleets on the oceans and the lakes and the rivers, and numbering nearly 30,000 vessels, would be but $267,940,000; whereas the increase in the pecuniary value of the States under consideration, in each year of the last decade, was $681,000,000. Five years’ increase would purchase every commercial vessel in the Christian world. The capacity of these States for the production of vegetable and animal food is dwelt upon by Mr. Ruggles with great force. In the last decade their several products increased from 309,950,295 bushels, considerably exceeding the whole cereal product of England, and nearly if not equal to that of France. In the same period the swine, which play a very important part in consuming the large surplus of Indian corn, increased in number from 8,536,182 to 11,039,352, and the cattle from 4,373,712 to 7,204,840. Thanks to steam and the railway, the herds of cattle which feed on the meadows of the upper Mississippi are now carried in four days, through 18 degrees of longitude, to the slaughter-houses on the Atlantic.->

It is difficult to furnish any visible or adequate measure for a mass of cereals so enormous as 558,000,000 of bushels. About one-fifth of the whole descends the chain of lakes, in which 1300 vessels are constantly employed in the season of navigation. About one-seventh of the whole finds its way to the ocean through the Erie canal, which has been once enlarged for the purpose of passing vessels of 200 tons, and is now under survey by the State of New York for a second enlargement to pass vessels of 500 tons. The vessels called canal boats, now navigating the canal, exceed 5000 in number, and if placed in a line would be more than 80 miles in length. A general famine is now impossible; for America, if necessary, can feed Europe for centuries to come. Let the statesman and philanthropist ponder well the magnitude of the fact, and all is far reaching consequences–political, social and moral–in the increased industry, the increased happiness, and the assured peace of the world.


All eyes are now on Lieut. Gen. Grant, as they were once on Gen. McClellan. The President, in delivering him his high commission, spoke fitting words, as he said “As the country herein trusts you, so under God it will sustain you;” and in similar thoughts he many times addressed McClellan. The people, irrespective of party, trusted McClellan, and now trust Grant. But let it never be forgotten how the Radical Tribune school hounded on the brave Gen. Scott and were responsible for Bull Run; how they wrenched from McClellan the troops which would have captured Richmond; and Gen. Grant must not expect to please this set, and can afford to ignore them. As he has had conferred upon him he title, the functions and the responsibilities of his great office, so it is but just that he should really perform its duties, really be the man of the hour; and if political partisans come creeping about him for the appointment or continuance in command of their political generals, let him calmly reject their advice, lead his brave men on to victory, and the country will reward him.


Gen. Grant at Washington.

Washington, March 28.–Lieut. Gen. Grant arrived in Washington from the front yesterday, and was engaged with the President, Secretary of War and Gen. Halleck, last evening, and left for the Army of the Potomac this morning.

The General has established his headquarters at Culpepper, eight miles in front of Gen. Meade.

The repairs of the Winder’s buildings, which have been set apart for the headquarters of Grant, are now completed. During the absence of Grant from the city, Capt. Geo. K. Leete, A. A. G., will have charge of the headquarters.


A Chicago paper gravely remarks that “the longer the present war lasts the more public opinion begins to settle down to the belief that it will be by no means a short one.” The Editor is quite firm in this belief.

1, 1864

Copperheads Moving.—They have unearthed a new K. G. C. organization in Chicago, and the ritual is published, so far as it relates to the first degree.2 The ringleaders are not known even to the members of the lower degrees. The object of the organization is stated to be two-fold: first, the election of a copperhead president, or failing that, the kindling of civil war at the North. A convention of the traitorous tribe was held at Chicago, beginning on the 8th of March and continuing four days. The number in attendance was estimated by different observers at from one hundred to one hundred and thirty. Every effort was made to keep the affair secret. The organization is said to be spreading throughout Illinois, and will be extended to other states.


Cotton.—The dispatches received from the United States consuls at the different ports in tropical latitudes show that the cultivation of cotton has been successfully commenced in a large number of localities, and with promise of success. In Paris, in British Guiana, in Brazil, and at Jamaica, the coming crop will be considerable, although it will be chiefly of low-priced or medium cotton, rather than of the choicer sorts. Experiments in cotton culture are also being made in Australia, Tasmania, and other British colonies, under the auspices of the Manchester Cotton Supply Association.


Exploit of a Groton Boy.—The Norfolk (Va.) Daily Times relates the following spirited affair:

Sergeant Moses Gill of the 96th New York regiment, stationed at Currituck, was sent on Monday morning with dispatches to Northwest Landing. Upon his return he saw two men in an open field under very suspicious circumstances. Clearing the fence with his horse, he immediately gave pursuit, when they took to the woods, where he finally succeeded in capturing them. Proceeding on his way with his prisoners in front of him, he overtook a horse and cart which he appropriated as a conveyance of his prize to Currituck bridge, where he delivered the captured to his commanding officer as prisoners of war, who were brought down to Norfolk and immediately sent to Fortress Monroe. They are members of the 14th North Carolina cavalry regiment. The only arms Sergeant Gill had in his possession at the time of the adventure were a sabre and pistol.

Commenting upon this, the Boston Journal says the young man who performed this feat is a son of Mr. Moses Gill of Groton. At the breaking out of the rebellion, young Gill was in Liverpool, England, in a lucrative employment, but, yielding to the impulses, immediately shipped for America, landing at Quebec, Canada. He left his ship, crossed the lines, and arrived at Plattsburg, N. Y., where he enlisted in the 96th regiment of New York volunteers, and has served therein with great bravery, participating in numerous battles, on one of which (Fair Oaks) he was seriously wounded. In March, 1862, he was promoted to corporal–more recently to quartermaster-sergeant. He has lately re-enlisted with most of his regiment, which is now stationed at Plattsburg, recruiting its ranks.

Affairs in Florida.—The New York Evening Post has letter dated Jacksonville, March 20th, from which we copy the following:

The rebels occupy an entrenched camp on Ten Mile Creek, and are in strong force. Beauregard was there last week, inspecting he position and giving direction for future operations. The rebel policy is to hold Florida at all hazards and at any expense of treasure or men. This is a point that our government should understand.

After the fall of Vicksburg and the loss of Texas, the rebels grasped East Tennessee more firmly than ever. They will now send a very strong force to Florida, for the products of its immense pastures and essential to the sustenance of their army.

The able bodied men of Florida not in the army are very few indeed. This is now the land of cripples, women and children.

The great services rendered by or gunboats are scarcely mentioned in reports from this quarter. Had it not been for the wholesome dread the enemy has of them, he would probably have been in Jacksonville and our army captured before to-day. Though we were badly shattered at Olustee, the victors dare not follow us to this place because of these terrible floating batteries.

Nearly every day more or less deserters arrive within our lines. They are mostly men of Northern birth who have been pressed into the rebel ranks. We learn from them that the civilians of this vicinity who took the oath of allegiance during the days of our short triumph are now suffering severely from rebel rule.

It is becoming more and more evident every day that this “oath of allegiance” business had better be postponed a little. The Government should be a little slow in making pledges which it may not be able to fulfill. A little more hard fighting must be done, the rebel power must be fully crippled and broken, and the loyalty of all persons of Southern birth and education more thoroughly approved, before oaths of allegiance will be of much moment to either subjects or government.

The monotony which has for the last ten days prevailed along our our picket lines has been broken by the capture of three of our men, one of them colored. The two white soldiers are held as prisoners of war; the colored man was dressed in civilian clothes, and has been hung as a spy.


APRIL 2, 1864


The Situation.

Lieut. Gen. Grant is making extensive preparations for action and energetic movements with the army of the Potomac. He is now engaged in re-organizing the army and placing it on a more firm basis. His object seems to be the taking of Richmond, the stronghold of the Confederacy, during the summer’s campaign. The number of army corps in the Army of the Potomac are reduced, by the direction of the President, viz the 2d, 5th and 6th corps, the 1st and 3d corps being re-organized and distributed among the 2d, 5th and 6th. It is hoped that this “on to Richmond” may not be signalized as “an advance on Washington” as others have been. The campaign will be one of the greatest and most important of the war. Grant and Lee, the two greatest generals of the age, are to play the game. They have the advantage of fighting on their own ground, we on the other hand have the advantage of a reinforced army, out-numbering, without doubt, all that will be brought against it; and also of a good credit, theirs, needless to say, is poor.

Active operations on the Potomac may be expected before a great while. Grant reviewed a part of the army on Tuesday last, at Culpepper, and was received with great enthusiasm by the army. With confidence in its leader, with bravery and valor of the army, we may soon hope to hear that the capital of the Confederacy is in our hands, notwithstanding the opinion of Jefferson Davis to the contrary.

The capture of Fort DeRussey by our forces under Gen. A. J. Smith, and the capture of Paducah, Ky., by the rebels under Gen. Forrest are the most important pieces of news [this week] from the war. In regard to these events, the Boston Journal says:

“The former effected by a novel species of strategy, gives our Red River expedition an admirable start, by disposing at the outset of a work from which no little difficulty was feared. The capture of Paducah was an unexpected event, as no one had supposed that the threatened invasion of Kentucky had progressed so far. But owing to the successful resistance of the fort, with the timely aid of the gunboats on the river, the enterprise of the rebels so far has proved more disastrous than advantageous to them. We have no fear of their accomplishing anything by this raid into Kentucky, while, aside from whatever Union successes we may gain in the field, this visitation will bring out the real patriotism of the people in a manner superior to the demonstrations of politicians in that section of late.”

From New Orleans comes the welcome news that Gen. Banks has taken the field and with his army will sweep across the country, and thence into Texas. So we may also expect cheering news from this Department.

General Grant.

The National Intelligencer publishes an excellent biographical sketch of Lieut. General Grant, and a discriminating analysis of his brilliant qualities as a soldier from the pen of an intimate personal friend of the General. We copy the following paragraphs from the article:

“The press has conceded that Gen. Grant is the best executive and administrative officer in the army. His department has certainly been conducted with remarkable ability and skill. Gen. Lander once said he was the best fighting General in the world. Gen. Halleck says he is the best field officer in the service. Gen. Farnsworth says he is no carpet knight.3 Generals Logan and Blair say he has strategy and more military genius and caution than any other officer. All these eulogies, coming from such high authorities, do no more than justice to the man, and prove the appreciative capacities of their authors. The amount and varied duties and labor devolving on a General with such a command as he has is incalculable, and yet it is said by his staff, several of whom are first-class lawyers, that he has never made a mistake or blunder or made a decision that needed revoking. His military correspondence has cost the government far less than that of any other commanding General who has done one-half the amount of service.

Besides, no other has been in half so many engagements. He has participated in thirty-one battles, fourteen of them in Mexico, while he held no higher rank than a lieutenant, and seventeen during the present civil war, in which he was Commanding General, and has never been defeated. If he ever is defeated, it will only be when no possible human agency can avoid it, and then it will be a terrible and bloody defeat to our arms. He has been sworn in and commissioned thirteen times as a military officer–probably holding more commissions for brave and meritorious conduct than any other man ever did.

During his recent battles Gen. Grant has captured many thousand persons, four hundred and seventy-two cannon, and an incalculable amount of small arms and military stores; and it is wonderful how few men and little property he has lost in comparison to what he has destroyed and taken. Such has been the fidelity, ability and patriotism with which he has discharged his every duty that he has never been removed, superseded or complained of, but constantly promoted in rank, and his command increased. After these great and crowning triumphs, sparkling like diamonds along his military way, is there one to be found who will attribute the result of his success to accident? Rather say that a protecting Providence has watched over and guided him throughout his brilliant and glorious career, and doubtless has him in reserve as a means to accomplish other great purposes.”

1 Today we label this region the Midwest.

2 “K.G.C.” is “Knights of the Golden Circle,” a secret copperhead organization mentioned in a number of earlier articles.

3 Originally, “A knight who spends his time in luxury and idleness—knighted on the carpet at court rather than on the field of battle.” By this time, meaning “a soldier who spends his life away from battle; idler.” (Source).

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