, 1864

The Romance of the War.

Of the many romantic incidents which this war has furnished, the following from the Washington Chronicle is not the least interesting:

Near Falls Church, Va., there lived before the war a wealthy and highly respected family of the name of Delaney. When the war broke out one of the sons joined Mosby’s band, and a daughter became a volunteer nurse in a rebel hospital. Both became celebrated in their way. The son was young, daring and adventurous, the pride of the female sex for thirty miles around the place of his nativity. He was soon the dread of Union soldiers and Union men in Virginia. Not a stray soldier from picket escaped him, not a Union farmer but trembled at his name. The vicinity of Dranesville, Chantilly, Falls Church and Vienna can attest to his notoriety and achievement. The father of a rebellious son and daughter sternly maintained his loyalty and fidelity to the Union. At the opening of the war he immediately offered his services to the Federal Government, and was promoted to the rank of colonel in the volunteer service.

A few days since a scouting party, consisting of detachments from the 13th New York and 2d Massachusetts cavalry, under the command of Lieut. E. B. Lyett, started from Falls Church in pursuit of guerrillas reported  to be in the neighborhood of Chantilly and Herndon Stations. On the morning following their departure, the troops were quietly drinking their coffee within a mile of the station; five of the advance guard of the guerrillas, posted on the road, suddenly, as if rising from the earth, came galloping a full speed–five men, fully armed and equipped. A volley from our advance guard caused a momentary pause; the next minute the guerrillas turned and fled, the advance starting in pursuit, an exciting chase ensuing for half a mile. A second volley was fired by the pursuers, but still the rebels kept onward in their escape till they arrived near the woods, when they dashed in and our men dare not follow. A stray horse was seen to gallop from the woods without a rider! A man was shot! Where was he? The neighborhood was searched, and, in an adjoining house, stretched on a bed, pale and breathing hard, was found a wounded man, a young lady fanning him tenderly.

The officer in command asked him, “Do you belong to the regular Confederate army, and what regiment?” He replied, “I belong to Mosby’s command.” He stated that he had always used the Union men well when he had taken them prisoners, and begged that a surgeon be sent (a part of the lungs were protruding from the side), with which request Lieut. Lyett promptly complied. The surgeon came too late, for two nights afterwards the notorious Franch Delaney breathed his last, Col. Delaney arriving just in time to take a last farewell. Curious to relate, Col. Delaney some time since was taken prisoner to Richmond, and his own son was present at the capture. The news of his fate flew fast; arriving at Dranesville, the officer in charge was accosted by the fair damsels of rebeldom, in terms like this: “Now, have you really shot Franchy Delaney? Well now, that is too bad; I hope he won’t die.” “Yes,” replied Lyett, “and very soon you will have no rebel beaux to marry! You will have to take up with Union men.” “We will,” was the answer, “but we will convert them.” “Perhaps,” said the lieutenant, “we shall convert you.” The maiden smiled incredulously, and Lyett left for his command.

Recruiting from Rebel Prisoners.—A correspondent of the Baltimore American from Point Lookout, Md., under date of June 5, says:

Recruiting at the point from the rebel camp has taken a new impetus since the arrival of so large a number of prisoners. The recruiting is under the charge of Lieut. E. Williams of the 1st United States Volunteers. He has succeeded since the opening of the campaign in recruiting over 400 reliable men–men whom force and circumstance led in array against their own government, but who now, as soon as opportunity offered, at once enlisted to fight her battles. A number whom we conversed with say since they were in the service of the rebel Government they never raised a musket but against their own will.

The number of rebels that wish to take the oath since the late battles is quite astonishing, and an officer hardly gets within the gates but he is beset by this hungry crew, thirsting after the protection of the Government.

Among the prisoners that lately arrived at the camp are quite a number from the Northern States. These men are the worst rebels imaginable, and openly brag and boast of their Northern parentage, but claim that they have friends at the North, who, they are sorry to say have become Abolitionists, and can see only through a Negro’s spectacles. These vile miscreants are from all States. Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, New York and even Maine have their representatives among this rebel crew.


Some gentlemen, in conversation with the President a few days ago, expressed their doubts as to Butler’s capacity as an officer in the field. “Well,” said Mr. Lincoln, “if he does not succeed it will not be my fault. I have set three of my best Generals to watch him–Baldy Smith, Gilmore and Weitzel. Now, if they can’t keep him from doing harm, I am sure  ought not to be held accountable for what he does.”


Narrow Escape of Gen. Lee.—A Richmond paper says that, when Hancock made his grand swoop on the rebel army and captured so many prisoners, Lee sat upon his horse, bareheaded, and uttered not a word, but looked “sublime.” His companions shouted, “General Lee, go to the rear!” He heeded them not, but looked abstractedly upon the struggle. “Depend upon your Virginians!” was the next exclamation, when the former outcries were repeated, with the assurance that “they would not fail him.” His horse was quickly led to the rear, and his person saved from captivity.

JUNE 20, 1864

[From the Petersburg Express, June 16.]

From the Front–The Enemy in Force.

The enemy are determined to annoy our people with all the means and appliances at their command, if they cannot effect our subjugation. At this time they are threatening a half dozen or more localities in Virginia, requiring on the part of the Confederates the exercise of all the vigilance necessary to watch closely the movements of a crafty and insidious foe. Our own immediate vicinity was again menaced yesterday, and at several points by such a show of force that it was no doubt the intention of the enemy to have effected an entrance into the city, had he been permitted to do so.

At early dawn our citizens were aroused by the discharge of artillery, the sound of each cannon being distinctly heard here, and coming from the direction of the City point Road. At seven o’clock, it was ascertained that the enemy was advancing in force, and every man able to shoulder a musket did so, and hastened to the fortifications.

We learned last evening that the main point of attack was on the City point Road, at a distance of six or seven miles from town. At an early hour the enemy advanced with at least seven regiments of infantry and one of cavalry upon some breastworks thrown up hastily during Tuesday night at Baylor’s Farm by Colonel Ferrebee of the 4th N. C. Cavalry. They were held in check by Colonel Ferrebee’s men and Graham’s (Petersburg) Battery for four hours, who fought bravely, but were finally compelled to fall back before overwhelming numbers. Ferrebee’s men inflicted severe loss upon the enemy, and Graham’s battery shelled the masses of his men with admirable effect. Our men retired in good order and sustained but few casualties during the fight. It is stated that Graham lost one gun, in consequence of the horses being disabled, but we know not that this is correct.

The enemy demonstrated at other points along our lines, but his attacks were feeble and easily repulsed.

It is stated that our sharpshooters did admirable execution, picking the enemy off wherever he showed himself, and in some instances at a distance which appeared almost incredible. It is estimated that this effective arm of our service placed not less than sixty Yankees hors du combat along our lines yesterday.

A few prisoners were taken. Among the number was a fellow who rode into our lines at full speed, minus his cap. He was mounted upon a blooded steed, no doubt stolen from some Virginia gentleman in one of the recent raids, and could not rein his animal up. In fact, the fellow was a poor rider, and let go the bridle, and hung on to the pommel of the saddle with as much tenacity as a drowning man would a drifting log. Some of the prisoners stated that they belonged to Burnside’s corps, and asserted also that Burnside, the barber, was at City Point with his whole corps. We presume it is not very formidable, since it was pressed into service on the very second day of Grant’s fearful encounter with General Lee, and has been engaged ever since. Burnside may probably expect to win some laurels around Petersburg, but we can assure him in advance that he will pay dearly for them. Our authorities are more than ever alive to the importance of defending Petersburg, and should the invaders renew their attempts this morning, as it is probable they will, a very different reception awaits them to any which has been heretofore extended. ->

From Chesterfield.

We understand that the enemy withdrew all their white Yankees from Gen. Beauregard’s front in Chesterfield Tuesday night, and substituted Negro Yankees in their stead. Yesterday morning our pickets over there were surprised when day dawned, to find themselves confronted by soldiers purely of African descent. Be it so. If the elegant, refined and fastidious Butler desires to achieve the reputation of a warrior with such troops, it is not in our power to prevent him, however much we may object. But when the actual conflict does come, it will be a sad day for those sable sons of Mars, and their burly leader too, if he should take the field.


An Atrocious Order.—The annexed atrocious order has just been issued by LeRoy Fitch, the Lieutenant Commander of the Eighth District Mississippi Squadron:

“The inhabitants in towns and villages on the Cumberland, Upper Tennessee and Ohio Rivers and their tributaries, will be held accountable for any outrages committed by guerrillas, or others, in their neighborhood, and commanding officers of gunboats are hereby instructed to shell and burn all property where such outrages are allowed to take place. Should any steamers be fired upon at any place, inhabitants in the vicinity will at once take steps for their own protection, where such outrages have been committed, as this order will most certainly be enforced. All prisoners captured as guerrillas will be shot on approval of Admiral Porter. Officers of this district are enjoined to exercise vigilance, discretion and courage, and if captured by surprise of otherwise, will necessarily have to suffer the consequence of their neglect of duty.”


Later from Europe.

Richmond, June 19.–European advices to the 1st instant had been received. Mr. Ormsay’s motion for recognition of the Southern Confederacy was postponed until the 17th. It was reported that Napoleon had sent two Commissioners to America to report the progress of the war, and renew overtures to England for a cessation of the carnage.


The French Government have taken measures to stop the vessels intended for the Confederates.


Departure of Congressmen.—The great bulk of the members of Congress betook themselves from the Capital on the Danville train on Tuesday, two hours after adjournment, so anxious were they to get out of sight and sound of the city of high steeples and higher prices. Very few were remaining in the city Wednesday, and they were of those who could not get away because of the railroad interruption and the presence of the enemy in their home sections.


JUNE 21,

A Big Swindle.

When the army crossed the Rapidan and fought the battle of the Wilderness, among the distinguished personages who were busy among the wounded, the public were informed quite often that Dr. Morton, of Boston, the inventor of anæsthetics, was present in the hospitals, administering chloroform with his own hand to a great number of patients. He was commended for his philanthropy, and if the matter had rested there, his good deeds would have been credited to his humanity.

Not long after a bill was introduced into Congress appropriating two hundred thousand dollars to Dr. Morton as a reward for his invention. The proposition struck every unprejudiced mind as preposterous. Appropriate means have been devised to remunerate meritorious inventors for their labor and skill. Patent laws are presumed to be adequate to provide for them ample compensation. An application for reward through outside channels bears marks of suspicion on its face. The committee on ways and means, obviously appreciating the odious character of the gift, instead of placing it on the private calendar, introduced it in the civil appropriation bill, where there were hopes of concealing its presence amid the multitude of items. Mr. Washburne, of Illinois, detected the item and objected to it. The entire bill was then returned to the committee of ways and means.

The committee then prepared a new bill, involving a few trifling changes, which they again presented to the House. Again the obnoxious gift to Dr. Morton was discovered among the items, and a second time the bill was returned to the committee for revision. The obstinacy of the committee, and the underhanded methods employed to crowd through the objectionable feature of the bill on the teeth of the indignant opposition of the House, subjects their motives to suspicion. A large amount of lobby influence has been employed to secure the passage of the measure. Even if Dr. Morton’s claims were well founded, the manner in which his friends have prosecuted the enterprise would awaken apprehensions that things were not right.

Bu the truth is that Dr. Morton is an arrant pretender, seeking to rob another of whatever fame and profit should be derived from the discovery of anæsthetic agents. He has indeed, by persistent and shameless efforts, succeeded in securing a favorable report from a committee of the U. S. Senate, and his petition is signed by large numbers, of whom the great majority never spent one moment in investigating the foundations of his claim, and some of whom had previously recorded their names on oath in opposition to the pretensions of Morton. Thinking, however, that a time of war requiring large and hasty appropriations afforded a fitting opportunity to press through his bastard claim, Dr. Morton has applied himself with great energy to the work.

Dr. Morton has no right to the honor of the discovery. That, and whatever remuneration the world might have to bestow, belonged to the late Horace Wells of this city. The evidence in favor of Wells is overwhelming, and no competent and impartial mind familiar with the testimony can entertain a doubt. That the world owes a substantial debt to the discovery of anæsthetics we have no disposition to deny. It should be rendered, however, to the right parties. The heirs of Horace Wells are justly entitled to whatever pecuniary recompense the gratitude of the country may impel it to bestow.


The recommendation of the president, backed by the Secretary of War and the Provost Marshal General, to repeal the $300 commutation clause of the enrollment bill, is not likely to be adopted for the present. Nearly the entire press of the country condemns the proposed measure, and it is thought that a majority of the House will vote to postpone the subject till Congress meets next December. Notwithstanding the factious outcry against the exemption clause when the bill first passed, as discriminating against the poor in favor of the rich, the provision has proved entirely humane. All classes and parties regard it with favor, and no one would now think of increasing the rigor of the law by urging its repeal, unless convinced that the public welfare imperatively demanded it.

But the fact that the President has recommended the measure, and a majority of the U. S. Senate favor the change, suggests reflections that many will find it advantageous to heed. No one foresees how long the war will continue, now how many requisitions may yet be made for men. It has already far overlapped the period allowed by wise statesmen for its possible duration. It must go on till the rebellion is crushed. A brave and chivalric people will accept no other issue. The work may be accomplished in six months, it may require many more.

At the present moment it is comparatively easy for individuals to provide against future hardships. An abundance of substitutes to serve for three years can now be procured for $600. A late decision of the War Department allows citizens liable to conscription to provide substitutes in anticipation of future drafts. By improving the opportunity one can now relieve himself from all further apprehensions of personal summons to the field. As the enrollment stands, the payment of $300 exempts the conscript for twelve months only. If the proposed modification is made in December, it requires no gift of prophecy to predict the price of substitutes then. With two or three hundred thousand conscripts in the market, competing for a commodity necessarily limited in supply, the cost would rise at once to a point entirely beyond the reach of men of ordinary means. Indeed it may be questioned whether the requisite supply would be forthcoming at any price.

Now is the best time to guard against future contingencies. As soon as the next call for troops is issued, the expense of procuring substitutes will be greatly enhanced. Citizens liable to draft cannot make a better investment for themselves or the country than to send immediately representatives to take their places in the ranks.


A soldier in a hospital in Resaca, Ga., writes to a Western paper: “I see my name reported in the list of deaths at this hospital. I knew it was a lie as soon as I saw it. Hereafter when you hear of my death, write me and find out if it is so before publishing it. Yours convalescently, Michael Butler, Co. I, 47th Ohio.”

JUNE 22, 1864


The Attack on Petersburg.

Bermuda Hundred, June 18.–In all, twenty-one pieces of artillery have been captured from the enemy in our assaults on Petersburg, beside a large number of prisoners.

Gen. Butler succeeded in destroying four miles of track and an important bridge at Wauhat junction on the Petersburg and Richmond railroad.

Early’s corps (rebel) crossed the James river near Drury’s bluff in strong force, and was seen coming down the Petersburg turnpike as Butler’s forces entered their works.

Last evening as the dispatch steamer Amanda Winanis was passing Wilcox’s wharf, she was fired into from the north side of James river. One shot passed through her hull near the water line. No one was injured.

The James river is blockaded by our forces a few miles below Drury’s Bluff to prevent surprise from the rebel rams.

Our losses during the past two days will reach 8000 killed and wounded. The enemy being behind their works did not lose so heavily. The number of prisoners taken so far is about 1200, of whom 200 came in yesterday.

Washington, June 20.–A dispatch dated Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, June 18, 7 p.m., says the fighting yesterday was very severe along the greater part of the line. The most determined effort was made to break the enemy’s line at several points, but little ground, however, was gained, except on the left, where the rebels were forced to fall back to their inner line.

The line of the rebels is nearly in the form of a semi-circle, the ends resting on the Appomattox river, Petersburg being the center. At some points of the line our guns are within one and a half miles of the city, which can be destroyed at any time with ease. The heaviest fighting occurred on the right center, where the 2d corps charged the rebel works at different times without success.

These works are of the strongest character. Our men had to cross open fields of from 200 to 400 yards in extent, exposed to a cross fire from batteries so placed as to sweep the entire space.

The last attack was made at 5 p.m. by the 3d division under Gen. Mott, and the loss was probably heavier than at any of the other attacks.


Shocking Explosion in Washington.

Washington, May 17.–An explosion of fireworks occurred at the arsenal to-day, blowing up the laboratory. The occupants of the building were all females. When the explosion occurred a terrible scene was witnessed. In the yard were about 1200 men and 300 women at work, a number of whom were burned while endeavoring to get away. After the fire was extinguished, search for the bodies commenced. Eighteen bodies have thus far been taken out of the ruins, burned to a crisp. It is impossible to recognize them. Eight females were taken out in a sad condition and placed in the hospital.


Nineteen bodies have been taken out thus far, three more mortally injured and 15 or 20 suffering severe contusions. Quite a number were injured in jumping from the windows, the majority of whom escaped and immediately ran away, so that it is impossible to estimate the loss of life. Three boys are missing, and it is feared they perished.


Maximilian in Mexico.—The reception of the new Austrian emperor and empress in Vera Cruz seems not to have been a very enthusiastic occasion. In fact it was rather cool. The royal party, escorted by French bayonets, did not stop after landing, but proceeded on the journey. Maximilian has appointed Santa Anna, Almonte, Miramon and Marquez grand marshals of the empire.

On the Chickahominy.

Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, June 11.–The past few days have been quite uneventful to the army of the Potomac. Our lines are scarcely nearer the enemy than was the position at the close of the battle on Friday, more than a week ago. The troops on both sides, each behind their entrenchments, have kept up a desultory but useless fire, just sufficient to make it apparent that the respective works were not vacant. Both armies, in fact, have been enjoying the repose which was needed after the hard fighting and rapid marching of the three weeks’ campaigning from the banks of the Rapidan. To-day the silence is even more marked than before. The sound of a musket has scarcely been heard along the entire front. A few blurts of artillery and the explosion of a shell or two high over the trees about the centre of the line have been the only reminders this afternoon of the enemy’s presence. From present indications, it is not likely there will be any fighting for several days to come; but the storm is brewing, and may burst in quarters least expected by the enemy.

Yesterday an order was issued by General Meade, forbidding unauthorized communications with the enemy. The men on both sides have been holding intercourse with each other for interchange of newspapers and the barter of coffee and tobacco. In this way a great deal of mischief was likely to result, as information of vital importance is always apt to leak out. The opposing line of rifle pits, it must be borne in mind, are not a hundred yards apart–in some parts of the line much closer. For any portion of the body to be exposed, the penalty is certain wounding, if not death. But the men are utterly weary of loading and firing. They have kept up this heavy skirmishing for days, and no visible advantage has been gained by either side. The fire gradually slackens. Officers become careless about urging the men to their work. A tacit and magnetic spell influences with equal power our own men and their mortal enemies. It is very curious. The combatants are entirely hidden from each other’s sight.

The last shot is fired, and the lull in the battle storm is perfect. Adventurous spirits on both sides cautiously raise their heads above the earth works. “How are you Johnny?” “How are you Yank?” are questions usually bandied. “Won’t you shoot?” “No,” says the other. “Well, we won’t,” chime in all, and immediately the parapets are swarmed with the men who have been concealed and protected behind them. Out jump the fellows from the rifle-pits, and putting down their guns, stretch their cramped forms upon the grass. Sharpshooters covertly slide down from their perches in the trees and loll about in utter abandon. Trade is quickly opened, and all sorts of commodities are exchanged. The men have keen pleasure in their singular armistice, bantering each other sharply, and never overstepping the half-way line which separates their respective fortifications. Suddenly the cry is raised, “Run back Johnnys” or “Run back Yanks,” just as it happens to be “We’re going to shoot,” and the hostilities begin again. It is always understood, however, that the first shot shall be aimed high, and the veriest dawdler gets back to shelter safely.

While this fraternal scene is being enacted on one limited part of the line, the battle rages hotly at other portions of the extended front, which measures by miles. Was ever such strange warfare known before? It is easy enough to see, however, that these anomalous episodes may be abused. The rebels availed themselves of such a truce the other day to strengthen a battery which had been reduced to silence, and had kept still for nearly a week. The work, consequently, has had to be done over again. I have seen a great many prisoners lately. Their appearance entirely refutes the very current stories that the rebel army is in a destitute and starving condition. It is simply idle talk about starving the enemy into submission. The rebel soldiers, as a general thing, are stout, strong, and the very picture of health. It is insulting to our brave men that the statements so industriously circulated respecting the feebleness and lack of power of endurance of the southern soldiers should be believed. The rations of the rebel troops may not be in as great variety as those furnished to our men, but they have proved to be fully as nutritious. This fact cannot be gainsaid.

JUNE 23,

Grant South of the James River.
His Advance on Petersburg.

The great event of the Virginia campaign since our last issue is the movement of the grand army of the Potomac under Gen. Grant to the South side of the James River and the junction of Meade’s and Butler’s forces. The movement commenced Sunday night, the 12th inst.–Gen. Meade having fortified his line on the Chickahominy so as to guard the rear of his moving column from any sudden attack by the enemy. The 18th corps, under Gen. Smith, moved from White House by transports and ascended the James River, while the main army moved by land–Burnside and Wright crossing the Chickahominy at Long Bridge, and the corps of Hancock and Warren at the Jones Bridge–both bridges only in name, pontoons being used by our forces. Burnside and Wright then moved for Charles City, and struck the James south of that point, Hancock and Warren going to Wilcox’s Landing some distance further up the river. At 1 o’clock of Tuesday, Gen. Grant was at Bermuda Hundred, and the army was then crossing. Gen. Smith’s corps had already begun to arrive in transports, and when it arrived, it was immediately ordered to advance upon Petersburg, the object of Gen. Grant evidently being to get possession of that town, and of the railroad leading to it from Richmond–in a word, to get between Richmond and the rebel supplies South. Meanwhile, Sheridan, at the head of his large cavalry force was sent Westward to destroy the railroad communications leading from Richmond toward Gordonsville and Lynchburg.

Gen. Smith, with the 18th corps, moved toward Petersburg on Wednesday morning of last week, and met the enemy in their works this side of the town, succeeding, after fighting nearly all day, in carrying the enemy’s two principal lines, and capturing from three to four hundred prisoners ad sixteen cannon. This success put Petersburg at the command of our guns, compelling the enemy to cross the Appomattox and fortify on the West side of the town. The place has been defended by Beauregard and Wise. The colored troops under Gen. Hinks acted with great gallantry and bravery, leading the assault on the enemy’s works. They stormed the strongest portion of the rebel line, took many prisoners and six of the sixteen guns. Gen. Smith publicly thanked them for their essential service. By dark of Wednesday, Gen. Hancock had formed a junction with Smith, and the whole army was across the James, and rapidly moving forward.


Fighting Saturday Night and Sunday.
Only a Mile from Petersburg.

Before Petersburg, June 19, 11 a.m.–Last evening the rebels made a vigorous attack upon our centre, the second corps, and the left, the ninth corps. After a severe engagement they were repulsed and driven to their works in disorder. Early this morning the second corps charged the rebel centre, and carried the works in their front, which they now firmly hold. At 9 o’clock two brigades of Gen. Martindale’s division, supported by Duncan’s brigade, were advanced on the right and carried the rebel line in its front, being a continuation of the works taken by the second corps. On the centre and the right we are now within one mile of Petersburg, and the city is at the mercy of our shells. ->

The only defences remaining to it are the entrenchments which the rebels have hastily thrown up within the last two or three days. The two lines of formidable works which our brave troops have carried by storm are at least four miles in length, stretching from a point on the Appomattox at our right nearly to the same river at our left and crossing all the railroads that go out of Petersburg on the south of the Appomattox.


The London Times on Grant.—The London Times says of Grant:

“He has stamped a new character on the tactics of the Federals. No other general would either have advanced upon [the] Wilderness after the severe battle of the 5th, nor followed up an almost victorious though retiring enemy after the still harder fighting of the 6th. None but he, again, would have attacked his adversary so resolutely on the 8th and the 9th, or held his ground so tenaciously in spite of failure. Under his command the army of the Potomac has achieved in invading Virginia an amount of success never achieved before, except in repelling invasion. The Confederate forces were once arrested by McClellan and once by Meade; but that was when they thought to carry war into Northern territory. Grant alone has done more than this.”


Physical Culture.—The Boston “Normal Institute for Physical Education,” incorporated in 1860, and under the management of Dr. Dio Lewis, will open its Seventh Session on the Fifth of July next, 1864. The demand for teachers of the New Gymnastics has become such that the last two classes of Graduates, consisting of about ninety ladies and gentlemen, were at once engaged, and hundreds more might find profitable employment. Well-known medical men assist in preparing the pupils to act as guides in Physical culture. In the department of gymnastics, Dr. Lewis personally trains every candidate for the New Profession. If any reader would know more of this pioneer institution in a new and profitable profession, let him or her send for a full circular to Dr. Dio Lewis, Boston.


A joint resolution has for some time been pending before Congress, proposing, in a legitimate and constitutional manner, and amendment to the Constitution of the United States, by which slavery, or involuntary servitude, shall be done away with–abolished. A vote of two-thirds in both branches of Congress is required, and the Senate, some time since, passed the resolution by more than the requisite number of votes. On Wednesday of last week a vote was had in the House, a large majority, but not the requisite two-thirds, being cast for the proposed amendment. The vote stood: 89 Unionists and 4 Democrats for the amendment; and 63 Democrats and 1 Unionist against it. The one Unionist who voted nay was Mr. Ashley of Ohio, who, after voting for the resolution, changed to the negative side in order to secure the privilege of moving a reconsideration.

24, 1864

The March to James River.

Our army moved its lines on the north side of the Chickahominy on Sunday afternoon, one column moving toward Long Bridge and the other towards Jones’ Bridge, Warren taking the advance and Wright covering the rear.

Gen. Grant moved from Cold Harbor at 3 p.m. and encamped for the night at Moody’s, a short distance this side of Long Bridge. The road from Long Bridge to St. Mary’s church is flanked by an impassable swamp. On the west from St. Mary’s church a road diverges south-eastwardly in the direction of Charles City Court House, leading into the road from Jones’ Bridge to Powhattan Point.

Now that Gen. Grant has reached the James River it is not improper to state that he has achieved up to this time exactly what he intended when he crossed the Rapidan and that he has not deviated ten miles from his proposed line of march at any place. His crossing at the North Anna was undertaken for the purpose of effectually destroying the section of the Virginia Central railroad between Hanover Junction and Gordonsville, thereby preventing the return of Lee’s army northward under any circumstance. This work was accomplished in the most thorough manner, rendering it impossible to supply an army moving on Washington from the south, northern Virginia being utterly exhausted for food since our army crossed the Rapidan.

They forced Lee back sixty miles through four complete lines of fortifications, captured 12,000 prisoners by actual count, and 23 pieces of artillery. We have lost less than 6000 prisoners, one-half of whom were stragglers, and only three guns. Being the attacking party we lost in killed and wounded a few more than the enemy, but only a few. We have lost 19 general officers, and the enemy 25.


To Condense Milk for Soldiers.—Place two quarts of new milk in a vessel over a slow fire, stir it to prevent burning, until it is about the thickness of cream, add one pound of sugar, a little at a time, stirring constantly till it becomes thick and stiff, then spread on plates and dry in the oven or the sun, and powder it with a knife or spoon. It can be sent in papers and serves for both milk and sugar when dissolved in coffee or tea. Let our dairywomen try it, and they will get the thanks of the “Sanitary” and the soldiers.


Notwithstanding the care which Lieut. Gen. Grant takes in his dispatches to show that Gen. Meade is the commanding officer of the army of the Potomac, and has direction of its movements, the press and the people seem to forget this fact. The truth is, Gen. Meade is just as truly the commander of the army of the Potomac as Gen. Sherman of the army operating in Georgia, and that both of these officers are equally under command of Gen. Grant. Gen. Grant’s orders to Gen. Meade are of the most general character, the manner of executing them being left to the sound judgment and fine soldierly skill of the actual commander of the army of the Potomac.


Another grand move of the army of the Potomac has been made, full particulars of which are given in Secretary Stanton’s Official Bulletin. The feat of moving a large body of troops as the army of the Potomac across a river like the James, in the very front of the enemy, is considered one of the greatest military achievements in modern warfare. The army is now south of Richmond and investing Petersburg, which is very strongly defended by works constructed under the immediate supervision of Gen. Beauregard, who now superintends their defense, and will doubtless exercise all his skill in retaining them. On Saturday there was severe fighting before Petersburg, the enemy having been reinforced with detachments from Ewell’s, Longstreet’s, and other corps. No fighting has taken place since Sunday.

Gen. Butler received information early on the morning of the 16th, that the enemy were evacuating their works in his front, and determined to ascertain the truth of the statement, ordered Gen. Terry to advance his whole line. This was promptly done. The force penetrated to the Petersburg railroad end effectually destroyed some four mile, and when the advance of Lee’s army appeared, arrested it by an unexpected attack and withdrew safely in face of an overwhelming force before the enemy had recovered from their surprise. Of course it was impossible for Gen. Butler, with a handful of troops, to keep possession of the railroad while the main body of the rebels were coming down from Drury’s Bluff.

The rebel general commanding at Charleston had had the folly to put five Union Generals, whom they hold as prisoners of war, under fire, as if to protect that city from bombardment by Gen. Foster. At the request of Gen. Foster, the Secretary of War has sent five rebel generals to be placed under fire, and meantime the fire on Charleston continues. The only way to reach such inhuman and unchristian acts of the rebels is retaliation, and we rejoice that the government begins to see it.

There were rumors in New York on Monday that an entire division of Burnside’s corps had been captured, but were probably started by stock brokers, as no news of that kind has reached Washington from the army.

Every battle in which colored troops take part gives the lie to the assertion that “blacks won’t fight.” The dispatches to the War Department from before Petersburg refer to them as “assaulting and carrying the rifle pits with great gallantry,” and adds: “The hardest fighting was done by the black troops. The forts they stormed were the worst of all. After the affair was over, Gen. Smith went to thank them, and tell them he was proud of their courage and dash. He says they cannot be exceeded as soldiers, and that hereafter he will send them into a difficult place as readily as the best white troops. They captured six out of the sixteen cannon which he took.” The accounts of all the newspaper correspondents are of the same tenor. The facts are beyond question.

JUNE 25, 1864


One Great Victory in the War.

The New York Evening Post, which has criticized some of the acts of the present administration, has an excellent article under this caption, which cannot but find ready endorsement everywhere. It says, when Mr. Seward began to put men into Fort Lafayette, the journals and politicians which call themselves democratic instantly cried out against these arbitrary arrests. When the Postmaster General denied to certain journals the privilege of the mails, the opposition leaders and journals denounced this act as violent and unjustifiable. When several pressed were stopped by order of the President, the denunciations of this as tyrannical and unendurable by the opposition press and speakers were violent and long-continued. When unlawful assemblages threatened to destroy journals, and when government officers or private persons attempted to interfere with the right of free discussion, these acts and threats again called forth the severest rebuke from the opposition.

In all this,  they planted themselves upon the great rights of freemen freely and openly to discuss, by voice or press, all interests whatsoever, and to be free in their persons and property from arrest or harm, except by due process of law. There let them stand. They have asserted these rights in war-time, surely they must support them when peace returns. They have denounced their violation in times of profound public danger, when a fierce enemy was threatening the national life; surely they are bound to maintain these when peace returns, when no enemy threatens, when no perils beset the nation. They have pledged themselves under all circumstances to protect free speech and a free press, and to protest against arbitrary arrests and illegal punishments. It is a great benefit to the nation that persons who formerly, and but a few years ago, saw without protest some hanged, other men expelled from different states, presses and citizens mobbed, and free discussion by voice and pen stopped over a great part of the Union, have at last seen the error of their ways, and are now of the same mind as their political opponents upon questions of such vital importance as these.

All that the opposition journals and speakers now denounce as inexcusable–though done in a time of great public danger and avowedly for the purpose of averting great perils from the whole nation–all this was done for years by slaveholders and their tools without drawing forth a single rebuke from the presses and leaders of the democratic party. Honorable and venerable citizens–like Judge Hoar of Massachusetts–were ignominiously expelled from sister states, with threats of brutal violence and death if they did not at once get out of the way, and not one of these present lovers of free speech and law and order had a word of denunciation; other humbler citizens–but all are equal before the law–were robbed, lynched, hanged, sent into exile, driven away from the business they were lawfully pursuing, but no word of reproof or denunciation came from democratic leaders or presses against the authors of these outrages. The mails were violated, not by order of the Postmaster-General, but at the will of any irresponsible local postmaster who chose to make himself the judge of what his neighbors ought or ought not to read; and those who now denounce the slightest interference with the press had no word even of mild remonstrance. Some even defended these outrages, and justified their perpetrators. Even since the opening of the war, a citizen, honorable, of conspicuous genius, was brutally interrupted and attacked in Cincinnati, while addressing a respectable audience of ladies and gentlemen, and one of the principal organs of the opposition rejoiced in the outrage, and ridiculed the sufferer.->

Let us have free speech by all means; let us abolish mob-law and Lynch law; let us maintain the right of every American citizen citizen to discuss freely all questions; let us assert for every man born on the soil, or naturalized, the right to life and liberty and property. Henceforth we may expect to find those who formerly encouraged the mobbing of anti-slavery men foremost in defending their rights to discuss a question of the greatest public interest. Henceforth no more presses will be stopped, no more mails opened, no more citizens driven out, no more Lynch law, no more arbitrary arrests, arbitrary trials or arbitrary hanging, tarring and feathering, or riding on a rail.

For on this question of personal liberty, the only delinquents have nee converted; the only men who have ever tolerated their violation in the free states, have seen the error of their ways; and so the whole people are of one mind. There is reason here for rejoicing; it is one of the most important victories of the war.


Eight to Sixteen.—Lord Shaftesbury recently stated in a public meeting in London, that from personal observation, he had ascertained, that of male adult criminals of that city, nearly all had fallen into a course of crime between the ages of 8 and 16 years; and that if a young man lived an honest life up to twenty years of age, there were forty-nine chances in favor, and only one against him, as to an honorable life thereafter.

This is a fact of singular importance to fathers and mothers, and shows a fearful responsibility. Certainly a parent should secure and exercise absolute control over the child under sixteen. It would be a difficult matter to do this, except in very rare cases; and if that control is not very wisely and efficiently exercised, it must be the parents’ fault; it is owing to the paternal neglect or remissness. Hence the real source of ninety-eight per cent of the real crime in a country such as England or the United States lies at the door of the parents. It is a fearful reflection!

We throw it before the minds of the fathers and mothers of our land, and there leave it to be thought of in wisdom, remarking only to the early seeds of bodily disease that they are, in nearly every case, sown between sundown and bedtime, in absence from the family circle; in the supply of spending money never earned by the spender–opening the doors of confectionaries and soda fountains, of beer and tobacco and wine shops, of the circus, of the Negro minstrel, the restaurant and dance–then follows the Sunday excursion and the Sunday drive, with the easy transition to the company of those whose ways lead to the gates of social, physical and moral ruin. From eight to sixteen–in these few years–are the destinies of children fixed in forty-nine cases out of fifty–fixed by the parents! Let every father and mother solemnly swear vow, “By God’s help, I’ll fix my darling’s destiny for good, by making home more attractive than the streets.”

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