OCTOBER 30, 1864

The War in New Zealand–Native Superstitions.
[From the Southern Cross, Auckland, June 3.]

The following account of the origin and nature of the native religious delusion which has been the cause of the late alarm will doubtless interest our readers: On the occasion of the fight at Ahuahu, Capt. Lloyd’s blood was drunk by the natives that killed him, and after having finished their orgies they cut off his head and buried it. Next night the Archangel Gabriel is said to have appeared to those who had partaken of the blood, and desired them to disinter and dry it in the old Maori fashion, in order that the captain’s spirit, speaking through the head, might become the medium of communication between the Almighty and mankind, and be carried through the island as a banner under which a crusade against the pakehas was to be preached.1 This was accordingly done, and the head is asserted to have spoken and propounded the new creed, as well as appointed Te Ua of Ngatiruanui, Hepanaia of Taranaki, and Matene Rangitanira of Wanganui as its chief priests. The following are the principle articles of the new faith: Its professors were to be called “Pai marire,” (good and peaceable), and the word “hou,” pronounced short, like the barking of a dog, was to be their sacred watchword, the rapid utterance of which would ward off all danger, seven to the extent of causing edged weapons to glance from their bodies in battle, and bullets aimed at them to change their course and rise in the air. The proselytes were to be initiated by drinking water in which the head had been dipped, or which had been poured over the head, and take an oath to destroy every white person, without distinction of age or sex, till all were killed or driven from the land. The professors of the new faith were to be under the special protection of the Virgin Mary, who would be personally present among them; and they were to be assisted in their task of driving out the pakeha by the Archangel Gabriel and hosts of angels, and as soon as the task was completed these heavenly messengers would teach them all arts and sciences known to the Europeans. The professors would be enabled to learn English or any other foreign language perfectly in one lesson, by observing certain forms–namely, standing for a given time in a certain position, under a flag of a particular color and pattern, hoisted on a flagstaff of certain dimensions. The priests claimed to have acquired this power, and Matene lately, when at Waitotara, got possession of a piece of newspaper in which some articles purchased in town had been wrapped, and pretended to read it aloud in English, and afterwards to translate it; and performed the cheat so adroitly that one of the Waitotara  assessors present–a very intelligent native, who from his boyhood has had intercourse with Europeans–was deceived into becoming a convert, and has since been deprived of his office in consequence. All the European creeds were to be regarded as false, and done away with; all Bibles and other books relating to them were to be destroyed; the observance of the Sabbath was to cease, all days being regarded as holy; and marriage and its obligations were to be dispensed with in order that the race of believers might increase the faster and become as the sand of the sea in multitude. ->

The fact that the extraordinary powers promised have not been conferred was accounted for by its beings necessary that the head should first visit the whole island. How far the professors of the new creed and its priests have been self-deluded, it is hard to say; but the death of two out of the three leaders (Hepanaia at Sentry Hill and Matene at Moutoa,) may cause the delusion to die out. Nevertheless, the importance of securing Capt. Lloyd’s head is obvious, as use may still be made of it for mischievous purposes by any native possessing ventriloquial powers.


One Tribe of Circassians Still Holding Out.—A letter from Trebizond, in the Paris Moniteur, says:

The Circassian tribe which has taken refuge in the high mountains behind Gonais still holds out in its resistance against Russia. The number of families which have retreated there is estimated at five hundred. Encounters take place constantly, and, although the besiegers consist of six thousand men, the Russians have so far always been defeated. A serious attack was made recently, when the Circassians resisted with such energy that two hundred of the enemy, including a colonel, a major and several other officers were killed or wounded. To resist the besiegers the Circassians erect with much skill immense piles of stones, of a large size, and, when the attack is made, by removing one of them, which forms a sort of keystone, the rest roll down into the ravine, crushing everything before them. The mountaineers will resist so long as their provisions hold out, unless the Russians succeed in turning their strong positions. The country is being continually traversed by bands of people removing. About fifteen thousand persons of the Natoubhatch tribe are expected at Novrosisk shortly, where sixteen sailing vessels, under the Ottoman flag, are awaiting to embark them on their arrival. The chief of that important tribe, a rich and important personage, who possesses considerable forests, and immense flocks, has already left Novrosisk with four thousand of his people. The Russian Government has placed the corvette Wolga at his disposal, and to him was paid the greatest attention. He has gone to reside at Ruviendje.


Among the newspapers North, we find the question mooted where Edgar A. Poe was buried, a movement being started to erect a monument to the author of “The Raven” and “The Bells.” Poe died in New York, and if our recollection is not amiss, his remains were interred in one of the intra-mural churchyards of that city. He was buried from a hospital there, if we mistake not, though the writer of the preface to Redfield’s edition of his poems, (New York, 1859,) says (and it may be so,) “he lies in a burying ground in Baltimore, his native city, without a stone to mark the place.”2

OCTOBER 31, 1864

Our Surplus Women.
[From the Charlottesville Chronicle.]

The great mortality of the war, particularly among the young men of the country, is likely to raise certain practical questions between the sexes, which are not unworthy the attention of the reflecting mind. The disproportion between the sexes will be so great, upon the advent of peace, and the preponderance of the female element so heavy, that it is by no means irrelevant to inquire, what are we to do with our women? Their prejudices against foreigners are so great the importation of husbands to supply the deficiency which will exist, however satisfactory it might be to many young ladies, would never receive the approval of the country. There is therefore remaining no expedient for the disposition of the surplus population of this class but to take their situation in single life as agreeably as the circumstances will permit, or the alternative of polygamy. For the latter we have the precedent of many examples, such as for instance, as Jacob and David and Solomon–the last of whom is recorded to have shared his affections among as many as seven hundred princesses and royal partners. . . We regard this, however, as difficult of realization in our circumstances, and prefer to recommend the organization of Protestant religious houses, like the Convents and Sisters of Mercy among the Roman Catholics. . .

It occurs to us that our young ladies may even now fairly give their attention to this subject. It is clearly sentimental–as much so as conventual life–and will be a matter of necessity, unless female celibacy in its present objectionable form is to throw its shadow over the whole land. We, for our part, like old maids, in exceptional cases, and regard them as the best-informed and most agreeable members of their sex–rational and matured women, instead of malapert young misses, with nothing to recommend them but the blood in their cheeks–but, of course, a table full of spinsters of sixty at dinner, gray, gaunt, and sharp-featured, would violate all correct taste, and is not to be tolerated. We must retire our surplus young women. They can dedicate their lives to deeds of charity, and acts of mercy–and a single life after all is nothing when you get used to it.

An equally grave question concerns our unmarried male population. The opportunity is now afforded of marrying almost whom you please–just as one stands under an apple tree, he can pluck just the one he fancies. The national peril in this matter is that poor human nature will pluck only the red and richly colored fruit–and think little of what may be most conducive to health, or possess the more durable properties for expression and preserving. All of our most useful women have been ugly–and we tremble at the state of things when all this better class is entirely excluded from the duties of wives and mothers. . .


A Voice from Johnson’s Island.
[From the South Carolinian.]

Messrs. Editors: Please allow me, as a returned prisoner from Johnson’s Island, to say a word or two in regard to that institution, and to pay a just and merited tribute to certain officers confined there, whose services to their suffering companies can never be forgotten. Your own efforts in behalf of our captive braves, the more emboldens me to trespass upon your space in this instance, and the subject itself is one that cannot be uninteresting to your readers.

There are now on Johnson’s Island some twenty-five hundred prisoners, of which number about twenty-three hundred are commissioned officers, from Maj. General to 2d Junior Lieutenant. The climate is exceeding cold, and in every way inclement, producing diseases which almost invariably, sooner or later, terminate fatally. To add to this, during the greater portion of the past two years, the supply of medicines has been insufficient, although the Federal authorities have had no difficulty obtaining them in unlimited quantities. ->

The lack of medicines, however, may be traced back to a lack of energy on the part of the Federal Surgeon who superintended the prison hospital up to last spring. The change of surgeons produced a change in the general conduct of the hospital; and, from a building almost entirely destitute of the commonest necessaries, it has been made comparatively comfortable. It is now in charge of Dr. Eversman, who is as conscientious as the character of his people and the restrictions imposed by his Government will permit him to be.

The hospital record shows an average mortality among the officers (I could not see the mortuary lists of the enlisted men) of about twelve per month, from July, 1863 to Aug., 1864. The number of patients daily treated in the hospital during the last fall and winter months was two hundred, and in the “blocks” or barracks, five hundred more. The physicians are own own officers, who were practitioners before they entered the military service.

It is in this connection that I wish to speak of the devotion and untiring energy of those officers who voluntarily took charge of the hospital labor, and gave up all their own little comforts to render comfortable their sick and disabled comrades in misfortune. I refer especially to Capt. J. Ravenel Macbeth, of 1st S. C. Heavy Artillery, Col. I. G. Steedman, formerly of South Carolina, but now of 1st Alabama Cavalry, and Captain J. F. Sessions, of the 18th Mississippi Regiment. Capt. Macbeth voluntarily took charge as steward, and by his untiring energy and business qualifications, brought order out of confusion. Of a noble, generous and open-hearted nature, he drew upon his private means, and expended thousands of dollars in the purchase of necessaries and articles suited to the sick, and many a brave officer has gone to his grave with a parting blessing upon this young man’s head. Colonel Steedman, Captain Sessions, and Capt. Lock, all physicians of more than ordinary ability and acquirements, added to their professional duties that gentlemanly courtesy of demeanor and tenderness of feeling which none but the sufferer can appreciate freely.

At all hours of the day and night, they were prompt to the sick summons, and never wearied of their self-imposed duty. When the history of this war is written, the volume which relates to the prison should contain no brighter page than that which records the services of these heroic men. Captain Macbeth and Captain Sessions returned to their loved soil in company with the writer of this, and if it be possible, I hope they may receive even a more cordial welcome when their services are made public.

The approach of winter is marked by an increased demand for the comforts of life, and in the present case, by a diminution of supply from the Yankee authorities. The rations, which were inferior in quality and insufficient in quantity, have been fearfully reduced; nor is the prisoner allowed to purchase or receive more, unless he receive it from the South. The ice winds will pierce through many a gallant officer’s tattered clothing and cool his life-blood this season. Hundreds will sicken from the exposure to intense cold, and, when the disease has been conquered by medicine, will die because the daily food is insufficient to assist nature and renew strength. Is it not a good time, then. Messrs. Editors, to call upon the friends of the captive, and ask that aid be given them–aid in food and clothing? Some good can be done, but it must be done at once. You know the best mode to adopt to secure this end. I believe it is only necessary to let the people know that while the Federal captive can buy what he pleases at the South, and exhaust the markets of family supplies, the officers and privates of our gallant armies are denied the privilege of supplying themselves, at their own expense, with food and clothing sufficient  to keep their brave hearts beating.

NOVEMBER 1, 1864

From Grant’s Army.
Night Attack on our Lines by the Rebs.

Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Oct. 30.

The utmost quiet has prevailed all along the line to-day; even picket firing seems to have been stopped by unanimous consent. Since the army returned from the late movement against the South Side railroad, the regimental and brigade commanders have been holding inspections, and the commands are being put in as effective condition as before they started.

Oct. 31st, 6 o’clock a.m.–The rebels attempted to play a sharp trick on our line last night at half past 9 o’clock, which was partially successful. The main object of the attack, however, was defeated, at considerable loss to them. At the point of connection between the 2d corps and the 5th corps pickets, they made an entrance, and passing from one post to another, they penetrated our line for some distance, taking all they met prisoners. They then sent forward a heavy force to charge the line of breastworks, in the hope of piercing our centre, but one of the pickets had escaped to the main line, and given warning in time for the men to be put on guard behind the works, and when the rebels advanced they received such a fire as to drive them back in confusion and with heavy loss.

Repeated attempts resulted in a like manner, and although firing was kept up nearly all night, the enemy gained no further advantage. Our loss is put down at 387 men captured. The casualties in killed and wounded are not known, but are very few. The loss of the enemy must have been heavy, as they advanced within range of our batteries and infantry lines. It was somewhat dark, however, and the firing was not of course so effective as it would have been by daylight.


Statement of a “Reliable Gentleman” Just Arrived from Richmond.

A gentleman, who for twelve months has been attempting to get away from the South, succeeded several days ago, and is now in this city. He occupied a responsible position in the Confederate government, and had abundant opportunities for learning the real condition of affairs in that section. He represents the conscription as actively progressing, and persons between 16 and 55 years of age being sent to the army. Telegraphers, expressmen, and railroad employees continue exempt from military duty. The rebel authorities are making every effort to get every available man into the army. About 30,000 new levies have been sent to reinforce Lee. Hood’s army numbers about 30,000. There are few troops besides these two armies, and they are scattered over the South. There are only 40 men as provost guard at Fredericksburg, Va.

There appears to be a sufficiency of substantial food, but luxuries cannot at many places be purchased. This gentleman thousands of soldiers would if they could escape from the service, and in some sections if any opportunity were offered, the Union feeling would emphatically manifest itself. He bought some gold before he left Richmond, paying 25 dollars Confederate money for one in coin. After Early’s defeat in the valley, a dollar in gold could not be bought for less than fifty in paper. He says no one out of the Confederacy can have a current idea of the general effects of the ravages of the war, both on agriculture and trade.

A New Rifle.—Col. Berdan, the famous sharp-shooter, has invented a new long-range rifle, which has just been successfully tested at Utica, N. Y. The Evening Post thus describes the rifle and the test:

The problem which Col. Berdan undertook to solve was no less than that of the construction of a rifle which should be breech-loading, light enough for ordinary infantry, economical, and at the same time possess greater accuracy and effectiveness at long range than any weapon known.

These results he claims to have effected, and the rifle in which he has sought to combine these desiderata was publicly tested by him at Utica on the 25th inst., in the presence of a large number of experts. Utica was appropriately chosen as the scene of this exhibition, as it is the headquarters of rifle-making in the Union, the celebrated establishments of Mr. Ferris and Mr. James being situated there. Mr. James, himself an unsurpassed shot, was present with one of his best heavy target rifles with telescopic sight. Col. Berdan’s rifle was externally an ordinary United States Springfield rifle with a simple breech-loading attachment. The target was placed at the extreme distance of twelve hundred measured yards, and after firing two or three preliminary shots to get the range, Colonel Berdan, sighting with the eye alone, without telescopic aid, struck the bull’s-eye five times out of six shots, and then gave place to Mr. James, who fired at the target for several hours without being able to reach it–his shots invariably striking the ground two or three hundred yards short. At the end of this time he gave up the contest, admitting that his rifle could not compete with Col. Berdan’s at such long range. When it is remembered that breech-loaders have hitherto been wholly ineffective at long ranges, it will be seen how great a revolution in firearms this fact foreshadows.

The penetrating power of the guns was then tested against a target consisting of thirty one-inch boards, fixed in a frame one behind the other, with inch spaces between them. Mr. James’s rifle penetrated eleven of these, Colonel Berdan’s twenty-nine, and stuck fast in the thirtieth; the Springfield musket penetrated eleven, Sharp’s rifle fourteen, the Spencer repeater thirteen.

Colonel Berdan’s invention comprises: First–a new, ingenious and simple breech-loading apparatus; second, a new form of rifling the barrel and cartridge-chamber; third, an entirely new form of ammunition or cartridge, which enables it to pass through the barrel without any change of form or loss of power by friction, and which enables the soldier to use at discretion a single ball for long range or three more round balls for close volley firing, with equal effect.


Fears of a Rebel Raid on Buffalo.

Buffalo, Oct. 31.

The city is being patrolled by military and police, in anticipation of raiders, but none have made their appearance, yet last night companies were stationed at elevators and around the docks, but nothing occurred. It is thought the prompt action of the authorities and the fact that the military were all out yesterday attending Gen. Bidwell’s funeral entirely frustrated the plans of the raiders.  Number of suspicious persons have been observed in town within a short time, and it is stated by some that rockets were thrown up and guns fired by unknown parties. These are thought to have been signals to parties on the opposite shore.

NOVEMBER 2, 1864

Rebel Raid on Castine, Me.
The Raiders Driven Off, after a Bloodless Fight.

Boston, Nov. 2.

A dispatch from Augusta, Me., states that an attempt was made Monday night to surprise the water battery at Castine, by a raiding party from the land side. The sentinel was fired upon, but the garrison rallied and drove the attacking party off. They escaped by boats after exchanging  number of shots. One of the raiders was supposed to be wounded. None of the garrison were hurt, but bullets came very near some of them. Castine is defended by two new earthworks, mounting five guns each.

A dispatch to the Mayor of Portland from Castine gives particulars of the attack upon the water battery at that time. On Monday, at midnight, a small party of men approached from the rear, and when challenged they immediately fired upon the sentinel, who returned the fire. Sergeant Ramsdell was fired upon as he came out of his quarters, and four balls lodged within two feet of him. The garrison mustered promptly and pursued the raiders for about half a mile, firing upon them, and they replying, when they took to a boat and escaped. The object was supposed to be the capture of the U. S. cutter lying in the harbor. This city has been put into a state of defence by orders from Gov. Cony. The home guards are in readiness for duty and the city government has increased and armed the police.


The Capture of the Roanoke.

New York, Nov. 1.

Mr. Hawley of the captured steamer Roanoke, in a statement of the affair, says:

The steamer was boarded in Havana harbor by three boats containing passengers, who in the evening proved themselves to be rebels, led by Lieut. Braine. Officers and crew were overpowered and made prisoners, and the vessels headed for Bermuda, when a pilot was called on board, and Braine went ashore and brought on board a party of rebels, and the vessel put to sea, soon overhauling a brig with coal and provisions for the pirates.

These were taken on board, and the next day a vessel was met which was to take off the passengers. Transfer was made, together with a  quantity of cotton, and the steamer set on fire. The passengers and crew were taken into Five Fathom Hole, and the purser and 1st officer went ashore to have the pirates arrested. They were arrested, but after a mock trial by the British authorities, were discharged. The Roanoke had $17,000 in greenbacks and $4,ooo in gold. The report that Capt. Drew had notice of the plot to capture the vessel is unfounded. The mails of the Roanoke arrived here to-day.


The Fraudulent Soldiers’ Votes.
The Accumulation of Evidence Against Col. North.

Confession of His Chief Assistant.

New York, Nov. 2.

The Tribune’s Washington special says of the election frauds, Marvin Jones, Colonel North’s chief assistant, has made a full confession of his complicity in forgery, and that the business has been carried on at Col. North’s agency much more extensively than at Baltimore. The complete implication of Col. North staggers the commission sent on by Seymour. The trial of North will probably take place Friday or Saturday. ->

The Times’ special says a careful examination of the facts and papers in the case has convinced Judge Parker and his associates that the matter is much more serious than expected, and is a grave crime against the purity of the ballot box. The cases of Col. North and his co-conspirators is adjourned, to enable preparation for the defence. All his assumed carelessness is gone, and he is devoting himself seriously to clear himself from the accumulated evidence of complicity in the fraud. Hon. Ransom H. Giblet is retained as counsel for North.


The Union Club, Jr.—The Union Club, Jr., had their first parade with their new torches last evening, marching through the principal streets and honoring with three cheers the Union office and many private residences. The boys made a good show, but were interrupted slightly by a lot of ragged Irish boys, who went into the McClellan headquarters and stole a transparency marked “Little Mac shall rule,” and fell in at the head of the Union boys. This dastardly act gave rise to a scrimmage, which resulted in one knock down on the Union side and a severe chastisement to the young rebels. The members of the young McClellan club disclaim all connection with the affair.


Morning News.

The rebel ram Albemarle was blown up by some of Admiral Porter’s men on the 28th ult. Full particulars are not received yet, but what we have comes through Admiral Porter. Several Union men were wounded or captured during the enterprise, but the destruction of the ram was complete, and probably her crew shared her fate.

The national debt now amounts to $2,017,099,515. During October the increase was $61,000,000. There is now $37,500,000 of unpaid requisitions, and $27,000,000 in the treasury to pay it with.

New financial failures in England are reported, and there is a great financial panic in Brazil. The latter, however, does not appear to be due to any connection with American affairs.

Jeff Davis appears to have decided to “go in” and help along the Chicago platform, if the following, in the Charleston Mercury, is correct:

“President Davis, who has been opposed to making any concessions whatever to the enemy, has been finally prevailed upon to grant an armistice to the North, provided it is solicited in a respectful manner. This proposed armistice, if granted, raises the blockade by land and sea, which will enable our men to lay in a large amount of supplies. Deserters from our service will then be glad to return, in order to receive their pay and an honorable discharge, which will give us an additional 200,000 veterans. Then, if hostilities are resumed, the South is sure of success. Therefore we lose noting by granting this experiment to the Yankees, who have openly confessed they are whipped by proclaiming the war on their part a failure.”



The Destruction of the Albemarle.
Detailed Account of the Affair.

Washington, Nov. 2.–By the report of Commander Macomb of the United States steamer Shamrock, dated 29th, it appears  that on the night of the 27th, Lieut. W. B. Cushing ascended the Roanoke river in his torpedo-boat, having a second cutter in tow, for the purpose of blowing up the rebel ram Albemarle, at Plymouth. He passed the Southfield without being noticed, and arrived within a short distance of the ram before he was discovered, when he cast loose the cutter, ordering it to board the Southfield and capture the pickets stationed there, while he attacked the ram with his torpedo.

Although the rebels kept up a severe fire of musketry, and with a howitzer mounted on the wharf, Lieut. Cushing succeeded in exploding his torpedo under the Albemarle, at the same instant that the gun of the vessel to which they were directly opposite was fired on the torpedo-boat, which immediately filled, and the Lieutenant ordered his officers and men to save themselves, and then jumped overboard. He was picked up by the Valley City on the night of the 28th.

The performance was one of the most gallant and successful of the war.

second dispatch.

Lieut. Cushing arrived here to-day bringing with him his official report of the particulars attending his destruction of the rebel ram Albemarle. This act relieves all the sounds of North Carolina from floating enemies, and thus leaves them free to the operations of our fleet. Lieut. Cushing is satisfied that a large number of lives were lost by the blowing up, as the Albemarle’s guns were all manned. The Secretary of the Navy will recommend Congress to pass a vote of thanks, and he will be promoted to the rank of Lieut. Commander.


An Improved Style of Hazing at Harvard.—Some two or three years since, a student, in straitened financial circumstances, in one of the undergraduate classes of Harvard, had his room entered during his absence from it, a new carpet put down, coal and furniture provided, so that, on his return, he was met by the surprise of finding his difficulties concerning funds removed, at least to the extent of a contribution of articles of nearly the value of one hundred dollars, and that by associates whose names he probably never learned. This improved hazing has recently reappeared in the present senior class, one of the worthiest men in which has just been aided by his classmates by a private contribution of something over $100; the second instance of the same kind in the same body of young men. In the class that was last graduated there were two instances of similar important aid to individuals by the trifling effort of the many.–Journal.


The Pirate Tallahassee Again on the Coast.
Five Vessels Destroyed.

Newport, R. I., Nov. 2.–The schooner Goodspeed, Capt. Baxter, of Boston, for Philadelphia, was boarded by the pirate Tallahassee seven miles off Block Island and scuttled.

The captain, mate, and six men escaped in a boat to Block Island and are now here. The captain reports that the Tallahassee scuttled another Eastern vessel within a short distance of his vessel. The crew of the Tallahassee reported to Captain Baxter that they had the crews of three other vessels, which were destroyed within three days.

The gunboat Marblehead left Newport in pursuit this evening.

Rebel Plot to Burn Northern Cities.

The dispatch from Secretary Seward, that information has been received at the Department of a conspiracy to set fire to the principal cities of the North on the day of the presidential election, was sent to the Mayors of all the cities throughout New England, and precautionary measures will doubtless be taken. The Newburyport Herald remarks:

“We hope ere long that the government will man Fort Nichols. They have mounted the guns, and thereby not secured the safety, but actually endangered the place, as no men are put there to use them or defend against an enemy. The party that attempted mischief at Castine could have succeeded and opened fire upon us in a half hour. Let the government either man the fort or remove it.”

Mayor Jackman came to Boston this morning to consult with the State authorities.

The dispatch of Secretary Seward was laid before the Board of Aldermen of Providence yesterday afternoon, when it was decided that under the circumstances it would be unwise and inexpedient to permit any torchlight procession, and authorized the Mayor to take the proper steps to prevent any demonstrations of that character.

Sunday evening Detroit was in a state of excitement, caused by the reception of information of a rebel raid upon that city during the night. The people flocked into the streets by thousands. The steam fire engines were all out to guard against fires. Word was sent to all the churches, and the different congregation dispersed. Col. Hill, the Military Commandant, at once ordered out three companies from the barracks and one from Fort Dearborn. Soldiers patrolled the streets, and all the depots and public buildings were strongly guarded. A dispatch says:

“All day long the secesh at Windsor have been jubilant as if they had received important information. A suspicious circumstance in connection with the affair is the fact that an unusual number of men have been coming over on the ferry boats from Windsor since morning, and but few have been seen to return. It is supposed that there are now over 200 of these suspicious characters in the city.”

A dispatch from R. J. Kimball, United States Consular agent at Toronto, states that on Saturday evening one hundred men left that city with arms, ammunition and combustibles, for a raid on Detroit or Buffalo.

A Detroit dispatch, dated Monday, says:

“The raid excitement here is dying away. Still the city is patrolled by the military, and Parrott guns with caissons and horses are in the streets, ready for use at a moment’s notice.

“Today the Board of Trade passed resolutions recommending a tug to patrol the river to guard our eight miles of shore line. The tug Sciota has been detailed for this service. All the necessary arrangements for a permanent defence have been made, both at Dearborn and here. At the former place there are 60,000 stand of arms.

“The authorities have arrested six or eight suspicious characters, and are in pursuit of more. At 1 o’clock this morning about 75 men registered their names at the different hotels, without baggage, and were required to pay their bills in advance. It is estimated that there are 300 strangers in the city. They are being closely watched.

“Intelligence has been received from Gen. Hooker that we are to have a garrison of 1500 men here during the winter, to prevent the possibility of damage from Canadian desperadoes and traitors.”

Later accounts indicate that the burning of Buffalo was the object of the raiders, and that they failed there.

NOVEMBER 4, 1864

Our Elections Abroad.
Important Letter from Robert J. Walker.

Hon. R. J. Walker has written an able letter from London on the subject of the approaching Presidential election, in course of which he says:

“It is the boast of the Confederate leaders in Europe, since the adoption of the platform at Chicago, that, upon the election of their candidates, without waiting four months for the inauguration in March next, Napoleon will at once recognize the Confederate government. Indeed, I do not doubt, from the circumstantial evidence (although I do not know the fact), that there is already a secret understanding between Jefferson Davis and Napoleon the Third to recognize the independence of the South upon the election of the Chicago candidates. Why wait four months, until the 4th of March next, when the American people, by indorsing the Chicago platform, shall have declared for peace, with the additional announcement in that platform, that the war for the suppression of the rebellion has failed?

“There will be no recognition of the independence of the South by France or England, or any other Power, if Abraham Lincoln should be reelected in November next. The American people will then have loudly proclaimed, through the ballot box, that they can and will subdue the rebellion by force of arms; and that they will continue to negotiate from the mouths of our cannon, until the Southern armies shall have been dispersed and vanquished. Upon the news of the reelection of Mr. Lincoln reaching Europe, the Confederate stock, now waiting the success of the Chicago candidates, will fall, like Lucifer, to rise no more. American securities, including those of the Federal and loyal State Governments, of railroads, and other companies with real capital, will all be immensely appreciated. The difference in favor of our country, including the rise in greenbacks, would be equivalent in a few months to hundreds of millions of dollars. Nor is it only our stocks that will rise at home and abroad, but the national character will he immensely exalted.”

Mr. Pennington, the Secretary of the United States Legation at Paris, has just returned home from that city. He reports to the government (the New York Herald says,) that the Emperor of France takes a deep interest in our Presidential contest, and watches it especially in the endeavor to find in the result the true expression of the American people, and the real sentiments of the country upon the questions of union or disunion, war or peace. The Emperor, it is said, will regard the re-election of Mr. Lincoln as the determined and unqualified declaration of the American people in favor of the Union at every hazard and through all the possibilities of war. He will regard that result as a confirmation, directly from the people, of all the statements that our government has made to European Powers to that effect. On the other hand, it is said that he will regard the election of Gen. McClellan as an expression of readiness on the part of the people to make terms with the Southern States; to make a peace even that will admit the independence of those States. In short, that he will find in the election of Gen. McClellan, and in the temper that he will suppose it indicates, that very opportunity which England and France waited for–the opportunity for intervention in favor of the South.

The Slavery Issue Stated.—Andy Johnson, our next Vice President, in a speech at Louisville on the 13th, thus discussed the slavery issue as it is viewed by a loyal Southerner:

“The great issue in the last result is, Shall the institution of slavery control the Government of the United States, or shall the Government control it? Shall the Government control its institutions, or shall they control it? The disturbing and distracting question of slavery should have been definitely settled in 1820, but it was patched up then, and patched up in 1850, and in 1861 the Southern leaders would have no compromise about it, and designedly took a position which resulted in the defeat of the Crittenden compromise and the nullity of the Corwin amendment. All the talk of them and their Northern coadjutors, then and since, about compromise, has been sheer hypocrisy, a mere pretense to delude the people.

“I say, let the Government go on, and slavery get along the best it can. Give me my country, and, if need be, let all else go. If slavery gets in the way, it must get out and go down. Let "niggers" go, if they get in the way of putting down treason. Before the rebellion, I was for sustaining the Government with slavery; now I am for sustaining the Government without slavery, without regard to a particular institution. Institutions must be subordinate, and the Government must be supreme.

“Slavery is no longer a local, but an itinerant institution, going around just where it pleases. Slavery is demoralized and the slaves are becoming practically free. It is fast settling itself. Practical emancipation is the order of the day throughout Tennessee and Kentucky. As soon as law and order is restored and these States get out of the transition from slavery to freedom, black labor will be much more profitable to them than ever before. I pay my former slaves every week, and they work far better than they used to. Slavery is a slow, tardy, inactive, inert and wasteful system of labor, Black labor emancipated in all the Southern States, will eventually prove more profitable than it ever was while enslaved. These broad acres have been worked long enough by a few lords and great gangs of slaves.

“Negroes, when freed, have got to work–must work; those who won't work will be subject to vagrant laws or an apprentice system, till they are educated to the idea that freedom for anybody of color simply means liberty to work, and to enjoy the productions of his labor. Let the Negro have a fair chance and an equal start in the race of life. The talk about Negro equality is all humbug. I have seen more of it in the South than I have in the North. If the Negro, as a free man, can compete with the white, he has a right to compete with him; if, after a fair test, he can't, he must give way to the white. In my opinion, freedom will not make Negroes any worse, and will result in their advancement. I am for an aristocracy of labor, of intelligent, stimulating, virtuous labor; of talent, of intellect, of merit; for the elevation of each and every man, white and black, according to his talent and industry.”

NOVEMBER 5, 1864


The Fraud on Soldiers’ Votes.

One of the most outrageous acts upon the rights of soldiers has been brought to light, having been perpetrated through copperhead agents to influence the result of the coming election in the state of New York. Thousands of ballots have been forged and sent on to the proper authorities in the original envelopes submitted by the soldiers. The authorities at Washington have suspected for some time something of the kind, and by adroit management contrived to secure one box containing many thousand of these fraudulent votes. The New York state agent at Washington, E. Donahue, has been arrested and made a clean confession, in which many persons of high standing are implicated. The affair is now undergoing a most thorough investigation, and it is hoped that the perpetrators will meet with their just deserts. This crime will open the eyes of loyal men to the true character of these northern abettors of the rebels, and incites stronger efforts to suppress them. The worst passions of men are at work to bring defeat to the Union cause. These men know that they have lost all confidence in the public, and nothing is too low for them to perform. Their mischief takes every form and shape, and to meet and thwart it requires every lover of the Union to be vigilant and watchful.


Henceforth there will be an additional star in the field of blue on our glorious national banner. Another State is added to the galaxy of the Union. President Lincoln has issued his proclamation declaring that the people of Nevada having adopted a constitution and complied with the conditions of the act of the last session of Congress passed for the purpose of enabling that hitherto Territory to become a State, she is admitted into the Union on a footing of equality with the other States.


Foreign News.

Lord Stanley advocated non-intervention in American affairs before his constituents in Lynn, England. He say that if the Union troops overrun the whole rebel territory then only will “political troubles” begin in the United States.

England finds it difficult to man her navy fully, and the attraction of seamen to the American naval service is cited as a leading cause.

Gloom and heaviness continued to prevail in commercial circles in England. Several failures had occurred in Manchester, including the house of Barrett & Wilson, calico printers.

There was a dull and declining market for American securities in London. United States five-twenties show a decline of one and a half percent on the week. Erie and Illinois Central Railroad shares gave ay one dollar.

The liabilities involved in the failures in Rio Janeiro and other towns in Brazil foot up eleven millions of pounds sterling.

Peace was still delayed between the Germans and Denmark by the consideration of some minor question.

Madrid journals urge the Spanish government to retain possession of the Chincha Islands as a pledge that Peru will afford satisfaction to Spain.

The United States steamer Monitor, from Hokadadi, ran into a bay east of Nagasaki in stress of weather for fuel. While there she was suddenly fired on by a native battery and infantry-men stationed behind some screens on the shore. Twenty-four musket balls hit the vessel’s side, but no person was injured. The Monitor ran out of range southward, when she was fired upon by another battery. ->

She then opened from her Parrott guns and shelled the first battery and an adjacent village, setting both on fire. She also burned several port bulkheads, planks and some bales of hemp. The bay is said to be in the territory of Nagato. It was thought that the rich port of Osaka would soon be opened to foreign trade by the Daimyos, acting in opposition to the Tycoon.

Correspondents in Belize, British Honduras, give the particulars of a most severe flood in that province in the middle of September. Continuous heavy rains for three days caused the Belize river to overflow its banks and sweep over all the adjacent country to an unprecedented height, causing immense damage to the mahogany, cotton, sugar, gum and plantain crops. The shipping in the harbor of Belize also suffered severely. The first of a new line of steamers from Liverpool had arrived. Though the weather was very hot in Belize and vicinity in the early part of October, the health of the place was excellent owing to the continuous high winds.

The English government refused to permit the United States steamer Sacramento to coal–the legal time not having elapsed since she was last supplied. More stringent regulations had been published relative to furnishing coal to belligerent American war vessels in British ports.

The Solicitor General of England, in a speech to his constituents, alluded to the efforts made by the government to preserve neutrality in respect to the American war, and to enforce the Foreign Enlistment act. For these efforts he claimed the approval of his hearers. He spoke strongly in favor of non-intervention.

The schooner Yorktown, from Cleveland, Ohio, had arrived in England, after being chased by a privateer off Newfoundland.

Commercial affairs were still very gloomy in London, Liverpool and Manchester. A few fresh failures are reported. The prospect for the next few weeks was regarded as discouraging, although the London money market was rather improved in tone.

The rebel relief bazaar in Liverpool netted about £19,000 in four days.

The governments of Turkey and Spain are represented as being already bankrupt–that of Turkey particularly. The money revulsion, it was thought, would lead to many important political changes and terminate in a general war, which would in its turn annihilate the insolvent government and obliterate the smaller State royalties. It is said that the present visit of the Czar of Russia to France, and his coming interview with Napoleon had been undertaken with special reference to such important eventualities, and that the helpless condition of the now recently “sick man” of Turkey will be duly considered by that impartial pair.

Austria was in a very critical position, both her home and foreign relations being sadly complicated. It is said that forty revolutionary refugees from the Tyrol had invaded the province of Udine, in Venetia. This band advanced upon the town of Spilimbergo, surprised the barracks of the gendarmes and disarmed the guard. They attempted to induce the inhabitants to rise in insurrection, but they declined. The refugees withdrew to the mountain passes. Troops were dispatched in pursuit.

The new King of Greece had a difficulty with the Legislature in Athens, and threatens the members with a coup d’etat if they do not “hurry up” the work of forming a new constitution.

1 pakeha is Maori for a person of non-Maori descent, especially a white person.

2 Poe was actually born in Boston, Mass’tts and died in Baltimore, where he was buried.

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