JANUARY 8, 1865

The Future of Mexico.

We yet see statements in our Northern exchanges of great disaffection in those parts of Mexico under imperial rule, yet they always come from American writers and from beyond the region where the disaffection is supposed to exist. Our own advices, derived from native sources, assure us that the people of Mexico are averse to the restoration of the so-called Liberal rule, which has been found to be less liberal than that of the Empire.

Long before Maximilian accepted the throne a Liberal gentleman of great intelligence, and whose intercourse with the world, as well as his education, well fitted him to judge, told us that no better man could be selected for their ruler, from a foreign country, than the Austrian Archduke. In the first place he was a Catholic, of a pious family. In the next place he was a German, and the Germans who might follow him were the best of colonists and brought less distrust with them than any other class of people. In the last place, he was personally a most estimable man.

It was suggested that his being a foreigner was no doubt the chief objection to him. To this our Mexican friend replied that, while this was no doubt a great difficulty, yet no Mexican could take his place more acceptably. The Liberal leaders were hated by the Conservatives, and the latter the former. In fact, there was no Mexican who could unite all parties upon himself.

This gentleman also said that among his own friends, the chief objection to Maximilian would be the association of the latter with Marquez, Miramon and other extreme and cruel chiefs of the Mexican Conservatives. If Maximilian could show himself superior to their influence and be as liberal in his action in Mexico, as he had been in Italy, he would certainly reconcile the greater portion of the people of the former country to his rule.

Since then Maximilian has reached the country, and is reigning as Emperor. He has adopted the advice [in] medio tutissimus ibis in his practice.1 He is moderate in all his measures. He may have offended some extreme churchmen in this, but he has won upon the hearts of the people; and the adhesion to him of men such as Uraga, Angel Trias, Juan de la Garza, Vidaurri, Hinojoea and other chiefs of the Liberal party, and of the whole population of all the States of the North, means that they accept the Empire as the only solution of their difficulties.

In the mean time the French are leaving Mexico, and the Emperor is trusting himself wholly to the care of the Mexican people. Is not this significant? All Northern Mexico is now held for him by Mexican troops, and Juarez is a fugitive, not from French, but from Mexican pursuit. The troops of Mejia, which drove him out of San Luis to Saltillo, thence to Monterey, and from there to his “last ditch” at Chihuahua, are not French but Mexican. ->

The fact is that the people of Mexico have taken a retrospective view of their own condition, and of republicanism as it has existed among themselves, and their judgment is that a more stable, and less elective and mutable form of government, will make them more prosperous and happy. Perhaps our own example has not contributed, of late, to give them a more favorable view of republican institutions or of liberty, so called.

The latest news we have from that country shows that everywhere, unless in Guerrero, a State inhabited mostly by Indians quite uncivilized, and in parts of Oajaca, the imperial forces take possession of the country, without opposition and to the joy of the inhabitants. The latter find that the Emperor neither draws upon them for enforced loans, nor imprisons them for differences of opinion. They find the monarchy therefore less despotic than the republic, and they prefer it. We neither wonder at nor blame their decision.

The future of Mexico, when released from the anarchy which has kept her idle for nearly a century, and set to work under good and wholesome laws, may readily be foreseen. The mines of lead, iron and silver in the north will be developed and worked to her profit, while the rich agricultural regions in the south and on the Pacific slope will be made to bear plentifully by German industry and thrift. No doubt from other nations, the Irish and Americans especially, there will be large additions to their population. We are already told that Dr. Gwin, formerly of Mississippi, and lately of California, is there, and designs to open up Sonora to an English speaking colony.

The North of Mexico, especially that which adjoins the United States, is exceedingly sterile on both sides of the line, and forms a national boundary more marked, definite and desirable, than would the greatest of rivers, or even the Northern lakes. That region is only valuable for its mines, and these are far in the interior of Mexico. But the Pacific Slope, and the country south of Tampico, is rich in soil, in woods, and in the perpetually vivifying influence of its climate. Give it an industrious population, for which the German emigrants will form an excellent base, and no country can afford greater promise of a prosperous future than the Empire, once of Montezuma and now of Maximilian. If the “gentle Carlota” could only furnish them with a native heir to the throne, the permanence of the existing order of things would be unquestionable. The whole world is interested in the experiment.

JANUARY 9, 1865

Two Gladiators.

The Confederacy at this moment is in much the condition of a man who, having more than once got his enemy under him, with his knee upon his breast and his hand upon his throat, is, while in the act of dealing him his death blow, assailed from behind by one whom he had supposed to be his best friend, whilst the enemy is released from his grasp for the third or fourth time. Staggering upon his legs from repeated blows from behind, confronting his released and enraged antagonist–weakened in strength, shaken in nerve, sick at heart–his efforts all vain, his skill all vain, his success all vain, exhausted by his long struggle, stunned by the foul blows, reeling, he still bears up and endeavors to summon back his ebbing energies. If conquered, he falls not by the force of the enemy in front, but by the unlooked for blows from behind. Yet, had he expected this foul play, could he at any time by one effort have felled this puny creature in his rear. Even yet he might free himself of his presence, and, retreating slowly before his antagonist in front, gradually collect his strength and hurl him back to the ground.

Will he do it? Or will he suffer himself to perish by this foul play?


Letter from Richmond.

Richmond, Monday, January 2.

Yesterday was New Year’s Day, but to-day is generally celebrated. People greet each other with “happy new year,” an there is a lively reaction from the late depression. The immortal fizzle of Butler and Porter at Wilmington has much to do with it, and it is a relief to hear that Hood has crossed the Tennessee River safely.

We have now some four months of rest and recuperation before us. Enough strength and enough spirit are left in the country to ensure our independence, if that strength be not wasted and the spirit be kept alive. All good men are willing, nay anxious, to co-operate with the government in reviving and sustaining the spirits of the people. Will the government co-operate with all good men by placing the strength of the country in hands which will not waste it?

I am disposed to answer in the affirmative. It is certain that, so far as General Beauregard’s department is concerned, the government has done and is doing its whole duty. At least, we have this assurance from the highest source.

One thing is to be feared. Our elastic temper may do us more harm than good. In moments of dejection, the whole country sees where the evil lies, and clamors for the removal of that evil. A few days pass, our hopes revive, the evil ceases to be felt, and we return to the same old rut. Thinking men know that times of despondency are auspicious times, for then the unseen cankers are exposed, and indispensable reforms are instituted. On the other hand, the unthinking love to see the people jolly and sanguine, without regard to the insidious evils which are working the public ruin. Croakers are hateful, but if there were no croaking the universal smash would come unheralded.

All our papers this morning contain cheerful editorials. It is well, for a collection of doleful New Year’s salutations would be out of place and intolerable. But it cannot be forgotten that the cause is in peril. Remedies are needed, but there is no change as yet in the old practice. Butler is defeated, but Sherman is at Savannah, and it is not at all certain that he will await even the early Southern Spring before his march upon Branchville begins.

Our authorities are not altogether insensible to the impending dangers. If the capital and the cause are to be defended in South Carolina, the defenders will be there. Richmond will not be prematurely abandoned, but General Lee is well aware that the cause is paramount to the safety of any city, of all cities. Be of good cheer.

Gold has fallen somewhat, and a better feeling prevails in business circles.–Hermes.

More Blockade Runners.–The Cork Herald reports that within the last week there have been four steamers at Queenstown bound out, to run the South American blockade. The Secret, 850 tons, Captain Berkly, which had put in through stress of weather, proceeded on her voyage to Nassau, on Sunday. The Susan Birnie, 455 tons, Capt. Groundlow, which had put in for repairs, awaits favorable weather to proceed. The handsome steamer Emilie, 763 tons, from Glasgow, arrived at Queenstown on Monday morning to fill up coals. When she has coaled and the weather suits, she will start for Nassau.


An American Cardinal.–It is stated that Pope Pius IX, intends to make a Cardinal of the new Archbishop McCloskey, on the ground that as there are more American than English Roman Catholics, their clergy are entitled to that distinction.


Cotton in Savannah.–The Southern Confederacy learns from a high official source that there were about 150,000 bales of cotton in Savannah at the time Sherman entered it. Near 120,000 bales of this amount belonged to foreign merchants and cannot be interfered with. The remaining 30,000 belonged to American merchants.


To Cure Camp Itch.–Take a pound of fresh poke root, mash it, and boil a quarter of an hour with water; add four pounds lard, and stew till the fibers of the root feel dry, (i.e., till all the water is evaporated), then strain. Rub at night on the affected parts very thinly. Sure cure.


The Provost Guard.–The fact that a few prowling stragglers in the garb of soldiers have been unwarrantably assuming the functions of a provost guard, stopping and robbing Negroes and, in some cases, white men, has thrown discredit upon many of the patrols of the bona fide provost guard. In order therefore to prevent mistakes, we would mention that there is a genuine provost guard, relief parties from which perform the onerous duty of patrolling the streets at all hours, night and day, and the best plan for citizens and others, when challenged, will be to show their papers without delay.


From General Hood.–On official information, the Montgomery Appeal is enabled to state that General Hood, with his army, is once more on this side of the Tennessee River, which he crossed at Bainbridge Ferry on Monday and Tuesday, 26th and 27th. No particulars whatever are given, though we are inclined to think, from the tenor of recent Yankee dispatches, that he was not very closely pressed by Thomas, and infer that, with the exception of some stragglers and the severely wounded, he has brought his army out entire. There is little reason to doubt also that he has lost a considerable portion of his artillery, though this can easily be replaced. A few days, however, we hope, will place us in possession of all the particulars. Altogether, we can but regard this is an ill-starred campaign, though we feel great relief from the knowledge that he has succeeded in again putting the broad Tennessee between himself and the enemy.

10, 1865

An English Officer on the Battle of Gettysburg.

The December number if Blackwood’s contains a long article, headed “A visit to the cities and camps of the Confederate States, 1863-64.” The writer, a cavalry officer on the English service, spent nearly a year in the Southern States, having been present at Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the bombardment of Charleston, and other important occasions, leaving in April, 1864. He writes in thorough sympathy with the rebels, and his accounts if not distorted are discolored by violent partizanship. He joined the army under Lee, June 3d, when starting on the invasion that culminated in the rebel rout at Gettysburg. All the preliminary movements were attended with great success. In the Shenandoah large captures of men and material were made, the columns moving on almost unopposed into Maryland.

The writer gives quite a graphic account of the battle of Gettysburg, and describes the desperate assaults and bloody repulses of the Confederates, a portion of whom were seized with panic at a very important juncture, and driven back with such slaughter that the day was hopelessly lost.

In alluding to the charges brought against Gen. Meade for not attacking Lee’s right, with a view to follow up the victory and make large captures, he commends the prudence of the federal commander, and argues that such a movement must have resulted disastrously, as ample preparations had been made to meet it.

He speaks of a personal interview with Gen. Lee a short time after the battle, when the latter spoke very freely on the subject of the campaign. Had he known that Meade had succeeded in concentrating his whole army, “for which he deserved great credit,” the attack would not have been made. Indeed it was not Lee’s purpose to bring on a general engagement at all, but, carried away by the victory of the first day, deceived in reference to the extent of Meade’s preparations, and encouraged by the enthusiasm of his army, he thought a successful battle would prove so decisive in results that he determined to risk it. He attributed his lack of correct information to the absence of Stuart’s cavalry, which had advanced to the vicinity of Washington, and was then obliged to make a long detour to reach the main army.


Food for Savannah.

Boston, Jan. 9.–A large number of merchants and leading business men of this city met in Faneuil Hall to-day to inaugurate measures for sending food and other necessary supplies to the sufferers of Savannah. Resolutions were adopted appropriate to the subject, and a committee appointed to receive contributions. Addresses were made by Mayor Lincoln, Col. Julian Allen, Edward Everett, and others, and hearty sympathy with the object of the meeting was manifested throughout. At the adjournment three cheers were given for Savannah and Gen. Sherman.

The government has placed at the disposal of Col. Allen a transport to convey to Savannah the provisions which he may procure for the inhabitants of that city.


A Wail About Taxation.–The Richmond Sentinel contains the following: “Will you publish through your columns the wail of the widow and orphan? Surely when their cry comes up before our countrymen their grievances will be redressed. I belong to the class of widows who have invested their little property in stocks before the war. My income is $1,200, my tax $1,364. I am old; to dig, I cannot; to beg, I am ashamed, yet I must live out my allotted days. I have to board at an enormous price; I must be clothed, and with what? Will our legislators who make our laws depriving us of every means of subsistence yet sit and vote themselves additional pay, enlighten us upon this vital subject.–A Widow.”


Deserters from Lee’s army number about three hundred weekly. They all repeat the story of disgust of the war and all belonging to it, and a readiness to come back to the Union or anything to escape the grinding despotism of Davis and his satellites.

Estimates have been made which show that a tax of twenty-five cents per pound on all leaf tobacco used in this country, with a duty of two cents per pound on all leaf tobacco exported, will produce an annual revenue of upwards of twenty millions of dollars.

The export of petroleum the past year amounted to 21,288,499 gallons. This new product fills the void in our cotton exportations.

The discovery of oil is quietly revolutionizing western Pennsylvania. In ten years the population of certain counties will be more than doubled, and the development of this interest will wonderfully increase the agricultural and manufacturing prosperity of the State.

In Maine a hay press has been used for the pressing of pine shavings for kindling. They make very neat packages, and can be sawed into blocks like timber. About a hundred bushels of shavings can be put in the space of an ordinary hogshead, and when once pressed the spring is all taken from them.

A letter from Nashville says: “The man who raised the first rebel flag in this city–M. L. Brooks, a well known journalist–arrived here yesterday disgusted with the service. He says that every member of his company has deserted, and he would not remain longer. He says that no man in the South now expects to gain their independence.”

An adventurous lad belonging in Springfield, and only thirteen years of age, left home with his Bible for Sunday school one day last September, and his parents first heard from him in Baltimore a few days ago by a letter, in which he said he as to set sail at once for Hong Kong, going “before the mast.” When the boy left home he had only 25 cents in his pocket.

During the past year 1864, four thousand eight hundred and nine vessels arrived at the port of New York from foreign ports a decrease of two hundred and seventy-three from 1863. This decrease is very slight when the natural effects of the war are taken into consideration. But few of these vessels carried the American flag. One hundred and ninety-eight thousand three hundred and forty-two passenger arrived, the most of them emigrants who have settled in this country.

A number of Boston clerks have formed a temperance alliance and signed a pledge not to drink any of the ardent between eight o’clock a.m. and five o’clock p.m., under penalty of $10 fine. It would be a good thing for all clerks to go and do likewise. It would be still better to have the pledge cover the whole twenty-four hours.


11, 1865

Indian Troubles in Colorado Territory.

Julesburg, Colorado, Jan. 9.–A party of sixty Indians attacked the overland mail express coach, 8 miles east of here, and robbed the mail and express. They also attacked a mule train close by, killing one man and wounding another. The troops at the military post here, numbering from fifty to eighty men, immediately started in pursuit, and drove the Indians to the bluffs, a mile back, where the Indians were reinforced to the number of 1500, who drove our troops back to the fort.

The Indians then entered the stage station in large numbers and, after destroying all the furniture, breaking the windows, &c., set the buildings on fire. They also destroyed a large amount of telegraph material. A well directed fire of musketry from the troops at the post soon drove the Indians from the station.

In a running fight on their retreat our troops killed thirty-five Indians, including the principal chief. Nineteen of our soldiers and citizens were killed. A general massacre of whites was only prevented by the perseverance and bravery of our troops and the efficient artillery fire. The Indians retreated in a southerly direction.

This was the most determined incursion made by the Indians this season.


One of the Hotel Burners Caught in Detroit.–One of the persons concerned in the hotel burning in New York has been arrested in Detroit. The Tribune of that city of Friday says:

“A few days since a commotion was visible among the detectives in this city, which gave rise to a suspicion that something unusual was going on. What the commotion was we had some difficulty in ascertaining, but after careful inquiry we learned that several New York detectives had traced one of the hotel incendiaries of that city to Detroit, which, as may naturally be supposed, was taking a feather out of the cap of one of our own officers. The individual was living at one of our first-class hotels, at which place it was thought he had been maturing plans for a repetition of the New York affair.

“He was taken into custody, and evidence found upon his person that it is thought will be sufficient to ensure his conviction. He gave his name as Cobb. Although it was previously ascertained that he had registered himself as Sidney Staunton, he is, we believe, a Southerner, and is bold enough to attempt no disguise. He will probably claim to be a belligerent, and as such entitled to all the benefits of a prisoner of war.”


Contributions of Savannah for the Poor of Boston.–The meeting of yesterday recalls the memory of another “general meeting” held now nearly a century ago, when the people of Savannah showed their interest in our common country by their contributions to the necessities of Boston. When the “Port Bill” reduced Boston to the state almost of a besieged town, so that her mechanics and seamen had no means of earning bread, the people of Savannah, with those of all the rest of the country, came to her relief.

On the 16th of August, 1774, at a general meeting of the inhabitants of Georgia at Savannah, a committee was appointed “to receive subscriptions for the suffering poor of Boston.” A letter dated Savannah, Dec. 9, 1774, says: “There are large donations of rice for the sufferers in Boston, and had we means of sending it to them, with very little trouble much more would be collected and sent. Few have subscribed less than ten tierces of rice.”2 ->

The rice was sent to New York, sold there, and the proceeds, £216 0s. 5d., were remitted to the Boston committee, and by them applied to the relief of the poor here.

The oligarchy at Richmond which has held Savannah out in the cold for four years is a government as oppressive to her and as foreign as was that of Lord North, which tried to starve the Boston of 1774. It would be easy to follow along the parallel between the condition of Boston then and that of Savannah before she was relieved by Sherman.–Advertiser.


The Rebel Galvanized Yankee Battalion.–It will be remembered that many of the soldiers confined at Columbia, S. C. endeavored to escape the horrors of the “rebel pen” by joining the rebel army. A man named Brooks organized a battalion of them, who took the rebel oath, doubtless with mental reservation, and entered the service regularly. We published a few days ago the statement that the former prisoners had reached Savannah, but that is now said to be a mistake. The Columbia South Carolinian gives the following account of their conduct, and recommends it as a lesson for the future:

“For some time after going to the front, the conduct of the command was generally good. They were several times under the fire of sharpshooters, and one was wounded. They were generally steady on duty. On or about the 15th inst., when encamped within about seven hundred yards of the enemy’s outposts, Sherman sent a secret emissary, promising amnesty if they immediately joined him, and great severity if they did not, should they fall into his hands. The battalion, with a few exceptions, immediately decided upon going over to the enemy, upon capturing or, if necessary, killing their officers. This, which was to be done at a concerted signal, was discovered in time. Seven of their number were shot on the spot, and the remainder have been remanded to the federal prison.”3



There are upwards of ten thousand enlisted men on detached service in Washington.

The sloop-of-war Constellation, now riding at anchor in Hampton Roads, having but lately arrived from a  a three years’ cruise in the Mediterranean, is one of the few relics left us of the days of sailing vessels. The Constellation was launched in 1798. She is a sister ship of the Constitution, the “Old Ironsides,” and is still seaworthy.

Gov. Smith, of Rhode Island, recently paid out of his own pocket for a breakfast for about three hundred soldiers, mostly from Maine, who were detained on the steamer in the Sound, and hadn’t any money to buy breakfast with.

Glidden & Williams very generously offer to take free all supplies contributed in Boston for the suffering people of Savannah, in their steamship, the Greyhound, which sails next Saturday, the 14th inst.


Confirmation of the Story–The Facts Endorsed by an Administration Organ.
[Special Dispatch to the N. Y. Times.]

Washington, Jan. 6.–It is rumored that General Sherman has communicated to the President that the Georgia state authorities have applied to come back into the Union, and that Secretary Stanton’s visit to Savannah has doubtless some connection with this subject. It is also believed that Secretary Stanton’s visit to Sherman will result in the inauguration of a new policy in Sherman’s command in reference to treatment of Negroes who may come into his lines hereafter. Such Negroes will be armed and allowed to do effective service in the Union ranks.


Theodore Tilton was not very gallant to the Chicago ladies in his address there lately. He said that there were more ways of recruiting our army than one. There were two soldiers once in Grant’s army, lying beneath their blankets looking up at the stars in a Virginian sky. Says Jack: “What made you go into the army, Tom?” “Well,” replied Tom, “I had no wife and I love war. What made you go into the army, Jack?” “Well,” he replied, I had a wife and I loved peace, so I went to war.” He doubted not that among the fair faces he saw before him, many had contributed to swell the ranks of the army in both ways.


The Wealthiest Man in America: An Annual Income of $5,000,000.–Alexander T. Stewart, the dry goods nabob of New York, has the largest income of any man in America, or (probably) the world. He has lately paid an income tax of $250,000 on a net income of five million dollars!

This would be the interest at 6 per cent of over eighty millions. We know of no case among the wealthy men of England that surpasses or equals this; and we suppose A. T. Stewart is the “richest man” living.

Mr. Stewart’s annual business is thirty millions, and his profits–as appears by his tax–are five millions a year. He owns fourteen millions in real estate. Moses Taylor, who pays taxes on an income of $500,000, can scarcely be called a wealthy man in comparison with Mr. Stewart. What a vast amount of good might be done with such an income as Stewart’s!–N. H. Register.


A Singular Case.–A gentleman in one of our suburban cities raised a company two or three years since for one of our regiments, and departed for the battle-field, leaving behind him a young wife. A few months afterwards the lady gave birth to a child, and subsequently the name of her husband appeared among those killed in one of the battles fought by the Potomac army. A body, said to be that of her husband, was sent to her, and the remains were interred, she believing all the time that she was burying her husband. The lady remained single about a year, then removed her mourning, was married again, and now has a child by the second husband. A few weeks ago the wife was somewhat surprised by reading the name of her husband in a list of Massachusetts soldiers who had recently been released from a rebel prison, he having arrived at Annapolis, Md. She now has two living husbands and children by both.–Boston Traveller.

Deferred Items.

A firm in Pittsburg, who for several months have been sinking a well on Duck Run, not far from Zanesville, Ohio, are now obtaining 160 barrels of oil a day. Its specific gravity is said to be thirty, and is selling for $24 per barrel at the head. This is one of the most remarkable strikes in the history of oil.

During the present month, there have been organized in Philadelphia thirteen oil or petroleum companies, with an aggregate capital of $9,750,000. Boston, too, is going largely into this business. Somebody will “strike ile” through these stocks.

Maj. Gen. Hurlburt, commanding the District of New Orleans, is entitled to the credit of discovering a new field for the exercise of military authority. He has issued an order to the effect that no publisher or newsboy shall sell a paper for more than ten cents per copy in that city. The heavy hand of military power, says the La Crosse Democrat, may next be laid upon pop corn and peanuts.

Tax gatherers never were popular persons; but a friend of the Boston Post calls a New York Collector of Internal Revenue an income-poop. Isn’t that awful.

A writer on natural history gives the following definition of a ram: “A ram is an animal whose butt is on the wrong end of him.”

It may be a consoling fact to know that the debts of European nations increases as well as ours. (Misery loves company.) That of England, which is now $3,957,000,000, is greater by $115,000,000 than it was in 1853. In 1851, France owed only about half our present debt. She now owes, floating bills and all, $2,068,000,000. Our debt, according to the last report, was something over $1,700,000,000.

What ridiculous stories come from Paris. They tell of a Russian there who wears the remains of his wife in a ring on his finger. After she died, he had her body reduced by dissolvents, compressed into a hard paste, like jet, and set as a souvenir. And so the poor woman, in the form of an essence, is doomed forever to remain above ground.

One of the latest inventions is a spoon with a cover, for the especial use of those who still wear the moustache.

Thirty million gallons of petroleum oil have been exported during the past eleven months.

The section of the Pacific Railroad between Lawrence and Kansas City is finished and trains will soon be running over it.

A New Orleans letter says the great heart of that city is still thoroughly secesh. A fair for the children of rebel soldiers is in successful operation in New Orleans.

A new way of dressing hair is called the flower-pot style.

Recently, while the Americans at Honolulu, Sandwich Islands, were anxiously looking out for news from the United States, a large clipper arrived from San Francisco, and on being boarded by the newsboat, the only reply of the captain was, “that there had been a great row in the United States, but he didn’t learn the particulars.”

13, 1865

Weekly Review of War News.

The accounts from Savannah show a most gratifying disposition on the part of the people to return to their allegiance to the old flag, most of the citizens manifesting pleasure at their release from Confederate tyranny. The Mayor and many influential citizens held a public meeting, in which they resolved not only to cheerfully acquiesce in the United States government in that city, but to submit themselves permanently to the Constitution and laws of the Union, leaving all specific questions that may need further settlement to the disposal of Congress and the courts. They do not submit as conquered to conquerors, but simply as citizens of the United States, debarred hitherto from their just position by irresistible military control. This strikes the true key-note of reconstruction for all the people of the South, as distinguished from the deliberate traitors who originated and have sustained the armed rebellion. What a glorious position is this to be taken by the fourth great city of the rebellious States! The same meeting also calls upon the Governor of Georgia to make provision for deciding whether the war shall longer continue in that States. This course of the citizens of Savannah has created great indignation at Richmond.

Great suffering from the want of food was the result consequent upon the city being cut off from its ordinary source of supply, which our officers were aiding the authorities in alleviating.

The appearing of the Yankees at Savannah was the signal for the revival of business. Adams’ Express was already doing a heavy business, mail facilities are being arranged, and vast amounts of money are being sent North. Re-construction was the order of the day.

It appears that the destruction of the Gulf Railroad by Gen. Sherman struck a staggering blow to Lee and Davis at Richmond. The Post has a private letter from a citizen at Savannah, which states on the authority of an officer of that road, that it supplied Lee’s army, up to the time it was broken, with 11,500 head of cattle per week; the cattle coming from Florida and Southern Alabama. Indeed, six weeks before Sherman left Atlanta, Lee wrote the President of the road that its facilities must be enlarged or he would be obliged to fall back with his army from Virginia nearer his base of supplies. There was reason to believe from information furnished by residents of Savannah that Lee had not 30 days’ provisions on hand.

A dispatch from Memphis, of the 6th inst. says that Gen. Dana had received information from the cavalry force sent out from there on the 21st ult. They had struck the Mobile and Ohio Railroad 5 miles below Corinth, and had on the 27th utterly destroyed it to Okolona. 29 bridges, a great deal of trestle-work, 32 railroad cars, 300 army wagons, and 4000 carbines were also destroyed. Forrest’s camp of dismounted men at Verona was dispersed. Six officers and twenty men were captured. The expedition did not lose a man. Grierson was ordered to destroy the road as far as Meridian and release our prisoners at Catawba, if possible.

The Times’ Huntsville, Ala. dispatch of the 31 inst says that Tennessee campaign is ended. The last f Hood’s army crossed the Tennessee on the 29th ult., with 8 pieces of artillery and about 18,000 men. He left Macon, Ga., with 35,000 men and was reinforced by 5000 more. He had 100 pieces of artillery. It is believed he has thrown into the river at least 30 guns. He has abandoned a large number of wagons and ambulances. Our official list of prisoners numbers 9,700. Over 900 deserters have also reported. It is said Hood is going to Meridian to re-organize.

Late rebel papers show that Jeff Davis has now on his hands quarrels with the Governors of Mississippi, Georgia and Alabama.


Late Richmond papers contain the most distinct and unmistakable confession of failure that has yet come from rebeldom. They tell us in so many words that the Confederacy has sustained so many reverses of late that it is no longer able to defend itself effectively, and that it is time to seek foreign assistance. How deep this conviction of its impotence is, is shown by the fact that these writers are willing to purchase foreign aid by the sacrifice of everything distinctive Southern life. Says the Examiner:

“If we are asked whether or not colonial vassalage be preferable to subjugation by the Yankees, we say yes. Infinitely preferable. Better for us and ours not only that we sink back into colonists, but that we should all die where we stand, than be reduced to the ignominious condition of vassals to the Yankee nation. But it happens that neither the question nor the answer is anything to our present purpose, and if we are asked whether we would or would not purchase the material aid of England or France in our present struggle by abandoning slavery instantly and on the spot, we say again, “Yes, without one moment’s hesitation or consideration.’ That is to say, we would sacrifice the Negro race to insure our own independence.”

While the Examiner admits its preference for “colonial vassalage” rather than a return of the Confederate States into the Union, at the same time it doubts whether England or France would accept them as colonial relations, as such a proceeding would involve them in wars, and the proposal itself would be a full admission that the Confederates are on the point of subjugation and no longer capable of maintaining themselves.


Working Oxen.–I have long found that in all heavy farming operations oxen are most useful, and am convinced that every farmer with one hundred or more acres of land can work one or two pairs to greater advantage than he can do the work with horses. For deep plowing, oxen will draw greater weights and are as quick as horses. In lighter operations the horse surpasses them in speed, but every improvement in agriculture now tends to deep, consequently slow work, and until stream is adapted to drawing our implements, oxen will be most useful. They cost much less to keep, and improve daily in value; they are easily broken in, may be worked through the busy season of the year and then fed off. The application of steam to our threshing machines, and the railways lessening the distance at which many deliver their grain, has diminished the winter work of many farmers’ horses. Oxen would in these cases prove very beneficial in summer. I know one large occupier who commonly buys every spring three or four pairs of working oxen, uses them till all his turnips are sown and cleaned, and then feeds them off in his stalls; and by this course has his work done at two-thirds less cost than by keeping a large number of horses. As a practical farmer I should be very sorry to be without oxen as auxiliaries to horse teams.–E. W. Wilmott, in the Gardeners’ Chronicle.

JANUARY 14, 1865


Retirement of Butler.

The City Point correspondent of the N. Y. Herald says that Butler’s removal caused some comment, but no censure; that he has been, for months, losing the confidence of the army, but his recent fiasco before Wilmington was probably the immediate case of his dismissal. The writer says “a mountain of dissatisfaction has been accumulating against him for months on account of alleged illegal and arbitrary arrests, imprisonments and punishments. It is said that many cases of glaring injustice have come to light, and many others are expected to be developed by his supercedure. Thus ends the military career if a distinguished civilian general. It is a singular, but instructive fact, that no general officer has succeeded in this war who did not possess a previous military training and education, excepting a few who entered the service with only regimental rank, and studied, worked and fought their way from thence upward. Without this previous knowledge or training–of one kind or the other–all have been expensive failures.” As if he President did not desire to open up a discussion with Gen. B. personally, he is not permitted to repair to Washington, but is ordered to hand over his Department to Gen. Ord, a worthy officer, and write from Lowell if he has anything to say. Gen. B. had it in his power to have made New Orleans a Union city–but he preferred to play the tyrant, and make the Union cause under his administration  peculiarly obnoxious to that section of the country. The mischief that he, and some others like him, have done to the cause of the Union is almost irreparable.


Change of Southern Sentiment.

Extracts from late Richmond papers are conclusive that the leading men of the South are preparing the minds of their people for greater sacrifices. The Sentinel, the recognized organ of Davis, proposes to offer to Europe the abolition of slavery as the price for recognition and the guarantee of the independence of the South. It goes so far as to propose a union with some European monarchy, rather than submit to the United States. The Enquirer says:

“If it be necessary to convince the world that we are fighting for the self-government of the whites, that we should liberate the Negro, and if that liberation should secure our recognition, and the guaranty of England and France to our independence, we believe that the people of these States would not hesitate to make the sacrifice. The consequence of emancipation would fall upon the Negro. The act would be one of necessity, not of choice–taken against our judgments and convictions, but to save us from the horrors of prolonged war, and the disgrace, ruin and destruction involved in the success of the enemy.”

These indications of changes of sentiment at the South–the ardent longing for peace–show that a wise policy at this juncture might secure the return of the seceded States on fair terms; for when such desperate measures are proposed by the leaders, we may be sure that the mass of people must be desirous to escape from the perils that surround them. The men at Washington will not permit any modification of the policy of war, until it will be too late. We have always believed that France and England would interfere in this struggle, just so soon as they become convinced that such intervention is necessary to prevent a re-union of these States. So long as the South is able to maintain the struggle, they are willing to stand aside and witness the self-destruction of the great American Republic. Let it be shown that the South is likely to be overwhelmed this Summer, and the allies will find it easy to make the offer of emancipation a pretext for throwing their swords into the scale against the North.->

Another effect of such a step on the part of the South would be to array the radical abolitionists of the North against the further prosecution of the war. They have hounded on this contest for the purpose of destroying slavery; that accomplished, they will be ready to make peace instanter, by cutting loose from the South. The Administration seems to be shaping matters to give England ample grounds for war, under the cover of which an escape from our domestic troubles may be made.


A Glimpse of Peace.

It will be seen by reference to our telegraph columns that Mr. Lincoln has taken important steps toward the conclusion of peace. He has suffered Mr. Francis P. Blair to proceed to Richmond and ascertain what the Confederate leaders are willing to do, and he has deprived Butler of his command and sent him back to Lowell. We have before said Mr. Blair, among the men f his party, is peculiarly qualified for the important service he has undertaken, and every true friend of the country will wish him complete success. We believe it possible to arrange the whole matter at this time, if a reasonable course is taken. Such an opportunity may never again occur. True, it appears on the surface that the South will be forced to succumb under the pressure of the next campaign, but the same appearances have have proved deceptive before, and may prove so now. There is no such thing as calculating what a people, driven to desperation, may accomplish if pushed to the wall. It is now reported on the authority of Mr. George D. Prentice, that they have resolved to arm two hundred thousand Negroes, and it is not unlikely that, if given time, they will succeed in forming a European alliance, which may turn the scale. The addition of a French army and the French fleet to the strength of the South would put the finishing touch upon the struggle. If Mr. Blair can arrange for the return of the seceded States, under the Constitution, he will earn the gratitude of the present and future generations.


Sherman’s Rule in Savannah.

The manner in which Gen. Sherman is treating the people of Savannah is in happy contrast with the reign of terror established by Butler in New Orleans. Gen. S., in “general orders,” informs the people that they will be protected in their peaceful pursuits–families disturbed as little as possible–schools and churches be continued as usual–amusements and recreations encouraged–the roads and walks made safe to all–and that no passes will be required within the line of outer pickets, unless his confidence shall be abused; that the Mayor and City Council will continue in the exercise of their functions, and act in concert with the military power in preserving order, cleanliness and quiet. Persons who desire to leave can do so. By such a course, confidence will be encouraged, and a Union sentiment fostered, that must yield good fruits. It is the most important conquest of the war, and fortunate for the country that so sensible a military captain has it in charge.

1 Latin: “In the middle of things you will go most safe,” meaning to follow the middle of the road.

2 A tierce is a unit of liquid measure, so it is interesting that it is used here for a dry good such as rice. It can, however, be used to refer to the barrel which held the liquid, and that container was able to hold 42 gallons. Modern readers will not be far off to picture a cut-down 55-gallong drum.

3 Federal in this passage does not refer to the Northern Federals, but to a national prison of the Confederacy.

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