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SUNDAY
JULY 28, 1861

THE DAILY TRUE DELTA

THE GREAT BATTLE AT MANASSAS

ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS

Richmond papers of the 23d and 24th, but this morning's mail, furnish some additional particulars of the great battle at Stone Bridge on Sunday last. It will require some days to learn all the particulars of that great trial of strength between the north and south. Below we give all of interest in the papers before us:

We are enabled to state on the best authority, that the loss in killed, on our side, does not exceed five hundred--probably not much over four hundred.

It is currently reported and even vouched for by some of the passengers, that Gen. Scott was near the scene of action in his carriage, when the retreat of his army took place. Scott left the vehicle and escaped in one direction while the carriage drove off in another. Our men, of course, pursued the carriage and captured it, and in it found the sword and epaulettes of the old general. A letter from Manassas tells the same story.1

A large number of muskets and other relics of the battle were brought down last evening. Not the least interesting among these were daguerreotype likenesses of females, found in the pockets or haversacks of those who expected to whip the "rebels."

A doubtful rumor was in circulation that John Cochrane and Lovejoy, members of Congress, who came to see the fight, were taken prisoners.

The "contraband" articles captured included fine brandies and wines, with which the federals probably intended a jollification after their victory.

The enemy's lowest estimate of his loss is four to five thousand.

THE EXTERMINATION OF SLAVERY

The New York World (black republican) under the heading, "An alternative the south must shun," has the following significant paragraph. Let Kentucky readers ponder it well:

Anti-slavery discussions in this war Congress is out of place, for the war claims the support of all true men, whatever their opinions of slavery. But the northern senators who participated in Thursday's  debate did well in not shrinking from the explicit avowal that, while they regarded the war as waged solely for the supremacy of the constitution, yet, if it should come at last to be a question whether the government or slavery should perish, the latter must take the death. The south cannot too clearly understand that. The preservation of the unity of this republic is a foregone conclusion with the northern people--the one fixed, supreme determination, against which nothing will be suffered to weigh for an instant.

FOREIGN RECOGNITION

Memphis Avalanche, 25th--We have positive assurance of the intention of both England and France to recognize the independence of the Confederate States at an early day. Their sympathies and good wishes are evidently with us. They know the south to be their best customer--able to furnish them with products of indispensable importance, and ready to take in exchange their manufactures. They know, too, that ours is a liberal and enlightened government, inclined to free trade, to the most liberal and unrestricted commercial intercourse, and which repudiates the narrow and illiberal policy that dictated the passage of the Morrill tariff bill, designed to enrich and pamper a manufacturing aristocracy, at the expense of the consumer. They also perceive the justice of our cause, and the atrocity of the war waged against us by the Lincoln government. The success of our arms will afford them only additional reason, for which they have been waiting, to justify the full and formal recognition of our nationality.

BROUGHT HOME

The body of Sergeant J. D. Reynolds--one of our New Orleans martyrs in the cause of liberty--was this morning received at the Jackson railroad depot by a guard of honor, composed of the members of the Washington Artillery now in this city. It was conveyed to the arsenal of the artillery, on Girod street, where it will remain in state till its removal on Sunday evening for burial. Thousands will join in the sad procession and cast  sprig of myrtle on his tomb.

RESIGNED HER FREEDOM

Amelia Stone, a free negress aged 24 years, born at Seneca, N.Y., has instituted suit in the Sixth district court, through her counsel, Col. Lemley, for the change of her status from a free woman to a slave. She selected Recorder Adams as her master When asked her reasons for the change, she stated that she would rather remain here a slave than be obliged to go back and live in freedom among the abolitionists of the north.

MANUFACTURE OF SMALL ARMS IN GEORGIA

Augusta Constitutionalist--We have been informed that arrangements are being made to commence the manufacture of small arms in Athens, Georgia. This is commendable and should be imitated elsewhere. The machine shops of Augusta might engage in the work with profit.

Muskets and rifles are more needed than any other species of arms at present, and we have no doubt that the demand would equal the supply that could be furnished here. We hope that the subject will meet with the attention which it deserves, and that our machinists and gunsmiths will follow the example of those of Athens.

LONGEVITY

Norfolk Herald--Rebecca Wishart, (colored,) the family servant of the late Dr. William B. Selden, of this city, died Thursday at the advanced age of one hundred and ten years. She leaves three great-great-grandchildren.

TRAGEDY IN ILLINOIS

At McLeansboro, on the 13th inst., in a fight about politics, Pickney Davis was killed by Leith Craig, who, in turn, together with two sons, and two others, were all desperately wounded.

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The Lynchburg Virginian of the 23d contains the annexed paragraphs:

The enemy tried the same ruse on Monday that they practiced after the first Battle of Bull's Run. They sent in a flag of truce, asking permission to bury their dead, which President Davis refused, saying that he would attend to that business, and inter their dead more decently than themselves would do it. Davis was right, for if the enemy had not, as before, employed the time in making entrenchments, they would have lied about the number of their killed. As it is, the world will have a much better chance of learning the truth.

It is said that the celebrated Tiger Rifles of New Orleans, were pitted against Ellsworth's Zouaves, and being surrounded were cut to pieces, only about six or eight having escaped alive. The poor creatures performed prodigies of valor, and no doubt each one slew his man.

We are informed that a large number of New York politicians, the most pestilent brood of devils above ground, were taken prisoners by our gallant troops on Sunday. As those are the fellows who have brought on this war, and not the poor wretches who have been deluded to offer their bodies as a sacrifice to the demon of black republicanism--we would suggest that the fellows be driven through the streets of Richmond hand-cuffed, with their heads shaved, and their ears cropped. No punishment is too ignoble to be visited upon them, for they have ever been a curse to the country.

MONDAY
JULY 29, 1861

THE SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN

REPORT OF A WOMAN FROM MANASSAS

CONDITION OF FEDERAL PRISONERS

Mrs. Hinsdale, whose husband is a member of the 2d Michigan regiment, which is now on the Virginia side of the Potomac, has returned to Alexandria from Manassas Junction. Mrs. Hinsdale was at Centreville during the engagement on the 21st, and waited there for the return of soldiers, looking for her husband, but failed to see him. She supposed him to be a prisoner at Manassas. The enemy captured her and conveyed her thither.. They employed her as a hospital nurse. On Thursday she procured a pass from Beauregard and his consent to leave. She walked to Alexandria, where she arrived Saturday morning. Her husband she discovered was not a prisoner, but safe in camp, with his regiment.

Mrs. Hinsdale reports that in the hospital at Manassas there are a large number of our wounded troops. The enemy say they have as prisoners over 1000 of our men. She brings verbal messages from several of them to their friends, and says the wounded are well cared for. The offer of liberty has been offered to all, provided they will take an oath not again to bear arms against the confederates. A captain of a Maine company and several privates accepted the condition, but others refused.

Among the federal prisoners in the hospital are Henry L. Perrin and Lieut. Underhill of New York, employed as hospital stewards; E. F. Taylor of N.J., surgeon quarter master; C. J. Murphy, Dr. Swift, John Bagley, and Mr. Viedanburgh of the New York 14th. The last named is a hospital steward. There are also in the hospital Surgeon Bruxton of the 5th Maine, and a surgeon of the 38th New York and 1st Minnesota regiments, and of the 3d regiment of federal infantry. All the foregoing were taken prisoners at our hospital. They are confined in a barn. D. C. Sprague of New Haven, and Mr. Wiggins of Brooklyn, who was also wounded, are also prisoners.

Mrs. Hinsdale says the confederates buried their dead as fast as they could be recovered, and they report of these only 50, but their wounded exceeds 1500. She saw many of our dead unburied as she passed over the battle ground, and distinguished some of them by their uniforms.

She says that the force of the enemy at Manassas is very large and that the officers are very busy drilling their troops, and Beauregard is constantly on the move, going from one part of the camp to the other, arranging, as they said, some great movement.

She reports that a large force of the enemy is at Fairfax, with heavy guns.

JEFF DAVIS CROWS LOUDLY

By the cars Tuesday night, president Davis returned from the battle field to Richmond. In response to calls from an immense crowd who had come together to greet him, he alluded to the grand absorbing topic of the day. "The enemy," he said, "with taxes they had been imposing on us for twenty years, had fitted out an army on a magnificent scale. They had come over to Virginia with plenty of arms and ammunition, and with ambulances fitted up in such a style of luxury as if they thought they were still taxing the South. They had 5 or 600 army wagons with them, and provisions of every kind in abundance. In the whole campaign they had over 50,000 men. Their finest parks of heavy and light artillery now are ours. They left everything behind them which they could throw away. The train has brought in 100 prisoners and there are 1200 more coming, including 65 officers. The probability is that the enemy lost 10,000 men. Our casualties will not exceed 1200."

 

REBEL ATTACK AT FORTRESS MONROE

The rebel cavalry charged on our pickets near Fortress Monroe, last Friday. We killed one man and wounded others. An attack is expected nightly on Newport News. The enemy are now in force at Yorktown.

During the last few hours, the rebels extended their pickets a mile and a half nearer to Hampton.

Col. Max Weber fully expected to be attacked Friday night, the rebels being then some distance this side of Newmarket bridge, with a strong force of infantry and cavalry.

An order arrived from Washington, Thursday night, for four regiments to be transferred to Washington; and accordingly Col. Baker's, Col. Duryea's, and the 3d and 4th New York sailed as soon as possible. They will forma  brigade under command of Col. Baker. Several "contrabands," disguised in uniforms, probably left with the California regiments. Owing to this movement, the contemplated advance on Fox Hill ahs been abandoned. The place of the departed troops will be filled by a large number of recruits.

La Mountain made a balloon ascension on Thursday evening, at Hampton, but on account of the high wind, he could not attain a great elevation.

HAMPTON ABANDONED BY FEDERAL TROOPS

It becoming apparent that the rebels meditated an attack on Hampton, Gen. Butler determined to abandon the town in case of a formidable advance, and at 7 o'clock Friday evening, the order was given for families and goods to be removed within an hour. Orders were also issued to burn the town rather than have it fall into the hands of the enemy. The general well understands that the possession of Hampton by the rebels will be of no particular importance. A stampede of the colored population took place all Friday night, and on Saturday the road was lined with fugitives going to the fortress, and army wagons and carts, bringing in goods from Hampton. Nearly 1000 "contrabands" must have come in during 24 hours. For the present, those not employed will be quartered in and around the seminary buildings, lately the headquarters of Col. Duryea.

About 9, Friday night, the naval brigade and Massachusetts companies came in and encamped near the fortress. Max Weber's regiment came in Saturday morning and will occupy Camp Hamilton.

An alarm occurred Saturday morning, and several buildings in Hampton were fired by our troops. The rebels will doubtless occupy the place Sunday, unless it be burned.

A flag of truce came in from the rebels, Saturday, professing a wish to exchange Shurtleff and Capt. Jenkins.

LATER NEWS FROM CALIFORNIA

The pony express has arrived at Fort Kearney, with San Francisco dates to the 17th.

The Pacific telegraph is now extended 50 miles eastward from Carson valley station, and news is telegraphed to California from the terminus, which is called Sand Spring station. The company is confident that they will have the line completed to Salt Lake at the time specified, Dec. 1st. The distance from Carson valley to Salt Lake is 536 miles.

The first daily overland mail westward passed Sand Spring station on the evening of the 15th, and would arrive at an Francisco on the 18th. On the route between Carson valley and Salt Lake there are 22 mail stations established for changing horses, &c. The route is a rough one, and the company intend to have stations every 12 miles for the first few months, and next spring hotels will be erected at convenient points. The overland journey will then be agreeable, even for private conveyances.

TUESDAY
JULY 30, 1861

THE HARTFORD DAILY COURANT

Occasionally we meet a man who says in conversation, "It's no use trying to avoid the issue; we must make this a war of emancipation, and so shorten it!" Now, to say nothing of the folly of expecting that a mere proclamation of emancipation, unaccompanied by an army to give it weight, would ever penetrate to the inland plantations of the South, or have any more effect than a dozen similar proclamations, which may, for aught we know, have already been made by the man in the Moon, let us look at the effect it would have in Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland and Delaware. Its effect may be inferred from the following editorial which we clip from the Louisville Democrat, which is struggling to keep Kentucky out of the abyss of Secession:

"The Secessionists are very certain that this is a war on slavery. They wish it was so; or at least that they could persuade every one South it were so. The President says it is not; his Generals in their proclamations say not; and nobody North says it is, except a few who have been disunionists up to this time, and who are at heart disunionist now. This disunion faction North are very desirous to shape this war against slavery. When they find it can't done they will be against the war. They pray daily that Kentucky may be plunged into the revolution. She is one of the slave States, and is in the way of a war on the institution of slavery. Let all the slaveholders be rebels, and the coast will be more clear for a general crusade upon the institution.

This faction and the Secessionists play into each others' hands. Each furnishes ammunition to the other, with which to assail conservative men at home. It is obvious now, however, that whenever the Administration avows that its purpose is to war on slavery, it will neither be able to raise men or money. It would learn promptly from its Generals and its troops that they bargained to save the Government and its Constitution, not to destroy it. The President has been careful from first to last to avoid anything that would be construed into such a purpose. The suggestion is contrary to all his declarations and all his acts. Still the Secessionists are so anxious to believe that it is a war on slavery, that they will believe it anyhow. The Abolitionists say it is a war on slavery, and the Secessionists believe every word they say. They have great faith in the Abolitionists.

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The New Orleans Sunday Delta of the 14th inst. advises planters to pick their cotton and store it unseeded in pens, well covered, and abide events. If the Northern army approach, the planters are told to commit the cotton to the flames. This applies to the present crop. In relation to future crops, they are to prepare to reduce the product of cotton to a very low figure, and devote their labor and land to other productions which will be needed for consumption during the war, and to act on the presumption that the contest is to be a protracted one.

REGENERATION OF THE ARMY

The entrance of Gen. McClellan on duty has inspired the troops with renewed enthusiasm. He has thoroughly examined the entrenchments, instituted discipline among the soldiers, made regimental officers understand that they can no longer be lounging about their camps, revised and restricted the much-abused passport system, and his vigorous measures are beginning everywhere to be felt.

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There is great excitement at St. Louis among the German population in regard to the inhuman outrage recently committed upon one of their number in the northerly part of the state, and in regard to which the telegraph has already advised us. Lieutenant Jaeger, of the Federal Cavalry troops, was wounded in an engagement, when Col. Ben Sharp, for the purpose of making the wounded man comfortable, started with him in a buggy to a farm house. A skulking band of rebels met them, fired and mortally wounded Col. Sharp, whose horse ran, throwing both men out upon the roadside. Here they were overtaken by the mounted band of incarnate fiends. Unmindful of the cries for mercy on the part of Sharp, who, mortally wounded from the balls fired into him by the blood-thirsty band, and now cut and bruised from his fall from the buggy, begged and besought them to let him pass in peace the little remaining span of his existence, they deliberately hung them both to the nearest tree! It is also stated that, with the vindictiveness of savages and the ferocity of brutes, their bloody hands did not stop here, but that, cutting down the bodies they were cut and mangled, and subjected to the most revolting usage. Jaeger was one of the wealthiest and most respected citizens of St. Louis. The German are so exasperated at the outrage that it is feared they will retaliate.

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A Western military man, who was on the field and near where the charge of the Southern cavalry which decided the battle was made, expresses the opinion that to the inefficiency of the Commanding General's staff, more than to any other thing, was the disgraceful rout owing. Through this inefficiency many of Gen. McDowell's orders never reached the officers to whom they were addressed. In the armies of all other countries, it is understood that no one but an officer of complete military education, and of enlarged military experience, can aspire to a place on a General's staff. We have acted on  a quite different principle in our army. But doubtless the experience we have recently gained, at so dear a price, will not be thrown away. The same writer says"

"The panic was commenced in a light battery commanded by a fat Lieutenant. He was proceeding under orders to flank one of the enemy's batteries, when a detachment of their cavalry made a dash at them. Instead of unlimbering and essaying to receive the charge with grape or canister, he turned and instantly fled, leaving two of his pieces on the field."

WEDNESDAY
JULY 31, 1861

THE HARTFORD DAILY COURANT

DEFENSE OF SECRETARY WELLES

Commodore Paulding addresses a note to the New York Times, expressing regret at the denunciation of the Secretary of the Navy. He says that

"It is unfair and unjust, and evidently caused by interested parties who had in view their disappointments in the sale of worthless ships, or in overreaching the integrity of our honest chief of the Navy Department. When Mr. Welles came into office, less than four months ago, there were few ships and no men, and the stampede of the Southern officers and clerks sadly crippled the Navy Department. Since then seven thousand seamen have been sent upon the blockade of the rebellious ports, and our ships recalled from abroad. A part of the system of villainy practiced by the conspirators holding the reins of the Government was to keep our ships away from home, and our rendezvous2 closed. The Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Toucey, was appealed to in vain, and as a consequence, all our available force was abroad.

"The Editor of the Times knows that a Navy cannot be created in a day, nor can it be created at all without ships and men. In the absence of our men-of-war we had to obtain and arm such ships as we could bet by charter or purchase, and from the beginning of our troubles nothing ahs been left undone to secure the best interests of the Government, our mechanics at our Navy-yards often working night and day. The Secretary of the Navy, I know, has been most zealous to accomplish whatever could be done to provide a sufficient naval force for our wants. These wants were very great for the blockade of so extensive a coast as ours, and we are still going on buying and arming all the ships that are in any manner suitable for war purposed, and this will probably be continued until the ships under construction are ready to take the place of the miserable shells of vessels that were hurriedly, many of them, purchased and chartered by patriotic citizens for the use of the Government, at an exorbitant price. It is true that many vessels have been offered that were refused, and many men professing to have no other than the public interest in view, were not employed, and that men who had been employed were found to be expensive and their services declined; but all that could be done for the good of the country with an honest purpose I am satisfied has been done by the Secretary of the Navy and all around him, with a zeal, decision, energy and honesty that defies all criticism and assault from any and all quarters."

GOING WITH A RUSH

A merchant of the town left for New York last week, and as was his custom, left in his desk blank checks signed for the use of those to whom he intrusted his business in his absence. His son, who has the fast ways of the town, appropriated four of these checks, intending to fill them out at his leisure. Yesterday morning he raised $200 by one of them, and was about leaving by the 10 o'clock train for Litchfield, where a female awaited him, when officer Sanderson took him by the collar and brought him up town, when he and "the governor" had a settlement. The youth agreed to go to New York and enlist in the Navy for $25. To this the father agreed, and the individual leaves to-day for teh briny deep.

AMONG THE REBELS

Messrs. Dougherty of the 71st N.Y. and Allen of the 11th Mass., who escaped from Manassas while their sentinel was asleep, were examined by the sanitary commission at Washington on Monday. As to the condition of our wounded at the hospitals of the enemy, they state that the report of the hospital being burned with our wounded in it by the confederates is erroneous, and say that the suffering are well cared for. There were 250 wounded soldiers at Studley Church hospital. That the dead were lying unburied was true only of the Fire Zouaves, against whom a special animosity is felt, and the Brooklyn 14th, whose uniform was mistaken for that of the Zouaves. The confederates claim to have from 1200 to 1500 federal prisoners, 42 of whom are officers, field, line and staff, and 12 of our medical staff. They also claim to have taken 18 pieces of our artillery, which is correct. The confederates say that from 1,800 to 2,000 of our men are killed. Two regiments had been detailed to bury the dead.

They say on the other side that they have a force of 10,000 men at Centreville, 10,000 at Fairfax, with a large force of cavalry, one regiment at Leesburg, and one at Ball's Mill. They talk about an advance on Washington, and say that they intend to cross the Potomac 17 miles above the city.

Mr. Dougherty says that he saw four cart-loads of small arms pass by his prison, that had been thrown away by our men and picked up by the confederates. The soldiers of the enemy were also equipping themselves largely with clothing, blankets, knapsacks, etc., taken from our soldiers found upon the battlefield.

The confederates boasted that they had a big trap laid for our army if it had got to the Junction. They had 80,000 men there on Sunday, and would have had 10,000 more from Richmond but for an accident to the train by which they could not get up in season.3 The engineer of the train was shot as a traitor, they believing that the cars were run off purposely by him.

There is a scarcity of provisions at Manassas, especially of flour. There was also a good deal of discontent among the soldiers from being paid off in the fifty-cent shinplasters of the provisional government.

REBELS IN GOVERNMENT SERVICE

The revelations which are being made before Mr. Potter's special committee on the departments are somewhat startling. Thus far he has evidence that secessionists still continue to be employed in most every department under government. Some of the secretaries have discharged clerks against whom not a suspicion of disloyalty was ever entertained, and retained those who have openly boasted in the public offices this week that they rejoiced at the defeat of the federal troops in the late battle.  These statistics will be published soon. It is also in evidence before the committee that the majority of employees in the arsenal here are secessionists.

Nine workmen were arrested on Monday at the arsenal on a charge of being secessionists. The evidence against them was laid before the special committee. It would be well for an investigation to be made as to their work among bomb shells, etc.

THURSDAY
AUGUST 1, 1861

THE PITTSFIELD SUN

A NOVEL WAY OF SMUGGLING--
PICAYUNE SMUGGLING

Cincinnati Enquirer, July 16--The scarcity of certain drugs in the South has exercised the inventive faculties of certain ingenious speculators, whose patriotism, when brought into an antagonistic position with dollars and cents, won't stand the crucible. We heard, yesterday, of a large lot of quinine--now a scarce article in the South--which has reached Tennessee concealed in a show wagon, the driver of which started from some point in Indiana, crossed the river under the character of being the avant courier of a show, and so contrived to travel through Kentucky until he reached a congenial climate, making, it is said, $10,000 by the trip.

It is said that needles sell in the South for five cents each, and we learn that two or three weeks since, an individual smuggled to Nashville in his trunk, and about his person, a sufficient number to clear upwards of $2,000. We learn that he has since made a similar speculation upon spool cotton, also a scarce article, and like needles very likely to escape detection. This kind of business--small potato though it is--is making the fortune of scores.

THE BATTLE AT MANASSAS

N. Y. Times, Washington, July 21--To read of a battle, with its poetry of heroism, is a very fine thing. All men applaud the bold fellow, and all women throw laurels on the gallant soldier who is ready to throw down his life for his country's flag. If one sees it, the thing is far different. I was at the defeat of our forces near Centreville, and as I witness the hot shot and terrible shell tearing through the air; as I saw the horrible grape and shrapnel doing its too certain work all around; as I saw my friends storming, heroically, masked batteries, which the terrible incompetence of their leaders did not allow them to silence, owing to insufficient reinforcements being sent in proper time; when I saw these hereoes at $11 a month losing heads, legs and arms, in thick profusion around me; when I witness the horrible rout bro't about by a masterly flank movement of their picked cavalry and sharp-shooters, and when I saw our artillery men unlimber their guns, cut loose the traces of their horses and flee, leaving the pieces behind; when I saw, too, our boasted cavalry flying in the same mad haste, with regiment after regiment pushing after them like so many sheep, throwing for three miles guns, bayonets, cartridge-boxes, and provisions of every kind away--dragoons riding over infantry in their flight, and the ground absolutely covered for three miles with bodies, then I realized as only those can who see it, the actual horrors of war. . . .

Congress adjourned Friday until Monday expressly to allow the members to see the show. Neither Congress nor the Union wish to see another such sight. At the grand stampede civilians were awfully scared, and I think several of them were taken prisoner. I witnessed some terrific feats of running among them. Many lost their carriages, and for aught I know are skulking about the woods now. One very fat Congressman offered an artilleryman $20 for a horse, but after he had the horse he found it so hard to mount that he turned pale all over. He John Galpined along4 . . . until his horse threw him, when his agony was fearful. Three of us boosted him up, and he cut again as if the d---l was after him. That M.C.5 will never go to the wars again.

THE FRAUDS STILL CONTINUE

In spite of ample instructions on all sides against frauds upon the soldiery, the system of peculation is continued. The N. Y. Herald says:

The Twelfth Massachusetts Regiment--This gallant regiment passed through New York, on Wednesday, on its way to Washington. By the shocking mismanagement of some of the agents of the War Department, Brigadier General Cummings, we understand, they were compelled to go to the capital, as so many other regiments have done, by the way of Harrisburgh--fifteen hours inconvenient travel out of the way, and at an extra expense of nearly two thousand dollars, to put money into the pocket of some Pennsylvania contractor.

This is deplorable corruption, and should be put a stop to at once. The privates of the Massachusetts Twelfth complained bitterly at being made the victims of the avarice of venal government agents, and there should be no delay in changing a system against which popular indignation is beginning to rise up sternly and in a manner which must prevail over the individuals who are personally interested in perpetuating so shameful a state of things.

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Capture of a Valuable Prize--Advices from Key West to July 19th, announce the arrival there, in charge of a prize crew, of the barque Pilgrim, of New York, from Bordeaux. She was captured by the Brooklyn, while attempting to run the blockade of New Orleans. Her cargo of brandy is stated to be worth $100,000.

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The Paris Moniteur states that without doubt the photographist, St. Victor,6 has actually discovered the secret of reproducing colors by the camera, and rendering them permanent. He has subjected pictures taken by his new method for several hours to the direct action of the solar rays, without producing any visible change in the tints. Blue, which has hitherto been regarded as well nigh unattainable in the photograph, is now copied vividly. The same is especially true of yellow and green. The process is not disclosed.

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N. Clark, of Salisbury, recently found one of his lambs dead and badly torn. He sprinkled strychnine on the body and left it to be devoured by the murderer, and o the next day visited his bait and found a bald-headed eagle, which measured seven feet and four inches across its wings from tip to tip. He again visited the spot, and found a large wild cat, and upon the third visit he found two dead crows and a skunk. On the fourth visit he nothing but a--scent.

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Apropos to the disaster of Sunday, the Albany Journal says we must have abler officers if we have to import them. We must have more and heavier artillery, and more cavalry. We must have less holiday display--less trotting out of regiments for the benefit of distinguished visitors--less loose discipline--less absence of Colonels and Captains from their posts--less wrangling among rival aspirants--less mock court martials--and more of the earnest culture of the camp.

FRIDAY
AUGUST  2, 1861

THE BARRE GAZETTE

THE PERILS OF WAR BALLOONS

The Washington correspondent of the Philadelphia Press says:

Wise's balloon went up this morning early, and, when between Fort Corcoran and Ball's Cross, it was seen to collapse suddenly and fall with great rapidity. The general impression is that it was fired into. Your reporter was at Fort Corcoran at the time, and witnessed the swift descent of the balloon. It was too far off to ascertain how many were in the car, but it is feared that their escape from a sudden and terrible death was impossible.

The balloon was up yesterday, and could be seen from the city sailing over Virginia. It rested during the night, and went up again this morning, and was but a short time in the air before it collapsed, leaving only a small section of the top filled with gas.

The danger of accident from shot will ever operate as a serious objection to the use of balloons over the enemy's grounds; for on going near enough to obtain a view of their works, the balloon is within reach of three and four mile rifle cannon, which without any trouble can be so suspended as to point upward, or in any direction required. The rifled cannon of the Second Rhode Island throw shot four miles, and to be of any service a balloon cannot be one half of that distance from the spot to be examined. Even at an elevation of a mile, no balloonist could have discovered the batteries at Bull Run; but not discovering them, he might report that no such defences existed there. The balloon may, however, be used with great advantage in noting the advance of troops on the main road, and in watching the general involvement of an army during an engagement.

MEXICO

The nature of the troubles in the United States are now well understood by the people of Mexico, and that all the leading minds are favorable to the national government. The Mexican congress has exhibited this in a substantial manner by a decree granting our government the right to march troops over Mexican territory, if necessary, in operations in the southwest. It was passed in secret session by an unanimous vote. A copy has been transmitted by Gov. Corwin to the state department at Washington.

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Water for Horses--French horse doctors have discovered that a horse can live longer without solid food than without water. He can live twenty-five days without the former, and but five without the latter, though eating solid food. A horse which had been deprived of water for three days drank eleven gallons in three minutes.

SUCCESS OF THE DAILY OVERLAND MAIL

In the war excitement our people have quite overlooked one of the most substantial triumphs of peace which ahs marked our recent history. We refer to the entire success of the Daily Overland Mail, which went into operation on 1st July. The first coach of the new line, which left Placerville on the 1st of July, arrived at St. Joseph on the 18th ult., in only seventeen days and one hour from one terminus to the other! The schedule time during the summer season is twenty days. The agents write that their drivers had not the slightest difficulty in making their time; on the contrary, they came in ahead of time without any effort to that end. Four passengers came with the first coach, and some two hundred additional passengers from California were already booked for the coaches to come as soon as they could be brought.

The public should not forget that the steamers no longer carry the mail. Notwithstanding this fact has been widely published, a large number of correspondents still accumulate their letters and newspapers at the principal Post Offices, . . . Let it be remembered that the California mail now leaves St. Joseph every day in the week, and letters may be mailed on each and every day, at any Post Office in the loyal States. Postage, ten cents, always prepaid.

CAMP MEETING AT MARTHA'S VINEYARD

We learn from A. D. Hatch, Esq., that A. G. Pierce, Esq., agent of the New Bedford Steamboat Company, has negotiated for a first class steamer to run during the continuance of the Camp Meeting to be holden at Wesleyan Grove, August 19, and that she will be placed on the route from New Bedford to Edgartown in a few days, in place of the  steamer Eagle's Wings.

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The following extract is from the Augusta (Ga.) Constitutionalist:

"Did the intelligent men of the North really expect that Southern gentlemen, who compose so large a part of the southern armies, would be such soft-headed Hotspurs as to sink the consciousness of the vast difference between themselves and the hireling ragamuffins and vagrants, and escaped jailbirds, that form the staple of the invading hosts--that they were willing to recognize these vagabonds with knightly courtesy, and invite them to tilts and tournaments? Do they come in the true spirit of knights errant to test their prowess with Southern chivalry, with measured weapons, and in an open arena, man to man, and eye to eye?

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"Is your father at home?" inquired a man of the little girl who admitted him. "Is your name Bill?" she asked. "Some people call me so," he replied. "Then he is not at home, for I heard him tell John, if any bill came to say he was not at home."

SATURDAY
 AUGUST 3, 1861

THE SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN

THE CHAPLAINS IN THE ARMY

America presumes to call herself, and by courtesy is called, a Christian nation. We "don't see it" always, but the name will serve to distinguish it from a Mohammedan nation, and should be retained as a matter of convenience. There are, however, certain things which should be done to make the name mean something. A man who calls himself a gentleman, and sleeps in the gutter every night has got to wash his hands and face in the morning, and button his coat over his linen, or people will smile at his protestations. A woman who pretends to be virtuous, yet receives the calls of gentlemen at suspicious hours of the day and night, should complain at the police office of being insulted in the street and frightened nearly to death at least once in three months, if she would hope to preserve a spotless reputation. So a nation which pretends to be Christian should do something now and then, even over and above publishing its laws in the New York Independent, to pay for a respectable name, and justify the seizure of a very valuable adjective.

One would suppose that the least a Christian nation could do would be to give the chaplains of its armies a high rank and respectable pay. In an army, rank is everything. A man who occupies the office of a colonel has the influence and respectability of a colonel. So a captain and a major general are very far apart--quite as far as a captain and a private. In the call for troops, made by the president on the 4th of May, he stated that each regiment might have as chaplain a minister of some denomination, whose rank and pay should be that of a captain of cavalry, viz: $145.50 a month. Well, this was not bad; though when it is considered how much a first class chaplain can do for the moral condition of a regiment, and for the maintenance of discipline, it is, perhaps, small pay and indifferent rank. When it is remembered, however, that we are a "Christian nation," and that a first class Christian minister is truly the peer of any man living, and that the higher the rank given to such a man in the army the greater will be his influence, it does not seem to be quite the thing to say that he will have only the rank and social standing and significance of a captain of cavalry who does most things "like a trooper"--swearing included.

But the clergy of the United States were satisfied with this, and made no complaint. The best talent of the pulpit stood ready to respond, and did respond to the call of the volunteers who left the several loyal states for the war. Many have left large families behind them, and splendid salaries. One left for the hardships of the camp, and the comparatively insignificant pay of the chaplain's office,  a salary of $5,000. After some seventy or more of these men had accompanied their regiments to the field of operations, an amendment was tacked on to the army bill, and passed by the Senate, reducing their pay to that of post captains--$80 a month. This reduces the pay to the point at which none of them can live, and degrades the whole thing. We were exceedingly glad to notice that the chaplains in the services joined in a remonstrance, stating that they left their homes with a definite pledge from the president for the pay we have already stated, and calling upon Congress to make the pledge good.

We presume that the protest of the chaplains will not be disregarded. Who the author of this proposed degradation of rank, pay and influence of these worthy and most Christian teachers is, we do not know, but we do know that there are men in Congress who look upon them with contempt, or only as ornamental appendages to a camp, like vivandiers and pet dogs and children. There are others who regard them as ministers to a certain superstitious sentiment in the army which they are willing to foster, or which they think it necessary to humor. If chaplains are anything, and have any business in the army, or anywhere else, they are ministers of Jesus Christ, and teachers ordained by God himself. As such, they should be treated by every government calling itself Christian; and they should have rank accordingly wherever they are in the employ of the government. The simple truth is that our governmental Christianity is a governmental humbug. The men who fix the rank and pay of the chaplains have no more conception of the dignity of Christianity, and the position which its worthy teachers should occupy in a Christian nation, than horses. They have only to degrade their rank and pay to bring into the army chaplains who shall be after their own sort--a curse alike to the army and to Christianity.

FOREIGN ITEMS

It has been the barbarous practice in Turkey to put to death all male children born to members of the imperial family. It appears that the new sultan has saved one of his boys. It was generally believed that if Abdul Aziz Effendi had ever had a son, the child had paid the penalty of his birth in so exalted a station. Lately, however, the sultan has presented to some of his ministers a fine little boy, of four or five years of age, as his son. How the safety of this child was assured is not known. Some say that he has been always dressed in girl's clothes, and so brought up as a niece of Sultan Abdul Medjid; others will have it that he was carried off to Egypt at the moment of his birth, and that there he has been "keeping dark" during these early years of his life. It is more probable that the humane disposition of the late sultan was the real cause of his safety.

Muskets,, which were offered at the standard price of 45 francs--nine dollars--when the American agents first arrived in France and Belgium, have now augmented to 75 francs--fifteen dollars. This is partly due to the fact that Mr. Butler King bids against the agents of the northern states, and that the agents of those states even bid against each other. The latter think Mr. King bids high only because he does not expect to pay, and hopes thereby to embarrass them.

Mann and Yancey, agents of the secession states of America to England, and who are to visit from London the other states of Europe, give out that they will not commence the tour until the confederate states shall have been officially recognized by England and France. They seem to be preparing for permanent residence abroad.

A letter from Rome of June 29, says: The pope is going fast; he is dying in sleep. The physician, Francesco Sani, who was lately sent for, could not understand his strange malady. The following, among other symptoms, show the utter falsity of the assertions made by the French journals that his holiness has recovered: a persistent state of somnolence; continual pain in the epigastric region; a sort of paralytic trembling all over the body, but particularly in the hands; cold shivering fits so severe that he is obliged to be wrapped up in blankets; great depression of spirits, and such a want of appetite that he can swallow nothing but ices.

The Cracow journals announce the death in that city of a man named Brikowski, who won the great prize of 250,000 florins in the Austrian lottery last year. To obtain immediate possession of his fortune, he paid a discount of 11,000 florins, but from the moment he got it in his possession, he seems never to have enjoyed a moment's peace, so fearful was he that some robber would strip him of his unexpected wealth. He kept it in an iron chest, locked up in an arched vault, and visited it morning and night, to see that all was safe, till at last, from excitement and anxiety, he fell ill, and typhus supervening, death soon delivered him from all his troubles.

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The Philadelphia mint has been coining, lately, $400,000 a day, chiefly in double eagles. It has now in its vaults $3,500,000 in bullion, which will be manufactured into half and quarter eagles and dollar pieces. Very little silver or copper is being coined. The receipts of the California mint have, for a considerable period, been very large. For the week ending July 6 they were $2,000,000.

MISCELLANEOUS

A new question as to the treatment of converted polygamists is raised in the English church missionary society. Dr. Colenso, bishop of Natal, Africa, has addressed to the archbishop of Canterbury a very interesting letter upon the question, "What to do with polygamy already found existing among heathen converts?" The London papers style this "A Bishop's Defense of Polygamy," but it is rather an argument in favor of letting heathens keep their plurality of wives already married, rather than turn them loose, disgraced, dishonored and homeless widows for life. He distinctly recognizes polygamy as an unchristian institution, but thinks that God is just as much disposed to allow it in the present instance, when it has been committed through ignorance, as in the case of Abraham. There is much curiosity to know how the archbishop will decide the case.

1 This story is totally false. General Scott was in Washington at the time.

2 Recruiting stations.

3 Meaning, "in time."

4 Assumed to be a reference to John Galpin, a famous English cricket player.

5 M.C. : "Member of Congress"

6 Niépce de St. Victor, an early pioneer in color photography

 

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