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SUNDAY
JULY 21, 1861

THE TIMES PICAYUNE

THE BATTLE OF RICH MOUNTAIN

The account of this battle, from a Black Republican source, received by telegraph and published several days ago, said that the Southerners were two thousand strong, the fight lasted four hours and a half, the Southerners retreated, leaving sixty killed, many wounded, and some prisoners, besides six guns and some horses, and that the federal loss was twenty killed and forty wounded.

A gentleman who arrived in Richmond from the scene of action gives an account of the fight to the Whig differing very materially from the one we had by telegraph as above. He says:

Camp Garnett is situated in a gorge just beyond the pass that runs between Rich and another mountain. The low slope of this little mountain does not command it, but the more perpendicular slope of Rich Mountain is adjacent to the position, and upon it there is no eminence that is considered the very key to Camp Garnett. On Thursday last, Col. Pegram, knowing the importance of this point, detached three companies, (Buckingham Lee Guard, Rockbridge Guard and Pryor Rifles,) and one gun from the Lynchburg Artillery, to secure the position at all hazards. They gained the height, and by two o'clock had built the breastwork to the height of two logs.  Meanwhile, the enemy, guided by the Union mountaineers, had, by squads and companies, reached a point beyond the breastworks, and a little more elevated. Immediately they commenced an attack upon our unfinished breastwork from the distance of fifteen hundred yards. They advanced and fired with Minié rifles incessantly. No execution, however, was done with these arms. Our loss was at shorter distances, from the deadly fire of our fellow Virginians. Approaching within five hundred yards, they began to feel the fatal shots from our boys. At this and shorter distances they were mowed down like wheat before the blade. At every volley from us they fell back in confusion, but their overwhelming numbers pressed forward until they discharged their pieces in our very faces; then we thought retreat better than a fool-hardy death, and each one sought safety in flight down the other side of the mountain.

The whole force of the enemy was said to be ten thousand. Three thousand advanced to the attack, while the rest were held in reserve. Part of the reserve occupied Rich Mountain, while part descended that mountain, crossed the pass and occupied the side of the other mountain not far from the road--thus being on both sides of the road, in order, I suppose, to cut off Col. Pegram, if he should attempt a retreat to Beverly. Our whole force in the engagement was about two hundred and fifty. We held the enemy in check with this little handful for an hour and a half. Leonidas with his three hundred Spartans could have done no more.  Our loss was, considering all the circumstances, comparatively small, sixty will cover the whole. The Buckingham Lee Guard suffered most severely, having thirty men, together with Capt. Irving and Lieut. Boyd killed. Capt. Curry, of the Rockbridge Guard, and Capt. Anderson, of the Lynchburg Artillery, were also among the killed. Four hundred of the enemy found a merited doom in death.

EFFECT OF THE WAR NEWS

We have rarely witnessed a more electrical effect upon our citizens than the news this morning of the glorious victory of our arms at Bull Run.1 It was quite equal to the universal joy of our people when the news arrived of the success of our arms in the taking of Monterey by Gen. Taylor, who was supposed to have been entirely cut off. It was a real pleasure to look at the faces of the crowded masses on the streets, relumined2 all over with the smiles of triumphant victory, and with that hope and confidence in the righteousness of our cause, that would boldly uphold us in opposing the world in arms. Men, women and children alike gloried in the thrilling news, which has fully aroused us from the long lethargy which seemed to hang over us.

We had not seen the streets so crowded of a morning for a long time, the ladies in particular having turned out as if it was a gala day, as in fact it is for New Orleans, inspiring all alike with the noblest and the proudest hopes for the future of our Confederacy.

NEGRO STEALING ON AN EXTENSIVE SCALE

The Richmond (Va.) Dispatch, of the 15th instant, says:

A gentleman who has just arrived from Gloucester county informs us that the Abolitionists at Fortress Monroe have stolen as many as five hundred Negroes from these localities, which are forthwith to be sent off to Cuba for sale. They do not recognize the Negroes as property, they say, but the Southerners do, therefore the "fugitives" are to be disposed of in order to help pay the expenses of "putting down the rebellion." The depredations of the barbarians are so great that families are moving away in horror and alarm.

PANOPTICON OF THE SOUTH

We are informed that this interesting exhibit is shortly to be opened at Armory Hall, for the benefit of the families of our brave volunteers, now engaged in the war. It is said to be an entertainment of much merit, consisting of scenes in the South connected with our second struggle for independence, with views of the principal forts. Among the various representations given is the bombardment of Fort Sumter, the inauguration of President Davis, &c., with moving infantry, cavalry, artillery, &c.

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We learn from the Charleston Evening News that, in consequence of the scarcity of silver change, the State Bank, on the 15th instant, issued a large number of notes of the denomination of fifty and twenty-five cents.

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Coffee Secured--The Richmond (Va.) Dispatch of the 15th instant, says:

We received a letter some days ago from the vicinity of Norfolk, giving an account of the departure of an expedition to secure a cargo of coffee in a wrecked vessel on the North Carolina coast, which the Lincolnites were said to be watching. We deemed it prudent to suppress the information, but now learn that the cargo, consisting of some 4400 bags, was secured without difficulty. A portion of it will be brought to Richmond.

MONDAY
JULY 22, 1861

LOWELL DAILY CITIZEN & NEWS

FROM THE SEAT OF WAR

Since the fight of Thursday, every hour as been crowded with stirring events. Our army, after the first flight at Bull's Run, prepared for a flank movement, which was executed in brilliant style by sending a large force to the west ad north of Bull's Run. This movement is described in an official dispatch from Centreville, yesterday:

We have successfully outflanked the enemy. At half-past two o'clock this morning, the various regiments about Centreville were formed for a march, and at about 3 o'clock they were in motion in the direction of Perryville, leaving Bull's Run to the left. At 6 o'clock the first gun was fired from a 30-pound rifled cannon sent ahead to batter the masked batteries that might be encountered on the road. There as no reply from the enemy, and the advance moved on. At Gen. McDowell's headquarters, 3 miles beyond Centreville, the greater part of the army moved to the right to avoid a stone bridge some distance beyond, said to have been undermined. They will pass over the pontoons prepared by Capt. Alexander of the engineer corps, who had inspected the country minutely in a previous reconnaissance, and to whom in a great measure the plan of the campaign is due.

Beyond doubt the main body of Johnston's forces have joined Beauregard, and the entire rebel strength is reported to be 70,000 or 80,000.

The most severe battle of the campaign was fought at Bull's Run, yesterday, and resulted in a complete victory of the loyal forces, who took at least three masked batteries, and dove the enemy back. Our loss was heavy, including three colonels, among them Col. Slocum of Rhode Island, and a brother of the secretary of war. The conflict lasted nine hours, and the smoke of battle was seen from the heights about Washington. It is said that Jeff. Davis in person conducted the operations of the rebels. The Sixty-Ninth New York was in the advance.  The following bulletins were received in official quarters during the progress of the battle, from the telegraph station, about 4 miles from Bull's Run:

Fairfax Court House, July 21, 11 A.M.--There is rapid firing from heavy guns, and frequent discharges of musketry.

11.40--The firing is very heavy, and apparently on our left wing.

11.50--There is evidently a battle. Towards our left in the direction of Bull's Run, and a little north, the firing is very rapid and heavy.

1.45--Heavy guns are heard again and apparently nearer. The musketry is heavy and nearer.

2 P.M.--The musketry is very heavy and drawing much nearer. There is certainly  a movement to our left.

2.45 P.M.--The firing is a little further off and apparently in the direction of the Junction; less heavy guns and more light artillery as near as I can judge.

3 P.M.--The firing has ceased ten minutes since.

3.45 P.M.--The firing has almost entirely ceased, and can only be heard with difficulty. I shall telegraph no more unless there should be a renewal of the battle which has been so gloriously fought for the old stars and stripes, and from all indications here our troops have at least stood their ground.

3.50 P.M.--Our courier has not returned. Quartermaster Barton of the Michigan 2d regiment has just passed, and says that the officers, men and citizens of Centreville say a general engagement of the whole line had taken place 3½ miles this side of Manassas, an that our troops had driven the rebel lines back to Manassas. We expect a courier every moment.

Centreville, 4 P.M.--Gen. McDowell has ordered eh reserves now here under Col. Miles to advance to the bridge over Bull's Run on the Watertown road, having driven the enemy before him. Col. Miles is now three or four miles from here, directing operations at Blackburn's Ford.

Fairfax Court House, 4.45 P.M.--Two of our couriers have returned, but are unable to communicate with Gen. McDowell in person. One of the couriers was on the field of battle. He says that or troops have taken three masked batteries and force the enemy to fall back and retire. He says the battle was general on Bull's Run for some distance. One of the batteries taken was in a wheat field, and the other some distance from it, and the third still further on.

5.20 P.M.--Another dispatch says that the federal troops have won the day. The loss on both sides is heavy, but the rout of the rebels is complete. The batteries at Bull's Run are silenced, and two or three others taken.

5.45 P.M.--The firing has ceased. We shall send another courier there in a few minutes. The colonel went at 4 o'clock and will be back soon. . . .

There is most intense excitement everywhere existing to hear further from the field of battle. Every returning spectator of events is immediately surrounded and compelled to relate his observations. The many unauthenticated rumors which prevail serve to confuse the truth.

The smoke of the battle could be seen from eminences in Washington.

A number of members of Congress and even ladies went to the neighborhood of Bull's Run to witness the battle. One of them reports that Col. Hunter of the third cavalry, acting as major-general, was mortally wounded.

Later Accounts of the Battle--Another dispatch, dated at Washington, yesterday, confirms the above, and adds interesting particulars, which are deemed reliable:

Our troops advanced as follows: Col. Richardson, who distinguished himself in the previous engagement, proceeded on the left with four regiments of the 4th brigade to hold a battery on the hill on the Warrenton road in the vicinity of the place where the last battle was fought. . . .

Gen. Schenck's and Sherman's brigades, of Gen. Tyler's column, advanced by the Warrenton road, while Heintzelman's and Hunter's division took the fork of the Warrenton road to move between Bull's Run and Manassas Junction. Keyes's brigade remained at Centreville.

Information was received by Gen. Tyler's command of the existence of the enemy's battery commanding the road, and our troops formed in order of battle array. The 2d N.Y. and 1st Ohio on the left and the 2d Ohio and 2d Wisconsin and 79th, 13th, and 69th N.Y. on the right. Col. Miles's division followed in the rear.

The first range gun was fired by Sherman's battery at 10 minutes to 7. The rebels did not return this shot until an hour and a half afterwards. When Hunter's division came up the battle became general. Col. Hunter's movement to gain the rear was almost a success. The enemy's position was opened on by Carlisle's howitzers, followed by slight skirmishing. The rebels rapidly received reinforcements from Manassas after the attack opened.

The battle consisted in a succession of fires from masked batteries, which opened in every direction--when one was silenced its place was supplied by two--and in the daring charges of our infantry in unmasking them. . . .

The most gallant charge of the day was made by the New York 69th, 79th and 13th, who rushed upon one battery, firing as they proceeded, with perfect éclat, and attacking it at the point of the bayonet. . . . They found the rebels had abandoned the battery and only taken one gun, but their success was only acquired after a severe loss of life, in which the 69th most severely suffered . . .

It was generally understood that we had hemmed in the enemy entirely; that Hunter had driven them back in the rear; that Heintzelman's command was meeting with every success, and that it required but the reserve of Gen. Tyler's division to push to Manassas Junction.

TUESDAY
JULY 23, 1861

THE ST. ALBAN'S DAILY MESSENGER

FURTHER PARTICULARS OF THE REPULSE
OF THE FEDERAL ARMY

OUR LOSS LESS SEVERE THAN FIRST REPORTED

Washington, July 22--It is estimated that only 20,000 in all our troops were engaged in the battle yesterday, and only 15,000 at any one time. All communication with Alexandria has been stopped to prevent the soldiers from crossing over. The returned soldiers are perfectly worn out. . .

It is believed that the rebels abandoned some of their batteries for the purpose of decoying the attacking force to an advance position when a double fire could be directed at them, and sweep the lines.

The following interesting statement was received from a gentleman who accompanied the New York 8th Regiment:

The men marched on the battle field after a fatiguing march of nine hours, immediately on the enemy. The enemy's batteries and infantry were all concealed, which made it exceedingly difficult for our men, for as they were moving steadily forward they could not see the enemy, and consequently could not direct their fire with as telling a result as they could, had they been in the field. . . .

Sherman's battery or the greater part of it has returned to the City. The reason why the other batteries were taken is that the horses were shot down, consequently the cannon could not be removed. Lieut. Geo. Smith's soldiers, stationed near Bull's cross road, report that five hundred of the enemy's cavalry have since yesterday been within 2 miles of that place. The stragglers in this city are being gathered up and restored to their respective companies. Some few got into the city after midnight.

In the grand retreat many of the Garibaldians acted like savages, firing in every direction, on the run to Fairfax. Country houses along the road were invaded and many persons maltreated. They seem to have lost all presence of mind in their rage over their defeat.

The Rhode Island battery was taken by the rebels at the bridge across Bull's Run, where their retreat was cut off. Their horses were all killed.

It is reported that the Black Horse cavalry made an attack on the rear of the retreating army, when the latter turned and fired, killing all but six of the assaulting party.

Two New York regiments have gone over to Virginia. It is vaguely reported that General Patterson's division arrived in the vicinity of Manassas this morning and commenced an attack on the rebel forces. He was within twenty-five miles of the battle ground yesterday, but the exhausted condition of his men prevented him from coming to the aid of McDowell.

It is also reported that 4,000 of our troops have been sent back toward Fairfax from the other side of the river.

It is represented in many quarters that the Ohio regiments showed the greatest consternation, probably from want of confidence in their commanding officers. It is known that on the day previous to the battle a large number of them publicly protested against being led by Gen. Schenck, and it was only through the importunities of Col. McCook, in whom they placed confidence, and other officers, that they were prevented from making a more formidable rebellion. The Pennsylvania 4th was not in the action, having left for home on the morning of the battle, their term of service having expired.

It was known to our troops at the time of the battle yesterday, that Johnson had formed a connection with Beauregard on the night of the first action at Bull's Run.  Our men could distinctly hear the cars coming into Manassas Junction, and the cheers with which the Confederates hailed their newly arriving comrades. They knew that the enemy was our superior in numbers, and in their own positions. These facts were further confirmed by prisoners taken, deserters and spies, but these facts were not probably known at Washington, and the officers in leading the men into action, only obeyed orders. Gen. Schenck, as well as the other field officers, acted admirably. He collected his forces and covered the retreat, and up to the last moment was personally engaged in the endeavor to rally his men to make a stand at Centreville. It was the arrival of fresh reinforcements to the enemy that turned the scale of battle. The enemy before now might perhaps have more to boast of if they had followed up their advantage last night.

Our losses are far less severe than was at first reported by scared civilians and running soldiers. There are probably not 300 killed and perhaps not two hundred. For example the 2d Connecticut regiment returned, which was reported in the morning as badly cut up, having lost but a dozen men. The New Haven Grays have all returned unharmed, yet this regiment was exposed to frequent volleys of cannon and musketry.

Again 200 of Ellsworth's Zouaves were reported to have been surrounded on the road and annihilated by the Black Horse cavalry; on the contrary they cut down and destroyed the cavalry and suffered little loss themselves. In this account the New York 71st, also reported as used up, suffered but little and so of others. Few of the vast number of balls fired by the rebels took effect; on the contrary, all the instances detailed by our men show that the enemy suffered severely. Three New York Fire Zouaves who were fighting in the advance hunted the rebels on the sly like squirrels among the bushes and chalked down 26 as positively killed by them. The New York 71st came upon a rifled gun; it lost eight men but in return the whole of the 18 rebels secreted, were killed.

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Gen. McClellan has been summoned by the government from Western Virginia to repair to Washington to take command of the army of the Potomac. Gen. Rosenkranz takes his place in command of the army of Western Virginia. The corps de armee at Washington is to be instantly reorganized and increased. The orders have already been given.

BY TELEGRAPH TO THE MESSENGER

New York, July 23--A special dispatch to the Post, states that Senator Lane of Indiana estimates our loss 1,500 killed and wounded. The regiments that suffered most were the N. Y. Fire Zouaves 69th, Connecticut 1st, Massachusetts 1st and 8th. Fresh troops are constantly arriving at Washington. A regiment of German rifles who so handsomely covered the retreat, says empty stomachs caused the disaster. Our men had nothing but dry biscuit to eat Sunday. Want of proper food exhausted them and left them in no trim for fighting.

The Union Defense Committee received the following this morning, dated yesterday: We are making most vigorous efforts to concentrate an irritable army at this point. Regiments are now arriving, and many have now left for the Capital. Our works on the south side of the bank of the Potomac being well manned, the Capital is safe.

Simon Cameron

WEDNESDAY
JULY 24, 1861

THE MIDDLETOWN (CT)
CONSTITUTION

THE CAUSE OF THE PANIC

The following is an account of the inauguration of the panic which resulted so disastrously:

All our military operations went swimmingly and Col. Alexander was about erecting a pontoon across Bull Run, the enemy seemingly in retreat and their batteries being unmasked one after another, when terrific consternation broke out among the teamsters, who had incautiously advanced immediately after the body of the army, and on the line of the Warrentown road.

Their consternation was shared in by great numbers of the civilians who were on the ground, and for a time it seemed as if the whole army was in retreat. Many baggage wagons were emptied and their horses galloped across the open fields, all the fences of which were torn down to allow them a more rapid retreat.

For a time a perfect panic prevailed which communicated itself to the vicinity of Centreville and every available conveyance was seized upon by the agitated civilians.

A number of wounded cried on the roadside for assistance, but the alarm was so great that numbers were passed by. Several similar alarms occurred on previous occasions, when a charge of batteries rendered the retirement of artillery on our part necessary, and it is most probable that the alarm was owing to the same fact.

COMPARATIVE COST OF THE WAR

Suppose this war costs the nation $300,000,000,3 and very probably it will not go beyond that sum, it may be much less. But suppose it cost $300,000,000, will any patriot be disposed to find fault? The revolutionary war cost more than that in proportion to the ability of the country then. The Mexican war cost more than $200,000,000 when the property of the nati0n was less than half what it is now. The very individuals who are now attempting to create divisions among the people on account of the cost of this war which is to sustain our own Government against traitors at home, were then willing to spend between two and three hundred millions for the sake of acquiring southern territory. Let there be some consistency in the conduct of those who are now raising a hue and cry about the war debt. If these objections are actuated by economy, will they tell us how the late Administration managed to spend twenty millions of surplus funds in the United States treasury, and to almost ruin the national credit by the time it finished its career! Why did they not object then to a criminal waste of the public funds! But if these objectors are opposed to getting into debt for a war which they say might have been avoided, will they tell us why they sustained two expensive wars, both of which might certainly have been avoided! The party to which these gentlemen used to belong sustained fully the Florida and the Mexican wars. But now they are men of peace--opposed to war debts, and anxious to save the people's money! Mark the change!

AN ARMY OF WORMS

There has been a new sensation in Middletown. The south-east part of the city was threatened with an invasion. On Wednesday last it was discovered that the lot on Water street south of  Belden's ship yard was full of worms. They were mostly about an inch long, and of a dark brown color. On Thursday they began to come out of the lot in all directions and in vast numbers. The fields and gardens in the vicinity were threatened with destruction, and in one or two instances they invaded the neighboring dwellings. Ditches were immediately dug around the lot, and filled with coal tar, and a regular siege was commenced. In this way the progress of the worms was effectually prevented. But still they kept coming through Friday, Saturday, Sunday and Monday. The field where they originated is said to now be full of them.

Trim Your Trees--The street commissioner is going to enforce the law requiring that shades trees be trimmed to a proper height. Any lover of shades, who prefers to do his own trimming, will have to do it before the first day of September, or it will be done for him at the public expense. Trees must be trimmed so that the branches shall be eight feet at least from the ground.

Gen. McClellan--It was stated some time since that Gen. McClellan took the rank in the army of the United States next to Gen. Scott. Some surprise and incredulity was expressed at this statement, inasmuch as Gen. McClellan is quite a young man and was but little known to the public before the present war. It seemed improbable that he should outrank tried veterans in the army. A Washington correspondent of the New York Commercial confirms the statement, and says that Gen. McClellan by his recent promotion became  second in command of the army of the United States, and the presumptive successor of Gen. Scott. He outranks Gen. Wool from the fact that his title is that of Major-General, while Wool is simply a Major-General by brevet.

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The horse of Wm. R. Buckley backed out of the ferry boat at Rocky Hill, Monday, together with Mrs. Buckley and two little Buckleys, who occupied the wagon. The horse was drowned, but the tenants of the wagon were saved.

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There is a law just passed, which makes the display of secession flags punishable by a $100 fine, in this state.

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The late Sultan of Turkey was a hard boy, according to the general report, and over-fond of the ladies. They led him such a life of expense and suspense, that he had to drink to drown his care. So, "women and wine--the toast is divine," finally brought him down, shattered his nerves, and at last turned his toes gracefully up for him.

THURSDAY
JULY 25, 1861

THE NEW HAMPSHIRE SENTINEL

THE BATTLE AND ITS LESSONS

The news from the war is mingled with bright and dark hues. Although the national arms have suffered a temporary reverse, yet the struggle has developed a bravery and heroism on the part of Northern soldiers that augur ultimate, if not speedy triumph. The rebels have outnumbered the loyal troops through all the contest, and fought on ground selected by themselves, and fortified by all the military skill that for a month past could be brought from Southern resources--directed by Davis and Beauregard. Our artillery and infantry marched up to the masked rebel batteries and captured them. Time after time did the chivalry charge with the bayonet, their boasted arm, but were invariably driven back. Neither superiority of numbers, nor the advantage of position, impeded the slow but steady advance of our brave volunteers, until exhausted by fatigue, when the enemy were reinforced by 20,000 fresh troops.

Gen. McDowell's entire force could not have been over 45,000 and of these only about 20,000 were brought into action. Against us were 90,000, of whom 40,000 were actually engaged. The attack of some four thousand cavalry upon the rear of our troops and upon an army of teamsters had something to do with the defeat.

The battle has been lost--but the honor of our brave soldiers has been saved. The enemy has received a lesson he will not soon forget. The boast that one southern man was equal to five Northern, has been nobly repelled. A no les important lesson  has been given the North. We shall not henceforth be likely to underrate the actual resources of the South, and less likely to regard this contest as a holiday pastime, at the same time knowing our own superior resources and valor. That portion of our people, including some newspapers, who have been casting blame upon Lieutenant General Scott for not hurrying the army off to battle, will be more likely to let the veteran hero manage his own affairs. Had he been let alone--had he not been annoyed and goaded by such papers as the New York Times and Tribune, and especially by the last named, whose mad cries of "on to Richmond," followed by the echoes of a few other papers, and inflammatory speeches of a like character at Washington, asking, "why the delay?" the result might have been less disastrous. It was believed at Washington, when the army moved forward, that Gen. Scott had yielded his own conviction to the clamor of an impatient soldiery and people. The impatience was fed and fanned immensely by the Tribune newspaper, whose managers seem determined to control both our civil and military affairs, apparently reckless of consequences.

Revenge is said to be stamped upon all loyal faces at Washington--and a determination, such as has not heretofore been known, pervades the entire mass of loyal people. In New York, and at other important points, the most active and determined spirit prevails. Regiments have already arrived at Washington to reinforce our army; others are on the way, while the administration, backed as it is by Congress, is vigorously pushing preparations for collecting an overwhelming force to avenge the disaster.

POSITION OF THE BLOCKADING VESSELS

The Atlantic blockading squadron, Commodore Stringham, consists of twenty-two vessels, three of which--the Iroquois, Dale, and Savannah--are in pursuit of the pirate Jeff. Davis. The Minnesota, the flag ship, is the only vessel now at Hampton Roads; the Monticello blockades James River; the Dawn, York River; and the Mount Vernon, the Rappahannock River. Two vessels attend to Chesapeake Bay; four haunt the coast of North Carolina; the Wabash and four other vessels blockade the Savannah, and one vessel shuts up Fernandina. The Harriet Lane is repairing, and the Seminole has not et reported.

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The expenses of Mrs. Burch's counsel, in the trial for divorce at Chicago, amounted to nearly $60,000, which Mr. Burch ahs been compelled to  pay--most unmistakably proving that it is sometimes more expensive to get rid of a wife than to keep one.

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Our friend Lyman has very neatly fitted the rooms recently occupied by Mr. Searle, as a confectionary establishment. He has added a soda fountain, a room for ice-creams, &c., for the ladies, and another for gentlemen. The large variety of fruit ad other delicacies, the many sugar toys for children, &c., make the place an excellent one at which to call.

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Rifle Manufacture Resumed--The Messrs. Lamson, Goodnow & Yale, having purchased the Robbins & Lawrence armory at Windsor, Vt., have contracted with the United States government to manufacture 25,000 rifles, to be completed within about nineteen months. They will commence work immediately with improved machinery, and will give employment to a large number of skilled mechanics.

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Statesman--We have before us a letter from a gentleman in New Orleans to a friend in Concord, in which he says: "It is not prudent, perhaps not proper, to say any thing about affairs here; but I will state, that when you imagine it as bad as possible, you are not far from the truth. Things cannot continue long as they are without an explosion."

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Reward for Re-Enlistment--The House militia bill passed on Thursday provides that each soldier who re-enlists for the war shall be paid thirty dollars; if they shall re-enlist by companies, forty dollars; and if by regiments, fifty dollars, above their regular pay. Five rebel sympathizers opposed the bill "on Constitutional grounds."

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J. M. Thompson, proprietor of the Glen House at the White Mountains, has accomplished the difficult feat of driving to the summit of Mount Washington with a horse and wagon. The carriage road is completed to within a mile of the summit, but the remaining part of the distance was rather  rough.

FRIDAY
JULY 26, 1861

THE (N.H.) FARMERS' CABINET

THE CONFEDERATE PRIZES

N. Y. Post--In releasing the vessels captured an brought into Cienfuegos by the Confederate privateer Sumter, the Captain General of Cuba has only acted as the treaty stipulations between Spain and the United States demand. By article VI of the treaty of 1795, it is provided that "each party shall endeavor by all means in their power, to protect and defend all vessels and other effects belonging to the citizens and subjects of the other which shall be within the extent of their jurisdiction by sea or by land; and shall use all their efforts to recover and cause to be restored to their right owners their vessels and effects which may have been taken from them within the extent of their said jurisdiction, whether they are at war or not with the power whose subjects have taken possession of the said effects."

By this article, therefore, the authorities of Spain are bound to retain in safety and return to their proper owners all American vessels captured by Confederate privateers and brought into Cuban or other Spanish ports.

It will be seen that the Confederates made a mistake when they took their prizes into a Spanish port.

THE NEW TARIFF

Boston Journal--The new tariff now before Congress is simply a war measure, and differs from the preceding tariff chiefly by taking tea and coffee from the free list, and increasing largely the duties on luxuries, such as distilled liquors, wines, sugars and cigars. The duty on salt is largely increased. Black teas are to be taxed at the rate of ten cents per pound, green fifteen, and coffee five cents. The duties on wines and distilled liquors are increased fifty per cent.; on cigars, very nearly in the same ratio. On sugars the duties are increased from three-fourths of a cent to two and a half cents per pound on raw, to three cents on clayed, and four cents on white and refined. Molasses pays six cents per gallon instead of two. White lead $2 25 per 100 pounds instead of $1 25. There is some increase on other unimportant articles, but not enough to add materially to the revenue. In textile fabrics there is little change. A slight reduction is made of iron and steel--the duty on merchant bar being reduced from $15 to $14 per ton; on railroad iron from $12 to $10 per ton. As the previous duties were nearly if not quite prohibitory, this reduction is for the benefit of the revenue. With the exceptions named, the Morrill Tariff remains substantially untouched.

GEN. LYON'S BODYGUARD

N. Y. Times--One of the principal features of the march are Gen. Lyon and his German bodyguard. The latter is composed of ten athletic butchers, each mounted on a powerful horse, armed with a heavy cavalry sword and a pair of navy revolvers; each wears a light hat turned up on the left side, and decorated with an ostrich plume. Almost any time Gen. Lyon, accompanied by half a dozen of these savage looking fellows, may be seen spurring along the line, or a small squad of them, or singly galloping fiercely to the front or rear, or straight out in the open country.

If the general goes into a  house a half dozen of them will be seen in front, standing like iron statues at the bridles of their horses--if he scouts along in advance of the train the clanking of their long sabres is heard beside him--stop where he will there may be always seen a stolid square of white plumed horsemen waiting patiently his movements. They are fearless riders--jump fences on a dead run, leap ditches, gallop down steep descents, and, in fact, never ride less fast than their horses can run, unless compelled by some urgent necessity. Independent of their duty as body guards, they act as messengers, scouts, &c., and in consequence have plenty to do. They are commanded by a Lieutenant, and from their appearance and daring horsemanship, will, if occasion demands, whip a  dozen times their weight in cavalry.

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Wealth of the Country--Every one who has read Secretary Chase's report must have been amazed at his announcement that the value of the real and personal property of the people of the United States, according to the census of 1860, is $16,102,924, 115. In 1850 it was only $7,066,562,966. It ahs therefore more than doubled in ten years. During the last decade, too, occurred the great financial crash of 1857, seriously checking the prosperity of the country.

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To Prevent Flies from Teasing Horses--Take two or three small handfuls of walnut leaves, upon which pour two or three quarts of soft cold water; let it infuse one night, and then boil fifteen minutes. When cold it will be fit for use. Wet a sponge and before the horse goes out of the stable let the parts which are irritated be smeared with it.

SATURDAY
 JULY 27, 1861

 THE
BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER

SECESSION IN KENTUCKY

Louisville Journal, July 23--e suppose that the secessionists of Kentucky, exulting in the victory at Manassas, and counting largely upon its effect on the minds of the people, will now make a more desperate attempt than ever to force our State out of the Union. We can conceive of no movement so insane that we do not deem their leaders capable of it. But let them well beware. If we understand the friends of the Union, if by fighting side by side with them we have gained the slightest knowledge of their character, not a man of them will for one moment falter in his position on account of the result of a battle or a dozen battles in Virginia or elsewhere. The Union men of Kentucky have adopted the policy of neutrality because they think it right, and not because they have made this, that, or the other calculation as to the issue of battles between the belligerent sections. The considerations that have governed them till now are as powerful still as they have ever been.

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The Natural Line of Travel--A day or two ago we called attention to the fact that the Directors of the Broadway Railroad Company insist upon laying their rails through Summer street, on the ground that that street is in "the natural line of travel from South Boston to the centre of business." The Directors support this proposition by referring to the fact that the omnibuses once ran through Summer street--though that was under the direction of the city, and not by any natural law, so far as we can remember.

We submit that this old line of travel, when there was no passage through Winthrop Place to Milk street, has nothing to do with what the line of travel should be now, since the new Devonshire street has been cut through. The natural line of travel from Cambridge was once through Roxbury and over the neck; but it is not now and has not been since Cambridge Bridge was built.

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Turning an Honest Penny--The wits of Mr. P.T. Barnum shine out as brightly now amidst the confusion of war, as they ever did. He had just been turning to account the presence of Tillman, the Negro steward who killed the pirates on board the schooner S. J. Waring. Tillman and his companion Stedding visited Barnum's Museum on Thursday, but the crowd attracted by them and eager to see the "pirate-killers," was so great and they were lionized to such an extent, that they could not see the curiosities at all. They complained to Mr. Barnum and asked leave to come again free of charge, to gratify their own curiosity. He considerately told them that they could come daily, and obtained permission for them from the United States Marshal. To avoid mistake the incident was announced in the papers, and so there will be a rush of business for a few days at the Museum--and all on the strength of two curiosities costing the exhibitor exactly nothing. A profitable return for the investment.

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A Strict Responsibility--The New York Times thinks that for the millions of money already lost by our merchants through naval inefficiency, "it would be well if we could hold the Secretary to  a pecuniary responsibility."

Unless Mr.. Welles is rich beyond precedent among American citizens, the dividend resulting from such responsibility would be extraordinary small.4

WHY TROOPS ARE WANTED

The question has been asked, why our fresh troops need to be sent forward at this season, when no forward movement is likely  to take place before fall?

The answer can be found in the exposed position of the whole upper Potomac, and of our lines outside Fortress Monroe. General Banks succeeds to a force weakened by withdrawals, and demoralized to some extent by ill success. General Butler has only half the number of men he should have, and is surrounded by an increasing foe. At the same time the enemy's forces are now once more free to act wherever they please, leaving a moderate garrison for a time, at Manassas Junction. Our men must take the field at once, merely to make our defence secure.

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The Augusta (Ga.) Chronicle says: "It is a shame, and we think too, a gross mismanagement that the flower of Georgia's well-trained volunteer soldiery, and only one regiment, was sent into Northwestern Virginia, into the very midst of Tories, away from railroads and reinforcements, to meet Lincoln's best soldiers, the Northwestern men, under Lincoln's best General--McClellan--and unsupported except by the almost raw Virginia militia."

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The Memphis papers are frantic with joy over the first battle of Bull's Run. The Avalanche says it hopes the sequel will be:

 "The utter rout and destruction of the federal army, and the capture of Washington, with Old Abe and his Abolition crew included. Let the conflict rage until the last thieving, murdering Abolitionists shall be expelled from the soil of Virginia."

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Exchanges give the most flattering accounts of the crops through Pennsylvania. The wheat crop is more than an average one, and has been harvested in good condition. They hay, although not heavy, is of unusually good quality. The corn and potatoes are somewhat backward, but they look well, and recent showers will ensure a good product. With the exception of fruits, there will be in Pennsylvania more than an average crop this year.

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The New Orleans Price Current of Saturday last says--

Advice from tobacco growing regions are unfavorable; they report very hot and dry weather, and the prospect is that the growing crop will be a short one. There has been some inquiry, but we have heard of no further sales since those made last week, which are understood to have exceeded the amount reported, reaching about 2000 hogsheads.

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Stationers, 81 State street

1 This is in reference to the minor skirmishing which took place on 19th July. The major Battle of Bull Run was taking place as folks in New Orleans were reading their papers . . .

2 "lit up again"

3 "In dollars and cents, the U.S. government estimated Jan. 1863 that the war was costing $2.5 million daily. A final official estimate in 1879 totaled $6,190,000,000. The Confederacy spent perhaps $2,099,808,707. By 1906 another $3.3 billion already had been spent by the U.S. government on Northerners' pensions and other veterans' benefits for former Federal soldiers. Southern states and private philanthropy provided benefits to the Confederate veterans. The amount spent on benefits eventually well exceeded the war's original cost." http://www.civilwarhome.com/warcosts.htm

4 Reference is to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles. Northerners expected the Union blockade to be instantly and totally effective, which it never was. Even by the end of the war, blockade runners still stood a 50:50 chance of getting through. The true value of the blockade was not in stopping every ship, but catching enough vessels to make running a risky business; this led to rampant inflation in the South, as skippers demanded more money for the goods they brought in. Demand by teh Southern elite for luxury goods such as wine, silks, perfumes, &c., played into this. Such items were very profitable cargoes, but did little to feed the general population. See "How the U.S. Navy Won the Civil War."

 

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