JULY 21, 1861
THE TIMES PICAYUNE
THE BATTLE OF RICH MOUNTAIN
The account of this battle, from a Black
Republican source, received by telegraph and published several days ago,
said that the Southerners were two thousand strong, the fight lasted
four hours and a half, the Southerners retreated, leaving sixty killed,
many wounded, and some prisoners, besides six guns and some horses, and
that the federal loss was twenty killed and forty wounded.
A gentleman who arrived in Richmond from
the scene of action gives an account of the fight to the Whig
differing very materially from the one we had by telegraph as above. He
Camp Garnett is situated in a gorge just
beyond the pass that runs between Rich and another mountain. The low
slope of this little mountain does not command it, but the more
perpendicular slope of Rich Mountain is adjacent to the position, and
upon it there is no eminence that is considered the very key to Camp
Garnett. On Thursday last, Col. Pegram, knowing the importance of this
point, detached three companies, (Buckingham Lee Guard, Rockbridge Guard
and Pryor Rifles,) and one gun from the Lynchburg Artillery, to secure
the position at all hazards. They gained the height, and by two o'clock
had built the breastwork to the height of two logs. Meanwhile, the
enemy, guided by the Union mountaineers, had, by squads and companies,
reached a point beyond the breastworks, and a little more elevated.
Immediately they commenced an attack upon our unfinished breastwork from
the distance of fifteen hundred yards. They advanced and fired with Minié
rifles incessantly. No execution, however, was done with these arms. Our
loss was at shorter distances, from the deadly fire of our fellow
Virginians. Approaching within five hundred yards, they began to feel
the fatal shots from our boys. At this and shorter distances they were
mowed down like wheat before the blade. At every volley from us they
fell back in confusion, but their overwhelming numbers pressed forward
until they discharged their pieces in our very faces; then we thought
retreat better than a fool-hardy death, and each one sought safety in
flight down the other side of the mountain.
The whole force of the enemy was said to
be ten thousand. Three thousand advanced to the attack, while the rest
were held in reserve. Part of the reserve occupied Rich Mountain, while
part descended that mountain, crossed the pass and occupied the side of
the other mountain not far from the road--thus being on both sides of
the road, in order, I suppose, to cut off Col. Pegram, if he should
attempt a retreat to Beverly. Our whole force in the engagement was
about two hundred and fifty. We held the enemy in check with this little
handful for an hour and a half. Leonidas with his three hundred Spartans
could have done no more. Our loss was, considering all the
circumstances, comparatively small, sixty will cover the whole. The
Buckingham Lee Guard suffered most severely, having thirty men, together
with Capt. Irving and Lieut. Boyd killed. Capt. Curry, of the Rockbridge
Guard, and Capt. Anderson, of the Lynchburg Artillery, were also among
the killed. Four hundred of the enemy found a merited doom in death.
EFFECT OF THE WAR NEWS
We have rarely witnessed a more electrical
effect upon our citizens than the news this morning of the glorious
victory of our arms at Bull Run.1 It was quite equal to the universal
joy of our people when the news arrived of the success of our arms in
the taking of Monterey by Gen. Taylor, who was supposed to have been
entirely cut off. It was a real pleasure to look at the faces of the
crowded masses on the streets, relumined2 all over with the smiles of
triumphant victory, and with that hope and confidence in the
righteousness of our cause, that would boldly uphold us in opposing the
world in arms. Men, women and children alike gloried in the thrilling
news, which has fully aroused us from the long lethargy which seemed to
hang over us.
We had not seen the streets so crowded of
a morning for a long time, the ladies in particular having turned out as
if it was a gala day, as in fact it is for New Orleans, inspiring all
alike with the noblest and the proudest hopes for the future of our
NEGRO STEALING ON AN EXTENSIVE SCALE
The Richmond (Va.) Dispatch,
of the 15th instant, says:
A gentleman who has just arrived from
Gloucester county informs us that the Abolitionists at Fortress Monroe
have stolen as many as five hundred Negroes from these localities, which
are forthwith to be sent off to Cuba for sale. They do not recognize the
Negroes as property, they say, but the Southerners do, therefore the
"fugitives" are to be disposed of in order to help pay the expenses of
"putting down the rebellion." The depredations of the barbarians are so
great that families are moving away in horror and alarm.
PANOPTICON OF THE SOUTH
We are informed that this interesting
exhibit is shortly to be opened at Armory Hall, for the benefit of the
families of our brave volunteers, now engaged in the war. It is said to
be an entertainment of much merit, consisting of scenes in the South
connected with our second struggle for independence, with views of the
principal forts. Among the various representations given is the
bombardment of Fort Sumter, the inauguration of President Davis, &c.,
with moving infantry, cavalry, artillery, &c.
We learn from the Charleston Evening
News that, in consequence of the scarcity of silver change, the
State Bank, on the 15th instant, issued a large number of notes of the
denomination of fifty and twenty-five cents.
Coffee Secured--The Richmond (Va.)
Dispatch of the 15th instant, says:
We received a letter some days ago from
the vicinity of Norfolk, giving an account of the departure of an
expedition to secure a cargo of coffee in a wrecked vessel on the North
Carolina coast, which the Lincolnites were said to be watching. We
deemed it prudent to suppress the information, but now learn that the
cargo, consisting of some 4400 bags, was secured without difficulty. A
portion of it will be brought to Richmond.
JULY 22, 1861
LOWELL DAILY CITIZEN & NEWS
FROM THE SEAT OF WAR
Since the fight of Thursday, every hour as
been crowded with stirring events. Our army, after the first flight at
Bull's Run, prepared for a flank movement, which was executed in
brilliant style by sending a large force to the west ad north of Bull's
Run. This movement is described in an official dispatch from
We have successfully outflanked the enemy.
At half-past two o'clock this morning, the various regiments about
Centreville were formed for a march, and at about 3 o'clock they were in
motion in the direction of Perryville, leaving Bull's Run to the left.
At 6 o'clock the first gun was fired from a 30-pound rifled cannon sent
ahead to batter the masked batteries that might be encountered on the
road. There as no reply from the enemy, and the advance moved on. At
Gen. McDowell's headquarters, 3 miles beyond Centreville, the greater
part of the army moved to the right to avoid a stone bridge some
distance beyond, said to have been undermined. They will pass over the
pontoons prepared by Capt. Alexander of the engineer corps, who had
inspected the country minutely in a previous reconnaissance, and to whom
in a great measure the plan of the campaign is due.
Beyond doubt the main body of Johnston's
forces have joined Beauregard, and the entire rebel strength is reported
to be 70,000 or 80,000.
The most severe battle of the campaign was
fought at Bull's Run, yesterday, and resulted in a complete victory of
the loyal forces, who took at least three masked batteries, and dove the
enemy back. Our loss was heavy, including three colonels, among them Col.
Slocum of Rhode Island, and a brother of the secretary of war. The
conflict lasted nine hours, and the smoke of battle was seen from the
heights about Washington. It is said that Jeff. Davis in person
conducted the operations of the rebels. The Sixty-Ninth New York was in
the advance. The following bulletins were received in official
quarters during the progress of the battle, from the telegraph station,
about 4 miles from Bull's Run:
Fairfax Court House, July 21, 11
A.M.--There is rapid firing from heavy guns, and frequent discharges of
11.40--The firing is very heavy, and
apparently on our left wing.
11.50--There is evidently a battle.
Towards our left in the direction of Bull's Run, and a little north, the
firing is very rapid and heavy.
1.45--Heavy guns are heard again and
apparently nearer. The musketry is heavy and nearer.
2 P.M.--The musketry is very heavy and
drawing much nearer. There is certainly a movement to our left.
2.45 P.M.--The firing is a little further
off and apparently in the direction of the Junction; less heavy guns and
more light artillery as near as I can judge.
3 P.M.--The firing has ceased ten minutes
3.45 P.M.--The firing has almost entirely
ceased, and can only be heard with difficulty. I shall telegraph no more
unless there should be a renewal of the battle which has been so
gloriously fought for the old stars and stripes, and from all
indications here our troops have at least stood their ground.
3.50 P.M.--Our courier has not returned.
Quartermaster Barton of the Michigan 2d regiment has just passed, and
says that the officers, men and citizens of Centreville say a general
engagement of the whole line had taken place 3½ miles this side of
Manassas, an that our troops had driven the rebel lines back to
Manassas. We expect a courier every moment.
Centreville, 4 P.M.--Gen. McDowell
has ordered eh reserves now here under Col. Miles to advance to the
bridge over Bull's Run on the Watertown road, having driven the enemy
before him. Col. Miles is now three or four miles from here, directing
operations at Blackburn's Ford.
Fairfax Court House, 4.45 P.M.--Two
of our couriers have returned, but are unable to communicate with Gen.
McDowell in person. One of the couriers was on the field of battle. He
says that or troops have taken three masked batteries and force the
enemy to fall back and retire. He says the battle was general on Bull's
Run for some distance. One of the batteries taken was in a wheat field,
and the other some distance from it, and the third still further on.
5.20 P.M.--Another dispatch says that the
federal troops have won the day. The loss on both sides is heavy, but
the rout of the rebels is complete. The batteries at Bull's Run are
silenced, and two or three others taken.
5.45 P.M.--The firing has ceased. We shall
send another courier there in a few minutes. The colonel went at 4
o'clock and will be back soon. . . .
There is most intense excitement
everywhere existing to hear further from the field of battle. Every
returning spectator of events is immediately surrounded and compelled to
relate his observations. The many unauthenticated rumors which prevail
serve to confuse the truth.
The smoke of the battle could be seen from
eminences in Washington.
A number of members of Congress and even
ladies went to the neighborhood of Bull's Run to witness the battle. One
of them reports that Col. Hunter of the third cavalry, acting as
major-general, was mortally wounded.
Later Accounts of the Battle--Another
dispatch, dated at Washington, yesterday, confirms the above, and adds
interesting particulars, which are deemed reliable:
Our troops advanced as follows: Col.
Richardson, who distinguished himself in the previous engagement,
proceeded on the left with four regiments of the 4th brigade to hold a
battery on the hill on the Warrenton road in the vicinity of the place
where the last battle was fought. . . .
Gen. Schenck's and Sherman's brigades, of
Gen. Tyler's column, advanced by the Warrenton road, while Heintzelman's
and Hunter's division took the fork of the Warrenton road to move
between Bull's Run and Manassas Junction. Keyes's brigade remained at
Information was received by Gen. Tyler's
command of the existence of the enemy's battery commanding the road, and
our troops formed in order of battle array. The 2d N.Y. and 1st Ohio on
the left and the 2d Ohio and 2d Wisconsin and 79th, 13th, and 69th N.Y.
on the right. Col. Miles's division followed in the rear.
The first range gun was fired by Sherman's
battery at 10 minutes to 7. The rebels did not return this shot until an
hour and a half afterwards. When Hunter's division came up the battle
became general. Col. Hunter's movement to gain the rear was almost a
success. The enemy's position was opened on by Carlisle's howitzers,
followed by slight skirmishing. The rebels rapidly received
reinforcements from Manassas after the attack opened.
The battle consisted in a succession of
fires from masked batteries, which opened in every direction--when one
was silenced its place was supplied by two--and in the daring charges of
our infantry in unmasking them. . . .
The most gallant charge of the day was
made by the New York 69th, 79th and 13th, who rushed upon one battery,
firing as they proceeded, with perfect éclat, and attacking it at the
point of the bayonet. . . . They found the rebels had abandoned the
battery and only taken one gun, but their success was only acquired
after a severe loss of life, in which the 69th most severely suffered .
It was generally understood that we had
hemmed in the enemy entirely; that Hunter had driven them back in the
rear; that Heintzelman's command was meeting with every success, and
that it required but the reserve of Gen. Tyler's division to push to
JULY 23, 1861
THE ST. ALBAN'S DAILY MESSENGER
FURTHER PARTICULARS OF THE REPULSE
OF THE FEDERAL ARMY
OUR LOSS LESS SEVERE THAN FIRST REPORTED
Washington, July 22--It is estimated that
only 20,000 in all our troops were engaged in the battle yesterday, and
only 15,000 at any one time. All communication with Alexandria has been
stopped to prevent the soldiers from crossing over. The returned
soldiers are perfectly worn out. . .
It is believed that the rebels abandoned
some of their batteries for the purpose of decoying the attacking force
to an advance position when a double fire could be directed at them, and
sweep the lines.
The following interesting statement was
received from a gentleman who accompanied the New York 8th Regiment:
The men marched on the battle field after
a fatiguing march of nine hours, immediately on the enemy. The enemy's
batteries and infantry were all concealed, which made it exceedingly
difficult for our men, for as they were moving steadily forward they
could not see the enemy, and consequently could not direct their fire
with as telling a result as they could, had they been in the field. . .
Sherman's battery or the greater part of
it has returned to the City. The reason why the other batteries were
taken is that the horses were shot down, consequently the cannon could
not be removed. Lieut. Geo. Smith's soldiers, stationed near Bull's
cross road, report that five hundred of the enemy's cavalry have since
yesterday been within 2 miles of that place. The stragglers in this city
are being gathered up and restored to their respective companies. Some
few got into the city after midnight.
In the grand retreat many of the
Garibaldians acted like savages, firing in every direction, on the run
to Fairfax. Country houses along the road were invaded and many persons
maltreated. They seem to have lost all presence of mind in their rage
over their defeat.
The Rhode Island battery was taken by the
rebels at the bridge across Bull's Run, where their retreat was cut off.
Their horses were all killed.
It is reported that the Black Horse
cavalry made an attack on the rear of the retreating army, when the
latter turned and fired, killing all but six of the assaulting party.
Two New York regiments have gone over to
Virginia. It is vaguely reported that General Patterson's division
arrived in the vicinity of Manassas this morning and commenced an attack
on the rebel forces. He was within twenty-five miles of the battle
ground yesterday, but the exhausted condition of his men prevented him
from coming to the aid of McDowell.
It is also reported that 4,000 of our
troops have been sent back toward Fairfax from the other side of the
It is represented in many quarters that
the Ohio regiments showed the greatest consternation, probably from want
of confidence in their commanding officers. It is known that on the day
previous to the battle a large number of them publicly protested against
being led by Gen. Schenck, and it was only through the importunities of
Col. McCook, in whom they placed confidence, and other officers, that
they were prevented from making a more formidable rebellion. The
Pennsylvania 4th was not in the action, having left for home on the
morning of the battle, their term of service having expired.
It was known to our troops at the time of
the battle yesterday, that Johnson had formed a connection with
Beauregard on the night of the first action at Bull's Run. Our men
could distinctly hear the cars coming into Manassas Junction, and the
cheers with which the Confederates hailed their newly arriving comrades.
They knew that the enemy was our superior in numbers, and in their own
positions. These facts were further confirmed by prisoners taken,
deserters and spies, but these facts were not probably known at
Washington, and the officers in leading the men into action, only obeyed
orders. Gen. Schenck, as well as the other field officers, acted
admirably. He collected his forces and covered the retreat, and up to
the last moment was personally engaged in the endeavor to rally his men
to make a stand at Centreville. It was the arrival of fresh
reinforcements to the enemy that turned the scale of battle. The enemy
before now might perhaps have more to boast of if they had followed up
their advantage last night.
Our losses are far less severe than was at
first reported by scared civilians and running soldiers. There are
probably not 300 killed and perhaps not two hundred. For example the 2d
Connecticut regiment returned, which was reported in the morning as
badly cut up, having lost but a dozen men. The New Haven Grays have all
returned unharmed, yet this regiment was exposed to frequent volleys of
cannon and musketry.
Again 200 of Ellsworth's Zouaves were
reported to have been surrounded on the road and annihilated by the
Black Horse cavalry; on the contrary they cut down and destroyed the
cavalry and suffered little loss themselves. In this account the New
York 71st, also reported as used up, suffered but little and so of
others. Few of the vast number of balls fired by the rebels took effect;
on the contrary, all the instances detailed by our men show that the
enemy suffered severely. Three New York Fire Zouaves who were fighting
in the advance hunted the rebels on the sly like squirrels among the
bushes and chalked down 26 as positively killed by them. The New York
71st came upon a rifled gun; it lost eight men but in return the whole
of the 18 rebels secreted, were killed.
Gen. McClellan has been summoned by the government from Western Virginia
to repair to Washington to take command of the army of the Potomac. Gen.
Rosenkranz takes his place in command of the army of Western Virginia.
The corps de armee at Washington is to be instantly reorganized
and increased. The orders have already been given.
BY TELEGRAPH TO THE MESSENGER
New York, July 23--A special
dispatch to the Post, states that Senator Lane of Indiana
estimates our loss 1,500 killed and wounded. The regiments that suffered
most were the N. Y. Fire Zouaves 69th, Connecticut 1st, Massachusetts
1st and 8th. Fresh troops are constantly arriving at Washington. A
regiment of German rifles who so handsomely covered the retreat, says
empty stomachs caused the disaster. Our men had nothing but dry biscuit
to eat Sunday. Want of proper food exhausted them and left them in no
trim for fighting.
The Union Defense Committee received the
following this morning, dated yesterday: We are making most vigorous
efforts to concentrate an irritable army at this point. Regiments are
now arriving, and many have now left for the Capital. Our works on the
south side of the bank of the Potomac being well manned, the Capital is
JULY 24, 1861
THE MIDDLETOWN (CT)
THE CAUSE OF THE PANIC
The following is an account of the
inauguration of the panic which resulted so disastrously:
All our military operations went
swimmingly and Col. Alexander was about erecting a pontoon across Bull
Run, the enemy seemingly in retreat and their batteries being unmasked
one after another, when terrific consternation broke out among the
teamsters, who had incautiously advanced immediately after the body of
the army, and on the line of the Warrentown road.
Their consternation was shared in by great
numbers of the civilians who were on the ground, and for a time it
seemed as if the whole army was in retreat. Many baggage wagons were
emptied and their horses galloped across the open fields, all the fences
of which were torn down to allow them a more rapid retreat.
For a time a perfect panic prevailed which
communicated itself to the vicinity of Centreville and every available
conveyance was seized upon by the agitated civilians.
A number of wounded cried on the roadside
for assistance, but the alarm was so great that numbers were passed by.
Several similar alarms occurred on previous occasions, when a charge of
batteries rendered the retirement of artillery on our part necessary,
and it is most probable that the alarm was owing to the same fact.
COMPARATIVE COST OF THE WAR
Suppose this war costs the nation
$300,000,000,3 and very probably it will not go beyond that
sum, it may be much less. But suppose it cost $300,000,000, will any
patriot be disposed to find fault? The revolutionary war cost more than
that in proportion to the ability of the country then. The Mexican war
cost more than $200,000,000 when the property of the nati0n was less
than half what it is now. The very individuals who are now attempting to
create divisions among the people on account of the cost of this war
which is to sustain our own Government against traitors at home, were
then willing to spend between two and three hundred millions for the
sake of acquiring southern territory. Let there be some consistency in
the conduct of those who are now raising a hue and cry about the war
debt. If these objections are actuated by economy, will they tell us how
the late Administration managed to spend twenty millions of surplus
funds in the United States treasury, and to almost ruin the national
credit by the time it finished its career! Why did they not object then
to a criminal waste of the public funds! But if these objectors are
opposed to getting into debt for a war which they say might have been
avoided, will they tell us why they sustained two expensive wars, both
of which might certainly have been avoided! The party to which these
gentlemen used to belong sustained fully the Florida and the Mexican
wars. But now they are men of peace--opposed to war debts, and anxious
to save the people's money! Mark the change!
AN ARMY OF WORMS
There has been a new sensation in
Middletown. The south-east part of the city was threatened with an
invasion. On Wednesday last it was discovered that the lot on Water
street south of Belden's ship yard was full of worms. They were
mostly about an inch long, and of a dark brown color. On Thursday they
began to come out of the lot in all directions and in vast numbers. The
fields and gardens in the vicinity were threatened with destruction, and
in one or two instances they invaded the neighboring dwellings. Ditches
were immediately dug around the lot, and filled with coal tar, and a
regular siege was commenced. In this way the progress of the worms was
effectually prevented. But still they kept coming through Friday,
Saturday, Sunday and Monday. The field where they originated is said to
now be full of them.
Trim Your Trees--The street
commissioner is going to enforce the law requiring that shades trees be
trimmed to a proper height. Any lover of shades, who prefers to do his own
trimming, will have to do it before the first day of September, or it will
be done for him at the public expense. Trees must be trimmed so that the
branches shall be eight feet at least from the ground.
Gen. McClellan--It was stated some time
since that Gen. McClellan took the rank in the army of the United States
next to Gen. Scott. Some surprise and incredulity was expressed at this
statement, inasmuch as Gen. McClellan is quite a young man and was but
little known to the public before the present war. It seemed improbable that
he should outrank tried veterans in the army. A Washington correspondent of
the New York Commercial confirms the statement, and says that Gen.
McClellan by his recent promotion became second in command of the army
of the United States, and the presumptive successor of Gen. Scott. He
outranks Gen. Wool from the fact that his title is that of Major-General,
while Wool is simply a Major-General by brevet.
The horse of Wm. R. Buckley backed out of the
ferry boat at Rocky Hill, Monday, together with Mrs. Buckley and two little
Buckleys, who occupied the wagon. The horse was drowned, but the tenants of
the wagon were saved.
There is a law just passed, which makes the
display of secession flags punishable by a $100 fine, in this state.
The late Sultan of Turkey was a hard boy,
according to the general report, and over-fond of the ladies. They led him
such a life of expense and suspense, that he had to drink to drown his care.
So, "women and wine--the toast is divine," finally brought him down,
shattered his nerves, and at last turned his toes gracefully up for him.
JULY 25, 1861
THE NEW HAMPSHIRE SENTINEL
THE BATTLE AND ITS LESSONS
The news from the war is mingled with bright
and dark hues. Although the national arms have suffered a temporary reverse,
yet the struggle has developed a bravery and heroism on the part of Northern
soldiers that augur ultimate, if not speedy triumph. The rebels have
outnumbered the loyal troops through all the contest, and fought on ground
selected by themselves, and fortified by all the military skill that for a
month past could be brought from Southern resources--directed by Davis and
Beauregard. Our artillery and infantry marched up to the masked rebel
batteries and captured them. Time after time did the chivalry charge with
the bayonet, their boasted arm, but were invariably driven back. Neither
superiority of numbers, nor the advantage of position, impeded the slow but
steady advance of our brave volunteers, until exhausted by fatigue, when the
enemy were reinforced by 20,000 fresh troops.
Gen. McDowell's entire force could not have
been over 45,000 and of these only about 20,000 were brought into action.
Against us were 90,000, of whom 40,000 were actually engaged. The attack of
some four thousand cavalry upon the rear of our troops and upon an army of
teamsters had something to do with the defeat.
The battle has been lost--but the honor of our
brave soldiers has been saved. The enemy has received a lesson he will not
soon forget. The boast that one southern man was equal to five Northern, has
been nobly repelled. A no les important lesson has been given the
North. We shall not henceforth be likely to underrate the actual resources
of the South, and less likely to regard this contest as a holiday pastime,
at the same time knowing our own superior resources and valor. That portion
of our people, including some newspapers, who have been casting blame upon
Lieutenant General Scott for not hurrying the army off to battle, will be
more likely to let the veteran hero manage his own affairs. Had he been let
alone--had he not been annoyed and goaded by such papers as the New York
Times and Tribune, and especially by the last named, whose mad
cries of "on to Richmond," followed by the echoes of a few other papers, and
inflammatory speeches of a like character at Washington, asking, "why the
delay?" the result might have been less disastrous. It was believed at
Washington, when the army moved forward, that Gen. Scott had yielded his own
conviction to the clamor of an impatient soldiery and people. The impatience
was fed and fanned immensely by the Tribune newspaper, whose managers
seem determined to control both our civil and military affairs, apparently
reckless of consequences.
Revenge is said to be stamped upon all loyal
faces at Washington--and a determination, such as has not heretofore been
known, pervades the entire mass of loyal people. In New York, and at other
important points, the most active and determined spirit prevails. Regiments
have already arrived at Washington to reinforce our army; others are on the
way, while the administration, backed as it is by Congress, is vigorously
pushing preparations for collecting an overwhelming force to avenge the
POSITION OF THE BLOCKADING VESSELS
The Atlantic blockading squadron, Commodore
Stringham, consists of twenty-two vessels, three of which--the Iroquois,
Dale, and Savannah--are in pursuit of the pirate Jeff.
Davis. The Minnesota, the flag ship, is the only vessel now at
Hampton Roads; the Monticello blockades James River; the Dawn, York
River; and the Mount Vernon, the Rappahannock River. Two
vessels attend to Chesapeake Bay; four haunt the coast of North Carolina;
the Wabash and four other vessels blockade the Savannah, and one
vessel shuts up Fernandina. The Harriet Lane is repairing, and the
Seminole has not et reported.
The expenses of Mrs. Burch's counsel, in the
trial for divorce at Chicago, amounted to nearly $60,000, which Mr. Burch
ahs been compelled to pay--most unmistakably proving that it is
sometimes more expensive to get rid of a wife than to keep one.
Our friend Lyman has very neatly fitted the
rooms recently occupied by Mr. Searle, as a confectionary establishment. He
has added a soda fountain, a room for ice-creams, &c., for the ladies, and
another for gentlemen. The large variety of fruit ad other delicacies, the
many sugar toys for children, &c., make the place an excellent one at which
Rifle Manufacture Resumed--The Messrs.
Lamson, Goodnow & Yale, having purchased the Robbins & Lawrence armory at
Windsor, Vt., have contracted with the United States government to
manufacture 25,000 rifles, to be completed within about nineteen months.
They will commence work immediately with improved machinery, and will give
employment to a large number of skilled mechanics.
Statesman--We have before us a letter
from a gentleman in New Orleans to a friend in Concord, in which he says:
"It is not prudent, perhaps not proper, to say any thing about affairs here;
but I will state, that when you imagine it as bad as possible, you are not
far from the truth. Things cannot continue long as they are without an
Reward for Re-Enlistment--The House
militia bill passed on Thursday provides that each soldier who re-enlists
for the war shall be paid thirty dollars; if they shall re-enlist by
companies, forty dollars; and if by regiments, fifty dollars, above their
regular pay. Five rebel sympathizers opposed the bill "on Constitutional
J. M. Thompson, proprietor of the Glen House
at the White Mountains, has accomplished the difficult feat of driving to
the summit of Mount Washington with a horse and wagon. The carriage road is
completed to within a mile of the summit, but the remaining part of the
distance was rather rough.
JULY 26, 1861
(N.H.) FARMERS' CABINET
THE CONFEDERATE PRIZES
N. Y. Post--In releasing the
vessels captured an brought into Cienfuegos by the Confederate privateer
Sumter, the Captain General of Cuba has only acted as the treaty
stipulations between Spain and the United States demand. By article VI
of the treaty of 1795, it is provided that "each party shall endeavor by
all means in their power, to protect and defend all vessels and other
effects belonging to the citizens and subjects of the other which shall
be within the extent of their jurisdiction by sea or by land; and shall
use all their efforts to recover and cause to be restored to their right
owners their vessels and effects which may have been taken from them
within the extent of their said jurisdiction, whether they are at war or
not with the power whose subjects have taken possession of the said
By this article, therefore, the
authorities of Spain are bound to retain in safety and return to their
proper owners all American vessels captured by Confederate privateers
and brought into Cuban or other Spanish ports.
It will be seen that the Confederates made
a mistake when they took their prizes into a Spanish port.
THE NEW TARIFF
Boston Journal--The new tariff now
before Congress is simply a war measure, and differs from the preceding
tariff chiefly by taking tea and coffee from the free list, and
increasing largely the duties on luxuries, such as distilled liquors,
wines, sugars and cigars. The duty on salt is largely increased. Black
teas are to be taxed at the rate of ten cents per pound, green fifteen,
and coffee five cents. The duties on wines and distilled liquors are
increased fifty per cent.; on cigars, very nearly in the same ratio. On
sugars the duties are increased from three-fourths of a cent to two and
a half cents per pound on raw, to three cents on clayed, and four cents
on white and refined. Molasses pays six cents per gallon instead of two.
White lead $2 25 per 100 pounds instead of $1 25. There is some increase
on other unimportant articles, but not enough to add materially to the
revenue. In textile fabrics there is little change. A slight reduction
is made of iron and steel--the duty on merchant bar being reduced from
$15 to $14 per ton; on railroad iron from $12 to $10 per ton. As the
previous duties were nearly if not quite prohibitory, this reduction is
for the benefit of the revenue. With the exceptions named, the
Morrill Tariff remains substantially untouched.
GEN. LYON'S BODYGUARD
N. Y. Times--One of the principal
features of the march are Gen. Lyon and his German bodyguard. The latter
is composed of ten athletic butchers, each mounted on a powerful horse,
armed with a heavy cavalry sword and a pair of navy revolvers; each
wears a light hat turned up on the left side, and decorated with an
ostrich plume. Almost any time Gen. Lyon, accompanied by half a dozen of
these savage looking fellows, may be seen spurring along the line, or a
small squad of them, or singly galloping fiercely to the front or rear,
or straight out in the open country.
If the general goes into a house a
half dozen of them will be seen in front, standing like iron statues at
the bridles of their horses--if he scouts along in advance of the train
the clanking of their long sabres is heard beside him--stop where he
will there may be always seen a stolid square of white plumed horsemen
waiting patiently his movements. They are fearless riders--jump fences
on a dead run, leap ditches, gallop down steep descents, and, in fact,
never ride less fast than their horses can run, unless compelled by some
urgent necessity. Independent of their duty as body guards, they act as
messengers, scouts, &c., and in consequence have plenty to do. They are
commanded by a Lieutenant, and from their appearance and daring
horsemanship, will, if occasion demands, whip a dozen times their
weight in cavalry.
Wealth of the Country--Every one
who has read Secretary Chase's report must have been amazed at his
announcement that the value of the real and personal property of the
people of the United States, according to the census of 1860, is
$16,102,924, 115. In 1850 it was only $7,066,562,966. It ahs therefore
more than doubled in ten years. During the last decade, too, occurred
the great financial crash of 1857, seriously checking the prosperity of
To Prevent Flies from Teasing Horses--Take
two or three small handfuls of walnut leaves, upon which pour two or
three quarts of soft cold water; let it infuse one night, and then boil
fifteen minutes. When cold it will be fit for use. Wet a sponge and
before the horse goes out of the stable let the parts which are
irritated be smeared with it.
JULY 27, 1861
SECESSION IN KENTUCKY
Louisville Journal, July 23--e
suppose that the secessionists of Kentucky, exulting in the victory at
Manassas, and counting largely upon its effect on the minds of the
people, will now make a more desperate attempt than ever to force our
State out of the Union. We can conceive of no movement so insane that we
do not deem their leaders capable of it. But let them well beware. If we
understand the friends of the Union, if by fighting side by side with
them we have gained the slightest knowledge of their character, not a
man of them will for one moment falter in his position on account of the
result of a battle or a dozen battles in Virginia or elsewhere. The
Union men of Kentucky have adopted the policy of neutrality because they
think it right, and not because they have made this, that, or the other
calculation as to the issue of battles between the belligerent sections.
The considerations that have governed them till now are as powerful
still as they have ever been.
The Natural Line of Travel--A
day or two ago we called attention to the fact that the Directors of the
Broadway Railroad Company insist upon laying their rails through Summer
street, on the ground that that street is in "the natural line of travel
from South Boston to the centre of business." The Directors support this
proposition by referring to the fact that the omnibuses once ran through
Summer street--though that was under the direction of the city, and not
by any natural law, so far as we can remember.
We submit that this old line of travel,
when there was no passage through Winthrop Place to Milk street, has
nothing to do with what the line of travel should be now, since the new
Devonshire street has been cut through. The natural line of travel from
Cambridge was once through Roxbury and over the neck; but it is not now
and has not been since Cambridge Bridge was built.
Turning an Honest Penny--The wits
of Mr. P.T. Barnum shine out as brightly now amidst the confusion of
war, as they ever did. He had just been turning to account the presence
of Tillman, the Negro steward who killed the pirates on board the
schooner S. J. Waring. Tillman and his companion Stedding
visited Barnum's Museum on Thursday, but the crowd attracted by them and
eager to see the "pirate-killers," was so great and they were lionized
to such an extent, that they could not see the curiosities at all. They
complained to Mr. Barnum and asked leave to come again free of charge,
to gratify their own curiosity. He considerately told them that they
could come daily, and obtained permission for them from the United
States Marshal. To avoid mistake the incident was announced in the
papers, and so there will be a rush of business for a few days at the
Museum--and all on the strength of two curiosities costing the exhibitor
exactly nothing. A profitable return for the investment.
A Strict Responsibility--The New
York Times thinks that for the millions of money already lost by our
merchants through naval inefficiency, "it would be well if we could hold
the Secretary to a pecuniary responsibility."
Unless Mr.. Welles is rich beyond
precedent among American citizens, the dividend resulting from such
responsibility would be extraordinary small.4
WHY TROOPS ARE WANTED
The question has been asked, why our fresh
troops need to be sent forward at this season, when no forward movement
is likely to take place before fall?
The answer can be found in the exposed
position of the whole upper Potomac, and of our lines outside Fortress
Monroe. General Banks succeeds to a force weakened by withdrawals, and
demoralized to some extent by ill success. General Butler has only half
the number of men he should have, and is surrounded by an increasing
foe. At the same time the enemy's forces are now once more free to act
wherever they please, leaving a moderate garrison for a time, at
Manassas Junction. Our men must take the field at once, merely to make
our defence secure.
The Augusta (Ga.) Chronicle
says: "It is a shame, and we think too, a gross mismanagement that the
flower of Georgia's well-trained volunteer soldiery, and only one
regiment, was sent into Northwestern Virginia, into the very midst of
Tories, away from railroads and reinforcements, to meet Lincoln's best
soldiers, the Northwestern men, under Lincoln's best
General--McClellan--and unsupported except by the almost raw Virginia
The Memphis papers are frantic with joy
over the first battle of Bull's Run. The Avalanche says it hopes
the sequel will be:
"The utter rout and destruction of
the federal army, and the capture of Washington, with Old Abe and his
Abolition crew included. Let the conflict rage until the last thieving,
murdering Abolitionists shall be expelled from the soil of Virginia."
Exchanges give the most flattering
accounts of the crops through Pennsylvania. The wheat crop is more than
an average one, and has been harvested in good condition. They hay,
although not heavy, is of unusually good quality. The corn and potatoes
are somewhat backward, but they look well, and recent showers will
ensure a good product. With the exception of fruits, there will be in
Pennsylvania more than an average crop this year.
The New Orleans Price Current of
Saturday last says--
Advice from tobacco growing regions are
unfavorable; they report very hot and dry weather, and the prospect is
that the growing crop will be a short one. There has been some inquiry,
but we have heard of no further sales since those made last week, which
are understood to have exceeded the amount reported, reaching about 2000
SCRAP BOOKS FOR UNION ENVELOPES
We have a variety of Scrap Books,
suitable for preserving collections of Patriotic Envelopes. Persons
collecting varieties of these for future reference will find these Books
particularly useful. For sale by
THOMAS GROOM & CO.,
Stationers, 81 State street
1 This is in reference to the minor skirmishing
which took place on 19th July. The major Battle of Bull Run was taking place as
folks in New Orleans were reading their papers . . .
2 "lit up again"
3 "In dollars and cents, the U.S.
government estimated Jan. 1863 that the war was costing $2.5 million daily. A
final official estimate in 1879 totaled $6,190,000,000. The Confederacy spent
perhaps $2,099,808,707. By 1906 another $3.3 billion already had been spent by
the U.S. government on Northerners' pensions and other veterans' benefits for
former Federal soldiers. Southern states and private philanthropy provided
benefits to the Confederate veterans. The amount spent on benefits eventually
well exceeded the war's original cost."
4 Reference is to Secretary of the Navy
Gideon Welles. Northerners expected the Union blockade to be instantly and
totally effective, which it never was. Even by the end of the war, blockade
runners still stood a 50:50 chance of getting through. The true value of the
blockade was not in stopping every ship, but catching enough vessels to make
running a risky business; this led to rampant inflation in the South, as
skippers demanded more money for the goods they brought in. Demand by teh
Southern elite for luxury goods such as wine, silks, perfumes, &c., played into
this. Such items were very profitable cargoes, but did little to feed the
general population. See "How the U.S. Navy Won the