MARCH 16, 1862
THE DAILY TRUE DELTA (LA)
our columns Gen. Lovell announces that by the authority of the President
of the Confederate States of America and in his name, he subjects the
parishes of Orleans, Jefferson, St. Bernard and Plaquemine to the
operation of martial law, that is, subjects the inhabitants of these
parishes to military government. The necessity of the proceeding seems
to be admitted, the precise mode in which it is to be carried out will,
we suppose, be made public in due time. The proclamation of the fact
itself explains in certain particulars what are the objects contemplated
here, and we commend them to the attention of every reader, as the way
to keep out of trouble is to know where it exists and the mode of
evading it. The following more especially, as being particularly
specified, demands attention, as it contains the directions which must
be immediately complied with:
grown white males in the aforesaid parishes, except unnaturalized
foreigners, will be required to take the oath of allegiance to the
Confederate States; and all persons, whether foreigners or not, who are
unfriendly to our cause, are notified to leave the district embraced by
this order without delay.
system of registry and passport will be established, and no one will be
permitted to sojourn in the above-named parishes without satisfying the
provost-marshals of their loyalty; and all good citizens are requested
to report to those officers all who are suspected of hostility to the
places for the sale of liquor will be closed at 8 o’clock P.M. Any
found open after that hour will be closed permanently and the liquor
number of persons who have no ostensible business, nor any interests in
the city or State, have recently arrived in New Orleans. They must
satisfy the provost-marshals of their good intentions and objects here,
or leave immediately.”
cannot see in these requirements anything to complain of. The taking of
an oath of allegiance is an idle formality, which no one will refuse;
but the other matters embraced in the proclamation are of practical
importance, and the rascal who has no scruples about oath-taking will
find himself exposed to the necessity of giving a good account of
himself, and explaining how and why he is sojourning in the parishes
subjected to martial law. That the people of the four parishes named
have been sleeping in dangerous obliviousness of the enemy around them
we have long regretfully observed, and it is a marvel that, in this
parish more particularly, some terrible calamity has not awakened us to
a fearful sense of our past negligence and indifference. But the four
parishes embraced in the proclamation are all accessible from the sea,
and, therefore, constantly exposed to visits from the emissaries or
forces of the enemy, and yet reliance to guard against possible injury
through such channels has been mainly upon the forts on the sea-board,
and every intelligent citizen can himself see how unwise and deceptive
such expectation must be.
information from Plaquemine advises us of the necessity of very great
vigilance on the part of planters and authorities, and particularly in
what concerns the police of the plantations. If there be any owned by
persons resident out of the State, or under administration which is lax
or unfaithful, attention should be immediately given to them, and the
legal corrective be at once and energetically applied.
one plantation in that parish, exposed on its rear to a bayou navigable
to the sea, three Negroes, within a few days past, one of them armed
with a double-barreled gun loaded, attacked a white man, dragging him
from his horse and assaulting him. He also had a gun, but it was
unfortunately unloaded, and he was therefore compelled to give the
African marauders battle with nature’s weapons, which we are advised
he so successfully did as to put them to flight, after capturing their
guns and munitions.
suppose among the immediate steps which the commanding general will deem
it advisable to take to exact respect for order and law in this place,
the establishment of military patrols and a rigid surveillance of all
low haunts may be confidently looked for. There is no doubt whatever of
the fact, stated in the proclamation, that numbers of fellows who have
no ostensible business nor any interests in this city have recently
arrived here, and upon no good or lawful errand; and it is apparent that
the sooner such dangerous and suspicious persons are brought from their
lurking-places the better it will be for the comfort, security and
well-being of this community. The well-known villains, also, who have so
long been a terror to peaceable and well-behaved citizens here, it is to
be hoped, have now reached a point in their infamous career when the
hand of power will be employed to crush, not foster and protect them, as
it has long culpably and scandalously done. The gentlemen known as
Provost-Marshals in the four districts of the city are well-known and
prominent citizens, and will discharge their duties, we are sure, with
firmness, discretion and fidelity. We are sure they will do it;
positive, too, that the evil-does alone will feel the pressure
uncomfortably heavy of their official authority. We may be mistaken, but
are very confident we cannot be, in believing that the saturnalia of
ruffianism which has so long been allowed to afflict and disgrace this
community, will, under the administration of military law, have a
termination. New Orleans was once a model city, and its population
renowned for their order, respect for the law, honesty and decorum, and
we think before the reign of corrupt partisans is again restored, the
people will rejoice in good government, and the peace, security and
respect for individual rights it establishes and maintains.
Vessels Running the Blockade.—We copy the following from the
Augusta Chronicle of the 8th:
vessels loaded with cotton passed the blockade at New Orleans one day
last week. Six vessels passed the blockade at Charleston the same week.
We are inclined to think that Lincoln’s vessels turn a blind eye to
cotton vessels going out, while they keep a sharp look-out for vessels
loaded with arms or goods inward bound. At any rate it is somewhat
strange we never hear of the capture of any of the outward-bound,
cotton-freighted vessels. Are there certain favored parties who have
permits from both belligerents to carry on this trade?
MARCH 17, 1862
DAILY CITIZEN & NEWS (MA)
Question for the Knights of the Green Bag.—The
Philadelphia Inquirer tells a story of a Yankee who was lately
discovered printing a large number of rebel treasury notes, and who
described his motive to be the supplying of the southern states with the
spurious article, with the patriotic desire of crippling the rebel
treasury. The man is represented to have sent several hundred thousand
dollars’ worth of this bogus scrip into Secessia; and the Inquirer
says that, in doubt that his conduct constitutes a crime, the
enterprising Yankee in question is allowed by the government to be at
large. The counterfeit is said to be a perfect one.
of Slave-Catching.—The President on Thursday approved the
additional article of war, which goes into immediate operation, viz: all
persons or officers in the military or naval service of the United
States, are prohibited from employing any of the forces under their
respective commands for the purpose of returning fugitives from service
or labor who may have escaped from any person to whom such service or
labor is claimed to be due; and any officer who shall be found guilty by
a court martial of a violation of this article shall be dismissed from
Cleared of Rebels.—An official dispatch to the secretary of war,
dated St. Louis, 14th, makes the following gratifying statement:
several daily skirmishes and a number of attempts by the enemy’s
gunboats to dislodge General Pope’s batteries at Point Pleasant, the
enemy evacuated his fort and intrenchments at New Madrid, leaving all
his artillery, field batteries, tents, wagons, mules, &c., and an
immense quantity of military stores. Brigadier General Hamilton has
occupied the place. This was the last stronghold of the enemy in this
state. No rebel flag is now flying in Missouri.
and Cars.—An agent of the government was in this city last week to
purchase cars and locomotives to run on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad.
We understand that twelve long freight cars were sent on last week via
New York to Washington. The Eastern railroad will furnish two
locomotives, the Maine two, and the Boston and Lowell two, and probably
some from the other roads. The locomotives and cars on the B. & O.
railroad were destroyed by the rebels and the track torn up. The track
has been rebuilt by the government, and will be run by them for the
to Lowell.—The body of Edward Garrity of this city, who was killed
on board the Congress in the recent fight at Fortress Monroe, was
brought here on Saturday in charge of his brother William, who was also
on board the same vessel. The body was not seen, it being badly mangled,
and was buried yesterday in the Catholic cemetery. Deceased was about 19
years of age, and leaves a mother and two sisters in this city, and a
brother in Boston.
is stated that the plan in the West is to flank Memphis by seizing the
Memphis and Charleston Railroad, by a short march from the Tennessee
river. The national forces are accumulating on that river. Among others,
troops are being moved over from Fort Donelson to Fort Henry, which is
on the Tennessee.
News from the West.—Besides the complete success of our forces at
New Madrid, reported elsewhere, we have this morning very cheering
accounts from the naval expedition which started down the river from
Cairo last Wednesday. The following particulars came by dispatch from
Hickman, Ky., which town, as will be seen, is captured, with an immense
amount of property:
naval expedition, composed of the gunboats Benton, Louisville,
Cincinnati, Carondelet and Conestoga, under Flag Officer Foote, left
Cairo at 7 o’clock this morning. At Columbus they were joined by the
Pittsburg, St. Louis and Mound City, and were overtaken by eight mortar
boats in tow of four steamers with transports and ordnance boats. They
arrived here at 4 o’clock this afternoon. The mounted pickets, and a
quantity of property of not less value than $1,000,000, has fallen into
our hands. The men only escaped. The enemy’s whole force is
demoralized, and dispersed in a swamp on the opposite side of the river.
The enemy abandoned their works so hurriedly as to leave all the baggage
of their officers and knapsacks of the men behind. Their suppers were on
their tables, and their candles were burning in their tents. A furious
thunder storm, which raged all night, enabled them to get across the
river without being discovered. Our heavy artillery was established
during the night of the 12th inst., within 800 yards of the enemy’s
works. We opened fire at daylight on the 13th inst., just 34 hours after
the guns were delivered to us at Cairo. During the whole of yesterday
our lines were drawn closer around the works of the enemy under the
furious fire of 60 pieces of artillery. The fear of an assault upon
their works at daylight induced them to flee precipitately during the
night. Many prisoners have been taken, and the colors of several
Arkansas regiments. Our loss is about 50 killed and wounded.
was in command of the rebel fleet, and Gens. McConn, Stewart and Gnatt
of the land forces. The gunboats went down the river.
Pope has 25 heavy guns with two works of the enemy which command every
point of the river.
Men.—Rev. Mr. Fletcher addressed a full audience in his church
last evening on the subject above named. In commencing, he admitted the
novelty of the subject, for, while the expression, “fallen,” as
applied to the other sex, is often flippantly used, little is said of
fallen man, unless Adam, our progenitor, is referred to, and even then
his fault is generally shoved upon the shoulders of Eve. The speaker
dissected in detail various practices entitling the sterner sex to the
appellation of fallen; vividly depicting the snares placed in the way of
youth, and allurements to vice made use of by those who intentionally
wish to lead astray such as are novices in the ways of the world; the
sordid avarice of others who are disposed to defraud the government in
its hour of need; the great wrong done by others still who grudgingly
pay to female help the pittance which alone keeps multitudes from
starvation, and which often forces from honest poverty into vicious
MARCH 18, 1862
BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER
at Island No. 10
March 16.—The reporter of the Associated Press now aboard the
flag-ship, two miles above Island No. 10, sends the following:
flotilla got under way at 5:30 this morning and dropped down slowly till
about 7 o’clock, when the flag-ship being about twenty miles ahead and
six miles from the Island, they discovered a stern wheel steamer run out
from the shelter of a point of the Kentucky shore and steam down the
river. Four shells were thrown after her, but the distance was too great
for effect. At 9 o’clock the fleet rounded to about three miles above
the island. Commodore Foote then ordered three of the mortar boats into
position. At this hour, 2 P.M., we are within range, but as yet nothing
has been heard from the enemy.
appears to be a large force on the Kentucky shore. We have counted
thirteen guns in position on the bluff. A large number of transports can
be seen across a low point of land near the Missouri shore busily
engaged around the Island, but what they are doing cannot be determined.
The mortar boats momentarily expect to open fire. We discern the much
talked of floating battery at the Island.
rebels have a very strong
position. Forty-six guns are counted. Eight mortars shelled the battery
above the Island today. The enemy left it several times, but returned.
They only fired with 2 guns. Our shells reached the Island easily. Gen.
Pope has sent dispatches to Flag-Officer Foote saying that his heavy
guns command the river, so that neither steamboat nor gunboat of the
enemy can pass.
has been heard in the direction of New Madrid all day. It is supposed
that the rebel gunboats are trying to force a passage.
rebel transports near Island No. 10 are hemmed in. The encampment of the
enemy is visible, and is supposed to be large enough for 15,000 to
17.—There is nothing later from Island No. 10 than a dispatch
today, which says that the accuracy of the firing of the mortars
yesterday was fully equal to previous expectations. The mortar fleet
threw 240 shells, and the Benton 41. It is expected that one or
more of the enemy’s works will be reduced today, and the place closely
invested. It is thought by some that the rebels are marching across the
neck of land from the Island to Merriweather Landing, on the
Mississippi, only five miles, over a practicable road, and below Point
Pleasant, the place where Gen. Pope has his batteries, and that when
they are embarked on the boats (the smoke of which was plainly seen
yesterday at or near Merriweather Landing from the gunboat Benton),
we shall find the rebel nest empty and the river clear of rebels from
Randolph or Fort Pillow.
No. 10 is Ours—Another Victory in Arkansas.
Louis, March 17.—In response to a serenade tonight, Gen. Halleck
announced from the balcony of the Planters’ House that Island No. 10
is ours, with all the ammunition and transports the enemy had there. He
said also that another victory had been gained in Arkansas, in which
three rebel Colonels had been captured. The particulars have not
Gave Us the Monitor?
public attention is drawn in an eminent degree to this novelty in
maritime warfare, it is only due to unobtrusive merit and devoted
loyalty, to award more than an ordinary share of the credit for its
success to the judgment and sagacity of Commodore Joseph Smith.
is confidently believed, if the joint views of the Board of Naval
Officers had prevailed, at the time iron-clad vessels were under
consideration, the “Monitor” would never have saved
what is left of the fleet at Fortress Monroe.
Commodore Smith, more than to all the others, Ericsson alone excepted,
is the country indebted for the opportune presence at a most portentous
hour of this triumph of mechanical and engineering skill; and unless we
misapprehend the generous spirit of Ericsson, he is willing to accord to
the Commodore his grateful acknowledgements for many most useful and
seems but just that one who labors so steadfastly and earnestly for his
country’s good, should not be overlooked among the many rivalries for
fame’s honor. If Com’r Smith’s plans could have been carried out,
the Merrimack would have found her grave, even where the evil
genius of treason was investing the monster with her powers of
destruction; for we have heard it said the Commodore strongly urged that
the Monitor should be sent to Norfolk, weeks ago, to attack the Merrimack
while still in dock. If this bold project had been executed, and the
invulnerability of the Monitor proves its feasibility, our flag
would still have been floating from the peaks of the Congress and
Cumberland; and a noble youth, gathered in the rich harvest of
death on the 8th inst., would have been gaining other laurels to shed
luster upon a venerable and patriotic sire.
Tables Turned.—What a very large Tartar the rebels have caught at
Fort Pickens may be seen from the language of the Mobile papers, which
are in constant fear lest our troops on Santa Rosa Island may undertake
some enterprise against Mobile. The Register of March 4, says:
Navy Yard and approaches to Pensacola have been made impregnable by the
activity and skill of Gen. Bragg, and as the enemy has proved it by two
unsuccessful bombardments, he is not likely to repeat the experiment.
Time will not make these defences less impregnable. They guard the
gateway of the capital to Alabama and a harbor of priceless value to the
foe, which can never cease to be watched with sleepless vigilance.”
would seem to be forgotten at Mobile that the rebel batteries were
erected, not to defend Pensacola, but to reduce Fort Pickens. Instead of
doing this, however, they are in danger of being themselves reduced.
Stolen Idea.—Something has been said in the last few days about a
floating rebel battery at Island No. 10. From the following description
of it, given by a Western correspondent, it would seem that the rebels
have made use of one feature of the Steven’s battery, in providing for
sinking the boat a certain distance, at pleasure:
Island No. 10 they have formidable defences, and the great floating
battery mounting twelve guns is there. This battery is so made that it
can be sunk at pleasure, leaving only a foot or less above the surface.
Three of four steamers, carrying eight guns, are also at that place.”
SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN (MA)
Advance into Virginia.
rebels seem to have left behind a rear guard near Manassas, to cover
their retreat southward. It is represented to be a brigade, comprising
infantry, cavalry and artillery, and to have approached within a mile of
Manassas on Sunday night. From Saturday afternoon to Monday evening they
were alternately advancing and retreating, as if to invite attack. Of
the movements of Gen. McClellan’s army nothing is allowed to be
disclosed, but the correspondents say it is moving against the enemy,
“steadily, surely, powerfully, nor has it ceased its progress since
Monday week,” Gen. Sumner has taken command of one of the corps
d’armee, consisting of his own division, now commanded by Gen.
Kearney, and the divisions of Blenker and Sedgwick.
examining Centreville and its defences the Prince De Joinville remarked
that in Europe, to have compelled an army to evacuate such a stronghold
without the loss of a man, or even without firing a gun, would have been
considered the most brilliant achievement of the whole campaign. The
story of the Quaker guns turns out to be entirely a joke of our own
troops. Some of the reporters were badly “sold” by it. Among the
earliest in entering the works at Centreville and Manassas were Col. E.
H. Wright and Col. J. J. Astor, of Gen. McClellan’s staff. These
officers rode all through the works soon after they had been entered by
the advanced guard of the federal army, and they state most positively
that there were neither Quaker guns nor painted logs, nor logs of any
kind, in the embrasures at that time.
on the Manassas railroad say that the siege guns of the rebels were not
taken to Gordonsville, but to Richmond. If this is true the talk about
making a stand at Gordonsville is intended to mislead Gen. McClellan.
of the regiments suffered exceedingly from the storm of Saturday,
several being exposed to it without any shelter whatever. A member of
the New York 21st regiment was drowned fording a stream swollen by the
rain, and a fine team attached tone of the baggage wagons was swept off.
Several men belonging to other regiments were also reported drowned.
following were among the amusing notices left behind by the rebels:
you arrive at this place don’t think we have vacated it through fear,
no never. We are a people that fears no army that comes from any
abolitious country. Where any people wages war against a people like us,
for the purpose, and the bold purpose, of robbing us of our homes and
property you will find you can never succeed. Recollect Manassas,
Leesburg, and many other places, and before long you will meet us again.
So look out, we are fighting on our own Soil, and sooner than we will
Surrender, we will die. With this Determination we never can be
subjugated. You have caused this regiment to be absent from their
friends and relations for nine months; revenge we must have, look out,
Va Regt Vol.
any damned Yankee should occupy this hut, I would inform him that it has
cost me much labor, and some money. I have had a good time in it, and in
order that you may have the same, I leave you for your amusement two
ribs of a New York Fire Zouave, for castanets.”
the entrance of a circular fort was placed a common board coffin, with
the rather unpleasing invitation to “walk in.”
and Guns.—About seventy years ago Eli Whitney invented the cotton
gin, and in that cotton gin existed the seeds of the greatest rebellion
in human history. It developed the cotton interest which made slavery
profitable and developed the slave power until it became dictator in
American politics. In the same town in which the cotton gin was invented
and perfected—New Haven, Ct.,--lives Eli Whitney, son of the inventor,
and the maker of arms for putting down the rebellion which his
father’s invention so innocently inaugurated. Muskets for the
government to the number of 50,000 are contracted to be furnished by
this establishment, and revolvers without number are turned out, of the
best pattern. And thus is the “law of compensation” vindicated.
Patrick’s Day.—The observance of this festival of Ireland’s
patron saint was quite general on Monday. At Boston the turn out was
larger than ever before. A procession was formed on the common,
including nine Hibernian societies with bands of music, banners,
evergreen badges, etc., and nearly 1000 men. They attended high mass and
listened to a sermon in the new Catholic church at Charlestown. At
Hartford there was a procession of the sick an burial societies, with
the armory band at their head, and religious exercises and a lecture
indoors. At New Haven, the Irish benevolent societies and Emmet Guards
were out in procession, and afterwards attended religious services. At
New York city, notwithstanding the absence of many thousands Irishmen in
the Union army, both the military and civic processions were much finer
than in any previous year. The 69th regiment, whose behavior at Bull Run
has made Irish pluck and daring indisputable, appeared in the procession
about 700 strong, and excited great applause. The procession was
reviewed by Mayor Opdyke and the common council.
letter from a brigadier surgeon who is with our advancing army in
Tennessee predicts that they will be in New Orleans by the 1st of April.
We believe it.
adjutant general of the regular confederate army, Samuel Cooper, was
born in New York; Brig. Gen. Ripley was born in Ohio; Pemberton in
Pennsylvania; Whiting, Pike, Ruggles and Blanchard in Massachusetts;
French in New Jersey. Massachusetts furnishes as many generals for the
rebel army as either Alabama or Mississippi, one more than Texas, as
many as Florida, Arkansas, and Missouri, all together, and lacking one
of half as many as South Carolina. Of course these men were citizens at
the South at the breaking out of the rebellion.
reason why the wrought iron balls were not used by the Monitor in
the contest with the Virginia, was not owing to “red tape,”
but from a well grounded fear that they would burst the guns, wrought
iron expanding much more than cast iron from the effect of the gasses
generated by powder. It is now proposed to have steel balls to use
against iron-clad ships, or balls pointed with steel. These would, it is
believed, pierce through the iron plates.
Brown of Georgia, in his proclamation forbidding all distillation of
spirits in that state after the 15th of March, suggests that the copper
whisky stills be worked up into cannon; and adds that such use of them
would make them agents of destruction to the enemy, instead of, as now,
instruments of ruin to friends.
Prescott of Gen. Pope’s division, just before the attack on New
Madrid, wrote as follows to his brother in this city, of the country and
the intelligence of the inhabitants of that part of Missouri: “Since
we left Bird’s Point we have had a long and tedious march through
swamps and across prairies. Of all the God-forsaken countries I ever
saw, this beats them all. I met a man in our camp this morning, who was
born in this country, and who had never seen the American flag before.
Everybody in this part of the world is secesh, and thinks we came here
to free their Negroes.”
HARTFORD DAILY COURANT (CT)
Capture of Newbern.
Valor of Our Troops
various brigades commenced embarking from Roanoke Island on Tuesday, the
4th of March, which occupied the time until Sunday afternoon. On Tuesday
morning, the 11th, the whole fleet was under weigh, and on Wednesday
evening reached Slocum’s Creek, in the Neuse River. The following
morning was rainy, but about eight o’clock the weather cleared up, and
the order for disembarkation was given, producing enthusiastic cheers
throughout the whole flotilla. The troops were landed on the upper bank
of Slocum’s Creek, the water being so shallow that they were obliged
to wade ashore, holding their guns and ammunition aloft in order to keep
them dry. The distance from this point to Newbern was sixteen miles. The
only artillery used by our troops was a battery of six navy guns, or
mountain howitzers, and two Wiard rifled 12-pounders. Along the creek
the land was marshy and the traveling difficult for about a mile.
Succeeding this was a piece of woods, passing through which and over a
mile of sand beach, the troops came to a country road. A little way up
the road they found an extensive cavalry barracks, some distance back,
in a wooded ravine. So great had been the hurry of leaving that the
officers had left their breakfast untouched—the men theirs in the
mess-tins, while furniture, books, clothing, and the conveniences of
camp life, were strewn along the cantonment. The roads were in a sad
plight, owing to the rains of the previous week, but no straggling was
allowed. The 24th Massachusetts led the 1st brigade, and the 11th
Connecticut closed up the rear of the 3d brigade. They had proceeded
about five miles, when they came upon a deserted line of batteries and
breastworks, very elaborately built, with a wide moat in front and
abattis of timber on the flanks. Guns had not yet been mounted, our
troops not being expected so soon. In the afternoon a drizzling rain
commenced, and our tired troops were anxious for the word to halt. Just
about this time, a man on horseback was seen coming from the direction
of Newbern, who was arrested, and gave information on the evacuation of
Manassas. The intelligence revived the jaded soldiers, and with renewed
vigor they pushed forward to within a mile of the enemy’s
fortifications. Here they halted and bivouacked for the night; the rain
falling, and damp dead leaves making uncomfortable couches.
next morning the column was on the march, the Mass. 21st leading the
advance on the railroad. The regiment had not proceeded far before, on
turning a curve in the road, they saw a train of cars, which had brought
re-enforcements to the enemy, standing on the track. In front of the
locomotive, on a platform car, had been a large rifled gun, which was
evidently to be placed in a position to rake the road. Our men, however,
advanced at the double-quick and poured in a volley with such accuracy
of aim that the enemy, who had already rolled the gun and caisson off
the car, did not stop to unload the carriage, but ran into the
intrenchments, and the train was backed towards Newbern, leaving the
platform-car standing on the track.
line of battle was formed in the woods just in front of the enemy’s
earthworks. The 24th Mass. on the right, the 27th on their left, in
support, and the 23d in front, which opened fire on the enemy, and was
replied to by a heavy discharge of artillery by the enemy.
Foster’s line of battle was completed by moving the gallant 10th
Connecticut to the extreme left, to a position where they had to fight
under the most discouraging disadvantages. The ground was very wet,
swampy, and cut up into gullies and ravines, which mostly ran toward the
enemy, and, of course, offering no protection from his fire, exposed
them on elevations and in valleys. The regiment had shown, at Roanoke,
however, the behavior of veterans, and nothing else could
have been expected at this time, but that they would stand their
ground to the last.
Parke’s Brigade, which had followed the 1st Brigade up the main road,
was placed in line between the 10th Connecticut and 21st Massachusetts,
the 4th Rhode Island holding the right of the line, the 8th Connecticut
the next place, the 5th Rhode Island next, and the 11th Connecticut on
the right. Our line of battle was now complete, the 24th Massachusetts
on the extreme right and the 51st Pennsylvania at the extreme left, and
extended more than a mile.
naval battery was placed in the center, and was handled with great skill
and daring, the offices of some of the guns standing by them when they
had but a single man to assist them.
21st Mass., suffering very much from the enemy’s fire, the order was
given to charge upon the intrenchments. The rebels at the guns, seeing
the movements, abandoned their guns and fled.
Clark mounted the first gun ad waved the colors, and had got so far as the
second, when two full regiments emerged from a grove of young pines and
advanced upon our men, who, seeing that they were likely to be captured or
cut to pieces, leaped over the parapet and retired to their position in the
Rodman of the 4th Rhode Island was informed of the position of affairs, and
being unable to communicate with Gen. Parke, decided, on his own
responsibility, to order a charge with the bayonet.
the command was given to charge, they went at the double-quick directly up
to the battery, firing as they ran, and entering at the right flank, between
a brick-yard and the end of the parapet. When fairly inside, the Colonel
formed the right wing in line of battle, and at their head charged down upon
the guns at double-quick, the left wing forming irregularly, and going as
they could. With a steady line of cold steel, the Rhode Islanders bore down
upon the enemy, and, routing them, captured the whole battery, with its two
flags, and planted the Stars and Stripes upon the parapet. The 8th
Connecticut, 5th Rhode Island, and 11th Connecticut, coming up to their
support, the Rebels fled with precipitation, and left us in undisputed
51st Pennsylvania on the left, which had been held in reserve, were now
ordered to charge the batteries opposite them, which they did, supported by
the rest of the brigade. This movement was assisted by another charge of the
4th Rhode Island from the captured main battery upon the works which were
being assailed, and the enemy, already demoralized by the breaking of their
center, fell back before the grand charge upon the left and front of their
position, and fled in confusion. On our extreme right the brave 24th, and
its supporting regiments, had been advancing inch by inch, standing up
against the enemy’s musketry and cannonade without flinching, and at about
the time when the 4th Rhode Island charged in at the right flank, the colors
of the 24th were on the parapet at the left, and the whole of the First
Brigade poured into the fortification. The whole line of earthworks was now
in our hands, and the cheers of our men, from one end of it to the other,
broke out with fresh spirit as each new regimental color was unfurled on the
approaches to Newbern were defended by a line of water batteries or forts
communicating with field fortifications of the most extreme nature. The
lower fort is about six miles from the city; the next communicates with the
unfinished batteries and breastworks passed on our march, and the others
distributed at about equal distances along the shore. The line of
fortifications attacked and stormed in this brilliant engagement was some
three miles in extent.
the fortifications—batteries, redans and breastworks—were located with
rare judgment, and constructed with great engineering skill. The courage and
endurance of our troops was most wonderful. Most of them were raw
volunteers, who only four months ago were marching through our streets in
the most unmilitary style. The inside of the intrenchments presented a most
revolting spectacle of mangled bodies and bleeding carcasses of horses.
troops were at once pushed on the road to Newbern, and they arrived at the
bank of the river opposite early in the afternoon. Long before they arrived
dense columns of smoke were seen, showing that the town was on fire. It had
been fired in seven different places, in opposition to the wishes of the
citizens, who afterwards succeeded in subduing the flames.
were immediately made by Gen. Foster to cross his forces, and this was
accomplished by the assistance of a light draft stern wheel steamer which
had been captured with four or five small side wheel boats by the naval
gunboats, which by this time were quite up to the city wharves.
the eastward of the city a very large Rebel camp, with barracks and tents,
was found deserted, and taken possession of. Stragglers from different
regiments wandered through the city, and some acts of depredation were
committed, but a strong Provost Guard was called out; all liquor casks were
staved in, and by midnight the streets of the city were as quiet as if one
army had not just fled from it in one direction, and another entered it from
value of the property captured is estimated at $2,000,000.
whole fight was desperate and won at the expense of many a brave soldier,
but it is cheering to read of the indomitable endurance and pluck of the
noble men who fought the battle.
number of the enemy is estimated at from 9,000 to 11,000. Our whole number
was about 10,000.
Ericsson Describes the Working of the Monitor.
a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce of New York on Wednesday, Capt.
Ericsson, the inventor of the steam floating battery Monitor,
made a speech descriptive of the mode of operating it, which we give
below. He first reviewed the statements made in Capt. Stimers’ letter
to him, explaining that the shield therein mentioned is an extra plate
of two-inch thick iron placed on the fighting side of the tower of the Monitor,
intended principally to deaden the sound of the balls that might strike
it, the sound of the concussion being expected to be such as would knock
down the men working the guns, if not careful in obeying suggested
orders. By referring to Capt. Stimers’ account, it will be seen that
three men, among them himself, were thus prostrated. On this subject
Capt. Ericsson says:
the Monitor left I charged the officer particularly to tell the
men not to be frightened. I told him to fell the men, let every man go
down on his knees, and don’t be alarmed when the rebel shot strikes
you, because it won’t hurt you. They all put the question to him,
‘Won’t the shot go through?’ ‘No,’ says he, ‘it will stay
out.’ ‘Then we don’t care,” they said. But for this precaution
there would have been great consternation when the turret was struck.
You may estimate the shock when a shot of 200 pounds weight moving at
the rate of 2000 feet in a second, strikes within a foot of a man’s
proposed to the captain to let the sailing master turn the turret. On
one side of the turret there is a telescope, a reflector, the image
being bent by a prism. This sailing-master, who has nothing to do on the
Monitor, I proposed should be stationed there. He not only looked
through the telescope, but by means of a small wheel he turned the
turret just exactly where he liked. He did that to admiration, pointing
it exactly on the enemy. As the Monitor went round, the turret
kept turning (it no doubt astonished Capt. Buchanan) so that wherever
the Monitor was, in whatever position it was placed, the two
bulldogs4 kept looking at him all the time.
men were new; their passage had been very rough, and the master had to
put his vessel right under the heaviest guns that are ever worked on
ship-board. It is evident that but for the presence of a master mind on
board of that vessel, success could not have been achieved. Capt.
Worden, no doubt, acquitted himself in the most masterfully manner. But
everything was quite new. He felt quite nervous before he went on board.
The fact that the bulwark of the vessel was but one foot above the
water-line was enough to make him so. When I was before the Naval
Committee, the grand objection was that in sea-way the vessel would not
work. I gave it as my opinion that it would prove the most easy working
in sea way, and it is an excellent sea boat. The men are supplied with
fresh air, though there is no opening except through the turret, by
means of blowers worked by the engines, and they are perfectly
comfortable. They can remain on the top of the turret in the sea way; it
is sixty-four feet in circumference—quite a promenade. Though the deck
is but a foot above the water-line, the top of the turret is nine feet
above it; and here is the important point, that the vessel is in the sea
way perhaps the safest vessel ever built. It takes 670,000 pounds to
bring her down. There can be no danger of her swamping. It is very much
like a bottle with a cork in it.
relation to the points whether the Monitor is capable of taking
care of the Merrimac, let me say that she would have sunk the Merrimac
but for the fact of her having fired too high. If they had kept off at a
distance of 200 yards, and held the gun exactly level, the shot would
have gone clear through. But Mr. Stimers had the guns elevated a little,
and the roof of the Merrimac is so strong that the balls
rebounded. Next time they will encounter the Merrimac they will
leave the guns level, and they won’t mind if the ball
strikes the water, because the ricochet will take it where they
want it. The next time they go out, I predict the third round will sink
the Merrimac. There is another great point. They had 50
wrought-iron shot which were not used. Capt. Dahlgren issued peremptory
orders that they should not be used, and they obeyed those orders. Now,
wrought-iron shot is one thing, and cast-iron shot is another. A
wrought-iron shot cannot break. The side armor of the Merrimac is
insufficient to resist it. The channel is very narrow, and the Merrimac
must follow it. But the Monitor can go anywhere and take the very
Member—“How often can they fire?”
Ericsson—“In about one minute and a half. It is often said one gun
would be sufficient, but it is not so. By having two guns you have time
for one to cool. You may depend upon it is the Merrimac comes out
again she will be sunk.”
Member—“I would like to ask Capt. Ericsson whether his battery could
not be erected on various points in our harbor for its defense.”
Ericsson—“I imagine that the best kind of harbor defense is a
floating structure that can be moved from place to place.”
Member—“You can move this turret in any direction, and save all the
expense of your vessel, and you require only a small steam engine.”
Ericsson—“This vessel is equal to twenty forts. It can move from
place to place. In this battery you have a vessel that draws only twelve
feet of water. The Warrior, drawing thirty-four feet of water,
must come in the middle of the channel, and we could move along the
shore. By means of one single floating battery you could defend the
harbor better than by twenty forts. That is easily demonstrated.”
INTERNAL TAX BILL.
internal tax bill reported by the ways and means committee of the House
contains 109 sections, and would fill ten columns of The Caledonian.
It will be much discussed and perhaps altered before its passage; for in
the lack of financial wisdom and of full statistical information, the
committee has adjusted the burdens very unequally in some respects. It
has omitted to tax slaves, which could be made to bear $5 per head, and
it levies far too little on liquors and cigars, those indulgences which
men will have at almost any cost. Cotton, too, whose kingly assumptions
have brought on this war, is permitted to escape.
MARCH 22, 1862
BOSTON DAILY ADVERTISER
AT ISLAND NO. 10.
Louis, March 21.—A special dispatch to the Republican dated
“Island No. 10, March 20,” says the cannonading by the gunboats and
mortars continued through Wednesday. All the guns in the upper battery,
except one on the Tennessee shore, have been silenced, and one gun on
the island dismounted. Shells were constantly falling in the rebel camp
and batteries, and numbers have been killed and wounded, the later being
carried away on litters. A large number of loaded wagons are leaving the
Tennessee shore, from which it is believed that preparations are being
made for evacuation of the works. The floating rebel battery has been
moved nearer the head of the island.
Pope allowed a rebel gunboat to approach within 50 yards of a masked
battery on Tuesday and then sunk her, killing 15 of her crew. He had
previously allowed 5 rebel steamers to pass on towards New Madrid, and
they are now between his batteries,
unable to escape. Over a dozen vessels, together with a
floating battery and ram, are now above Gen. Pope’s batteries,
and all will be captured or sunk.
Bendell, one of the oldest citizens of Memphis, arrived last night. He
reports that there are but three rebel regiments between New Madrid and
Memphis, and they are stationed at Fort Pillow. The rebel government is
manufacturing pikes at Memphis for new levies, but less than 100 men
have responded to the call of the Governor. The railroads terminating at
Memphis are being connected so as to send all the rolling stock down the
New Orleans road when necessary.
correspondent, who left Island No. 10 yesterday noon, says the firing is
only moderate from the Benton and Mound City at intervals
of 15 minutes each, the object being to reduce the upper battery. Five
guns were dismounted, and 2 only are left from which occasional shots
are fired. Some of them came very near our boats. The works on both the
main land and the Island are far more extensive that was generally
supposed. There are at least 80 guns, many of them of the largest size,
several of them rifled, and 20,000 troops. The correspondent says he saw
at one time ten regiments on dress parade on the main land. Their
quarters are out of reach of the mortars. The Island is pretty well
covered with tents. Our shells reach all parts of the works on the
Island. It is evident that all the rebel batteries have bomb proof
casemates, as the men can be seen to disappear when a shell falls into
the batteries. As son as the upper fort is reduced the gunboats will
advance and take the others in detail.5 On Tuesday night the
Mound City kept up steady
fire upon the upper fort, preventing the rebels from making their usual
nightly salutes. The result was that early in the morning they commenced
removing the dead and wounded from the casemates of the fort. A large
number were carried out and taken back into the woods. On
Monday 900 shot were fired from the gunboats, mostly shells, besides 300
shells from the mortars. On Tuesday Commodore Foote directed the fuses
to be wet, with a view to destroy the works and dismount the guns. The
result was satisfactory. As yet but one man has been killed by the
March 21.—A special dispatch from Cairo to the Journal says
that a moderate fire was kept up by the fleet on Island No. 10 on
Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday. The gunboat Minnesota dismounted
a 128-pounder gun on the enemy’s upper battery. Some rebel gunboats
tried to force their way up yesterday morning, but had to return. Gen.
Pope had 22 guns mounted at Mount Pleasant, and has erected a new
battery 4 miles below.
England and France.—The Richmond Examiner has a pleasant
paragraph, in which, referring to a proposition to offer the whole
cotton crop for sale abroad, it says:
discussion in secret session took a very different direction from what
was primarily intended, it being moved that our present embassies to
Europe should be recalled, and that our diplomatic relations with
England and France should be terminated for the present. This
proposition has been renewed in open session of Congress, and is
understood to be chiefly intended as an exhibition of spirit and
resentment at the shuffling and selfish policy, especially of the
English government, on the question of our recognition.”
would be hugely amusing to see England and France “cut” by the
following is said to be part of a letter from a Louisiana Major to his
sister in New Orleans, picked up after the battle at Pea Ridge,
Sister Carrie: You asked me in your last letter what I thought of the
prospect of our dearly beloved cause. To be candid, I have little hope
for its success now, though last December I felt confident we would be
recognized before the coming June. I don’t like the Yankee a bit; I
have been educated to hate them, and I do hate them heartily; but I must
acknowledge the South has been sadly mistaken in their character. We
have always believed that the Yankees would not fight for anything like
a principle; that they had no chivalry, no poetry in their nature.
Perhaps they have not; but that they are brave, determined, persevering,
they have proved beyond question.
trouble with them is that they never get tired of anything. They lost
all the battles at first, and after Manassas we despised them. This year
has inaugurated a new order of affairs. We are beaten at all points. We
do nothing but surrender and evacuate; and while I hate the Lincolnites
more than ever, I respect them—I can’t help it—for their dogged
obstinacy, and the slow but steady manner in which they carry out their
have lost heart in our cause. There is something wrong somewhere. Jeff
Davis and our political leaders are either knaves or fools. They drew us
into our present difficulties, and now have no way of showing us out of
the South had known what would have been the result of Secession, no
State, unless South Carolina, would have gone out of the Union. We all
thought we could go out in peace; I know I did, and laughed at the idea
of the North attempting to keep us in the Union by force of arms.”
“Knight of the Green Bag” was a travelling salesman, as per this
definition from The Christian Spectator for March 1826, p. 134: “A
class of people that I frequently meet with in my excursions . . . are
travellers technically so called. They are either traders,
manufacturers, or their agents. Their business is to go about the
country and solicit orders for goods. . . . They are ascertained by the
green bags they carry, in which are their samples. From this
circumstance they bear the title Knights of the Green Bag.”
This report was in error, and was retracted the following day.
The brigadier was almost right. Union forces would be in New Orleans on
26 April 1862—but it would be the U.S. Navy, coming up from the Gulf,
and not the Federal army.
“Bulldogs” was slang for a ship’s big guns—because of their bark
(and their bite!)
“in detail” means “one by one.”
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