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SUNDAY
JULY 6
, 1862
THE MOBILE ADVERTISER AND REGISTER (AL)

The Writhings of the Boa Constrictor.

Not many months ago the army of the North was likened by their own prophets to a boa constrictor tightening its folds around our country. The figure was a very pretty piece of Northern rhetoric, and it took so rapidly that one might have supposed, as the Yankees shouted paeans and hallelujahs to the Grand Army Reptile, with seven hundred and fifty thousand joints in his vertebral column, that among all the extravagances of the land of spirit-rapping, free-love, atheism, &c., the old serpent worship was revived. Not content with panegyrics and hymns of praise to the boa constrictor and his priests, the people were making enormous sacrifices upon the altar of this newly discovered god, that was to crush and devour the South, and were whetting its appetite with the rich ablutions of their silver and their gold, their brass and their iron, their brothers and children, their rights and their liberties. And so rapidly did he sweep them in his insatiate maw, that it seemed likely he was about to devour his own worshippers first.

Behold the boa constrictor now! Like the stroke from the axe of some sturdy yeoman upon the reptile which he encounters in his woodland path, have the blows of Lee and Jackson fallen upon the monster; and now his dissevered parts lie bleeding and writhing all over the Confederacy. The tail has begun its twistings at James’ Island; we shall soon hear of the convulsions of the head at Washington, and of the vilest joint of all at New Orleans. But the mangled fragments can never squirm themselves together into a living whole.

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A Faithful Servant.—We give an incident regarding a faithful servant at the battle of Chickahominy. When Gen Rhodes’ brigade had driven the enemy from their redoubts and had captured the guns, the general was wounded in the arm, but would not leave the field or make known his injury to the troops. Becoming weak, he espied an Arkansas Negro, named Archie, manfully fighting behind his master, and ordered him to bring him water from a distant well. Mounting a horse, Archie dashed off to the well under a shower of shot, and soon returned. The regiment to which he was attached (12th Mississippi) was soon afterwards ordered to occupy one of the captured redoubts, and to hold it at all hazards. Some of the companies being in want of ammunition, Archie again volunteered his services, and under a murderous fire went fully one mile to the rear and returned to the redoubts loaded down with haversacks filled with cartridges! This noble deed was witnessed by the whole brigade, and was applauded with hearty cheers.—Charleston Courier.

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“We Ought to Have Had a Navy.”—In conversation with some of the prisoners who arrived on Saturday, a citizen, addressing an officer, remarked, “If we’d have had a Navy, this war would have ended six months ago.” The officer, with an emphasis that indicated earnestness, replied, “I wish to God you had had a navy, then, six months ago!” Nearly all of the prisoners seem to entertain similar sentiments as to the folly of carrying on the war.—Richmond Enquirer.

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“Please Exchange.”—The Richmond Examiner says the pickets of both armies on the opposite ends of Meadow Bridge frequently exchange papers in the following manner: The Confederate picket, divested of his arms, walks to the centre of the bridge and drops a paper, and sometimes some tobacco, to be exchanged for a Northern paper, and the equivalent of the tobacco in coffee. He retires, and the Federal picket advances, also without arms, and makes the honorable exchange. The papers are then carried to headquarters.

Incidents of the Battle.1

We copy the following incidents from the Dispatch, of Monday:

MONEY WAS FOUND

quite abundantly among the slain. Some men, in interring the dead, often searched the pockets, &c., one man finding not less than $150 in gold; another fished out of some old clothes not less than $500; another $1,000 in Federal notes. Watches, both gold and silver, were found among the spoils, one lucky individual having not less than six chronometers ticking in his pocket at one time. As a general thing, more money was found upon the dead of the field than on any other of which we have heard.

CLOTHING IN ABUNDANCE

was scattered about, and immense piles of new uniforms were found untouched. Our men seemed to take great delight in assuming Federal officers’ uniforms, and strutted about serio-comically, much to the amusement of [the] dusty, powder-begrimed youths, who sat lolling and smoking in the shade. Every conceivable article of clothing was found in these Divisional Camps, and came quite apropos to our needy soldiery, scores of whom took a cool bath, and exchanged old for new underclothing, many articles being of costly material and quite unique.

THE AMOUNT OF AMMUNITION FOUND

was considerable, and proved of very superior quality and manufacture. The exact amount captured we have not yet ascertained, but from the immense piles f boxes scattered through the camps, we conjecture that the enemy had laid in quite an unusual supply, expecting to use it, doubtless, upon our devoted men, and so they would, did our troops stand, as they do, at “long taw,” and not come to “close quarters.”2

“ON TO RICHMOND.”

Gen. Reynolds, of Illinois, captured on the battlefield of Friday, and brought to this city on Saturday, met an officer in the Confederate service, with whom in “old times” he had been a bon compagnon. In that pleasant conversation which ensued, the Confederate officer said, “Well, General, you have got to Richmond at last.” “Just as I predicted,” replied the General. “When do you suppose McClellan will be here?” [earnestly] asked the Confederate officer. “I wouldn’t be surprised to hear of his arrival tonight,” responded the General with a smile, with an interesting spark of bitterness.—Richmond Enquirer.

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The Bucktails Played Out.—The regiment of Bucktail Rifles, of Fremont’s command, whose watchword was, “We never Surrender!” adorned the street on yesterday, with their bucktail plumes, on their way to the Confederate State prison. Nearly every one of them was either killed or captured.—Richmond Enquirer.

MONDAY
JULY 7, 1862
PORTLAND DAILY ADVERTISER (ME)

The Battles.

The battle at Mechanicsville on Thursday, June 26th, was chiefly an artillery battle—about thirty or forty pieces on a side. The battle commenced at 3 o’clock in the afternoon and lasted until 9 o’clock. The rebels endeavored to break our centre and next to turn our left; but were signally repulsed in each instance. On our side Reynold’s brigade of Gen. McClellan’s division were chiefly engaged; the rebels were under the personal direction of General-in-Chief Lee himself. Our loss was slight, as our troops were well protected, but the loss of the enemy must have been quite heavy.

At 3 o’clock on Friday morning, our forces began to fall back, the infantry in the rifle-pits at Mechanicsville not leaving, however, till 7 o’clock A.M. The falling back was executed in the best of order. When our line was formed, it extended north and south about two miles, and some eight miles from where the battle was fought the day before. Gen. Porter was in command, and his force consisted of three divisions, McCall’s, Morrell’s, Sykes’, and Cook’s cavalry brigade, in all about 28,000. He had twelve batteries, numbering 62 guns. The forces of the enemy numbered some 50,000 or 60,000, with about 80 pieces of artillery. Though the enemy were early on the move the battle did not begin till 1 o’clock P.M. It lasted six hours. At 3 o’clock the action had become general. Three times “Stonewall” Jackson threw his column against our right, endeavoring to outflank, but each time he was repulsed with terrible slaughter, being himself killed.3 The rebels now gave up the fight on our right, and threw nearly their whole force upon our centre, where the battle raged incessantly for nearly two hours. The columns surged backward and forward, first one and then the other yielding. The enemy was at last beaten back by the arrival of all our reserves. Here probably occurred the most desperate fighting of the day, and here our losses were the greatest. Failing to force our center, the enemy retired. Receiving reinforcements he deliberately fell upon our left, with the design of separating our forces from the Chickahominy and from McClellan on the south bank. The battle on our left raged furiously for about an hour and a half. The 2d Maine took a most gallant part in it. Being overwhelmed by numbers, the left at last gave way. The centre and right also fell back, leaving several batteries, whose horses had been killed, so exposed, that we lost 18 guns. Some confusion ensued. Gen. Porter gave the order to retreat and cross the Chickahominy. The arrival of Slocum’s, French’s, and Meagher’s brigade[s] from the west side of the Chickahominy immediately restored order. They covered the retreat. Anotehr line was formed one-half mile back. The enemy endeavored to follow up his advantage, but was repulsed with terrible slaughter, probably losing more at this time than during any other part of the battle. Our forces did not cross the Chickahominy till Saturday morning, when they crossed in admirable order, all the stores being saved, and the bridges burned. Several hundred of our wounded were left in the hands of the enemy. The loss was very heavy upon both sides. Such briefly told was the battle of Gaines’ Mill.

But much work was yet to be done to save the army. James River must be reached—perhaps only by seven or eight miles of hard fighting through White Oak Swamp and between the swamp and the James. Between the river and the swamp are three main thoroughfares leading from Richmond. Down these roads the rebels could precipitate their forces rapidly—more rapidly than we could move, as they would have no baggage. Gen. McClellan had determined to withdraw his lines and reach the James River at Turkey Bend, seventeen miles from Richmond. No one knew what obstacles there might be south of White Oak Swamp.

The army began to move on Saturday, slowly and in order, carrying along nearly all its stores and ammunition. What could not be taken was destroyed. A portion of the rebels having gone down to White House, and finding themselves fooled there—finding that Gen. Porter was on the south side of the Chickahominy—returned, built bridges and crossed over. Keyes was leading our advance to wards the James River, feeling his way slowly; Porter was bringing up his troops in the rear. Sunday was wearing away. The rebels became elated as they pressed upon our rear. Smith’s and Sedgewick’s divisions fell back to Savage’s Station. Here was an open field of several hundred acres, with woods upon three sides, and a road leading into it through the forest. Two guns were planted facing the entrance. Twelve brass Napoleons were planted so they could not be seen by the approaching enemy, while our troops were concealed in the timber. On came the rebels to capture the two pieces. They poured into the open field, when the twelve Napoleons opened on them, and they received a volley from a thousand muskets. They were completely routed and beaten back. They could not rally. Their loss is put at 1500, in this contest of thirty minutes. Our loss was not more than one hundred. Such was the battle of Sunday.

But the enemy was as determined as ever. Monday afternoon the head of Keyes’ division had reached Hardin’s landing on the James. He had thus opened the way. Behind him came the baggage and commissary trains, down the roads from Richmond, and on the road leading back to White Oak Swamp, Smith protected the right flank (as you stand facing Richmond). Next on the left was Sumner’s division, and farthest to the left were Heintzelman’s two divisions, who commanded the column by seniority. Kearney, Hooker, Slocum and McCall were held in reserve. Thus was the stand made to protect the transportation till it reached the river. The enemy came in clouds from Richmond—from all directions. The fight opened with artillery at about 2 o’clock P.M., the enemy attacking Sumner’s corps. Here the battle raged till 6 o’clock; the enemy was effectually repulsed with enormous loss. Meanwhile the enemy made an assault upon Smith, but were immediately driven back. But the severest portion of the fight was reserved for Heintzelman. In that portion of the field the battle raged most fiercely all afternoon. Gen. H. fell back one half a mile for a better position. The day seemed going against him. The gunboats opened upon the rebels at about 4 o’clock. At about 6 o’clock McCall’s reserves were brought up. They were overwhelmed by the enemy, McCall falling at the head of his column. Randall’s battery was lost. Then came aid from Sumner. Four additional batteries were brought up. Heintzelman rallied his men for one more desperate charge, before which the columns of the enemy fell back in confusion. We captured twelve pieces of artillery and two or three thousand prisoners. The battle was ended.

The army had reached its new base of operations, which is nearer Richmond than White House, the former base. Looking over the whole field, well may we claim a great military achievement. Gen. McClellan’s army now lies along the James River, his right wing, which was about twenty miles north of Richmond, now resting at Charles City, the left at Turkey Bend. The army is in fine, healthy country. Roads good for artillery.

Thus we have endeavored to give a brief account of the change of bases. Of the battle on Thursday we have not the particulars. We only know from Gen. McClellan that the rebels were badly beaten.

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The Rebel Account of the Late Battle.

New York, July 6.—The Tribune’s special dispatch from Memphis of the 5th states, [and] Richmond dispatches to July 1st and 2d still claim that the rebels captured eight Generals, 12,000 prisoners, all of McClellan’s siege guns, [and] supplies enough for the rebel army for three months. They represent the battle of July 1st as the most fearful and desperate of the entire war.

Latest dispatches state there were conflicting reports about the battles, and that it was impossible to get official information precise; the situation of the Yankee army is not known. Prisoners were arriving in Richmond all day on the 2d. It is claimed that Hooker and Sumner were wounded and Sumner captured. Latest reports less exultant.

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Manufacture of Arms.—The United States armory at Springfield is now manufacturing rifled muskets at the unprecedented rate of six hundred per day. The product of the month of June will be thirteen thousand five hundred, being the greatest monthly product yet; and it is designed to increase even upon that number, turning out fifteen thousand muskets in July, and twenty thousand in August. During the year ending June 30, 1862, the number of muskets made at the armory was one hundred and two thousand; but in the ensuing year that number will be considerably more than doubled, it is calculated, “if the tackling holds good.”

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Defense of Canada.—A military commission is now on a tour through Upper Canada. The Toronto Globe says: “The object of the commission, we understand, is a general examination of the frontier, with a view of reporting upon the most effective means of defending the Province. This includes an inspection of the harbors and of positions which may hereafter be converted into harbors. The commissioners are on their way from the West, where they have made a general inspection, visiting Lakes Erie and Huron.”

TUESDAY
JULY 8, 1862
LOWELL DAILY CITIZEN & NEWS (MA)

Foreign Advices.—The Europa, at St. Johns, brings some later news from Europe. The English and French journals are occupied with speculations about American affairs. The London Times is convinced that the spring campaign must have ended by the middle of June, when both parties must take breath until fall. The Herald says the maintenance of the Union would be a calamity both to America and Europe, but most of all to the North; it also calls for intervention. It is now stated that reinforcements will not be sent to the French army in Mexico until another mail has been received, and then, unless the army seems to be in danger, not until after the hot season. In the Chamber of Deputies, M. Jules Favre spoke in favor of treating with Mexico and withdrawing the forces. The recognition of Italy has been officially made. The government monopoly of salt in Russia has been abolished.

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View of a Conservative.—The New York Commercial Advertiser, which has heretofore advocated a conservative policy, has some very sensible remarks on the present position of the army of the  peninsula, calling for more energetic action on the part of the government, as follows:

There can be no doubt that the army of the Potomac has, up to last week, been less successful than was generally hoped for, and that the task of placing it in better position was accompanied with great hardship and peril. It is now clearer than ever that this colossal rebellion is to be put down ONLY BY THE SWORD. Not by diplomacy, not by the exhibition of forbearance toward the erring, not by a declaration of a purpose to resist it, not by a display of force avowedly with that intent, but by loaded cannon and sharpened sabres, used without stint or hesitation. The president himself, with all his disposition to hurt his rebel countrymen as little as possible, must now see that all such forbearance is worse than useless, that it is destructive of human life and perilous to that holy cause which we sincerely believe no man has more thoroughly at heart than himself.

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From the Peninsula.—The New York Post has a letter confirming the reported skirmish on Thursday and the capture of six guns and some prisoners. General McClellan had removed his headquarters, and his army had advanced some five miles toward Richmond.

A correspondent in the Philadelphia Inquirer states that the Richmond papers of the 4th acknowledge a loss of 30,000 men, though they claim a victory.

The correspondent of the Philadelphia Press, writing under the same date, reports that General McClellan is pushing rapidly forward, driving the enemy at all points, the gunboats accompanying the advance, shelling the woods and scattering the enemy. His (McClellan’s) main force are following in support.

The Tribune’s correspondent reports that he saw General McClellan on Wednesday. He (McClellan) came on board the mail boat as she reached Harrison’s Landing, and hurriedly passed into the cabin with General Patterson, who came up in the boat. In reply to General Patterson, General McClellan said: “We have fought a battle every day for a week, and whipped the rebels every time, though they had three to our one.”

At noon, Thursday, the rebels appeared in force cour miles from General McClellan’s front, and began shelling, but had no effect. The gunboats replied, but nothing important occurred.

Something “Brewing.”—The New Orleans correspondent of a Mississippi secesh journal talks mysteriously of an uprising in the Crescent city. The writer says, “the confederate regiment which disbanded have their arms stowed away securely, and about 3000 of our best Louisiana boys have returned to the city and joined the ‘getting up,’ which will give us 8000 men to do what I don’t think I ought to tell you at present.’ ”

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From Vicksburg.—A Memphis dispatch of the 6th gives the following paragraphs:

The ram Lioness has arrived from Vicksburg, with advices to the 2d. The canal across the point of land opposite Vicksburg was nearly complete. Negro workmen had been collected from the various plantations in the vicinity; in all cases government receipts had been given to them; several thousand were engaged. It is supposed that when the ditch is finished the river will cut a wide channel during high water, and forever leave Vicksburg an island city.

The bombardment was kept up at regular intervals from both fleets, Commander Davis having arrived.

The rebel batteries were still replying occasionally. It was believed that the rebel works would be stormed on the 4th.

There is every reason to believe that the city has already fallen. The city is said to be not so badly damaged as was first stated. All noncombatants were previously removed. The rebel force is said to be 16,000 strong. A story reached the fleet that several hundred rebels had been killed by explosion of shells.

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The means of intercommunion are so wonderfully perfected that for practical purposes the earth is not one-twentieth part as big as when it was created. Its diameter is the same, its circumference is the same, the number of leagues ad miles between its latitude and longitudes is the same; but the traveller does not find the journey so long. The facility of travelling is such that the world is not much bigger now than a country used to be. Do you suppose the diminution of time, which amounts to the diminution of space, does not have the practical effect to make every particular standpoint an influence that reaches further on? New York can now reach the Sandwich Islands. Before your words get cold your tidings can be carried there. This continent could preach to Europe, if it had anything to say to the people there. A man can stand on any point on the globe, and almost before his words are out of his mouth they are winging their way around the world. Our missionary books and papers go everywhere. All the moral influences by which we wish to stir up the world are transmitted with a facility never before known.

WEDNESDAY
JULY 9, 1862
THE CONSTITUTION (CT)

MORE TROOPS.

The Governors of eighteen States united in asking the President to call into the field an additional force of three hundred thousand troops. The President in reply states that he has decided to do so, and requests that they may be enrolled without delay. Such a movement on the part of the State Governors and of the President indicates an inflexible purpose to subdue the rebellion in as speedy and effectual a manner as possible. Each state will readily furnish its quota, and there will soon be an army in the field such as must defy all resistance.

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A Thrilling Romance.—The case of private Scott, killed in the fight near Lee’s Mills, on the 16th, is thus narrated by the correspondent of the Philadelphia Inquirer:4

Never until we stood by the grave of the Green Mountain boy did we realize how much stranger is truth than fiction. Your readers will all recollect that last summer a private was court-martialed for sleeping on his post, out near Chain Bridge, on the Upper Potomac. He was convicted; his sentence was death; the finding was approved by the General, and the day fixed for his execution. He was a youth of more than ordinary intelligence; he did not beg for pardon, but was willing to meet his fate. The time drew near; the stern necessity of war required that an example should be made of some one; his was an aggravated case. But the case reached the ears of the President; he resolved to save him; he signed a pardon and sent it out; the day came. “Suppose,” thought the President, “my pardon has not reached him.” The telegraph was called into requisition; an answer did not come promptly. “Bring up my carriage,” he ordered. It came, and soon the important papers were dropped, and, through the hot broiling sun and dusty roads, he rode to the camp, about ten miles, and saw that the soldier was saved. He has doubtless forgotten the incident, but the soldier did not. When the 3d Vermont charged upon the rifle pits, the enemy poured a volley upon them. The first man who fell, with six bullets in his body, was Wm. Scott of Company K. His comrades caught him up, and, as his life ebbed away, he raised to heaven, amid the din of war, the cries of the dying, and the shouts of the enemy, a prayer for the President; and as he died, he remarked to his comrade that he had shown he was no coward and not afraid to die.

He was interred, in the presence of his regiment, in a little grove about two miles to the rear of the rebel fort, in the center of a group of holly and vines; a few cherry trees, in full bloom, are scattered around the edge. In digging his grave, a skull and bones were found, and metal buttons showing that the identical spot had been used in the revolutionary war for our fathers who fell in the same cause. The chaplain narrated the circumstances to the boys, who stood around with uncovered heads. He prayed for the President, and paid the most glowing tribute to his noble heart that we ever heard. The tears started in their eyes as the clods of earth were thrown upon him in his narrow grave, where he lay shrouded in his coat and blanket.

The men separated; in a few minutes all were engaged in something around the camp, as though nothing unusual had happened; but that scene will live upon their memories while life lasts: the calm look of Scott’s face, the seeming look of satisfaction he felt, still lingered; and could the President have seen him, he would have felt that his act of mercy had been wisely bestowed.

General Hunter has written a racy letter to the war department about the organization of his Negro regiment. His statements are clear as a sunbeam and his style of writing is exceedingly rich. He says there are no fugitive slaves in his regiment, but that it is composed of the servants of “fugitive rebels.” The instructions he has acted under are of a general nature, but sufficient to authorize the course he has pursued. General Hunter speaks positively in favor of the military qualities of the Negro soldier, and the demands which will be made upon our armies at the south make his testimony of great importance. Loyal blacks are freely employed in the naval service.5 Goldsborough and Farragut have both ordered that they be employed. If they can be employed to advantage at sea, there can scarcely be ay valid objection to make use of their services on land, especially in such positions where the climate renders it unsafe for white men.

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A story of an enterprising newsboy is told by a Detroit paper. He took the telegraphic headings of the news of the Tennessee battle, and, at his own expense, had them telegraphed to Port Huron and the various places along the railroad route. On the receipt of such news everybody was stirred up and eager to get the full particulars. As the evening train arrived at the various stations he found crowds anxiously awaiting him, and everybody calling for the papers. At port Huron a meeting was in progress at the church, and the choir was singing as the whistle sounded the approach of the train. The meeting at once broke up, the congregation dispersed to read the news, and in a few moments every paper had been disposed of.

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Bear-Baiting in Vermont.—A young Vermonter, who owned a pet black bear, was bantered recently by a couple of young sportsmen from Boston, who had gone up to the wilds of the Green Mountain State for a hunt, to let them try their dogs—three rather powerful creatures—upon his pet, he (the bear) to be kept chained to a post by a chain about twelve feet long. The Vermont boy, unable to resist the appeal of five new and bright dollars, and having faith in his pet, agreed to the trial. The result was three dead dogs, two mortified Bostonians, one triumphant bear and a jubilant Vermont juvenile.

THURSDAY
JULY 10,
1862
THE ST. ALBANS DAILY MESSENGER (VT)

The Conflict Before Richmond.

We surrender up this week a large portion of our available space to the details of the sanguinary struggle near Richmond. Our army has not met with anything like the disaster which the first reports indicated, and why it was that the news was suppressed for a while by the Government it is difficult to tell. For several days before McClellan was attacked he had determined upon changing his base of operations from White House, on the Pamunkey River, to some point on the James River, thus enabling the army and the gunboats to co-operate on the attack on Richmond. For nearly a week our men fought against overpowering numbers, and though compelled to fall back, have fought bravely, repulsing the enemy, from time to time, with great slaughter, nowhere permitting [their] flank to be turned or [their] front to be broken. Retiring by a dangerous and difficult night march, through forests and swamps, exposed to constant attack, harassed by an enemy hovering about them and constantly re-enforced by innumerable and fresh troops, our brave soldiers made their way through almost inconceivable difficulties to the point aimed at on the James River, at Turkey [Bend.] From this point they have fallen back to one, it is to be presumed, more defensible, and where they can count with more certainty upon the aid of the fleet.

The loss on both sides during the several days’ fighting is necessarily large. Our entire losses in killed, wounded and missing are variously estimated at from twelve thousand to twenty thousand. The rebel loss is put down at thirty thousand. Some of our regiments suffered terribly, while others met with a small loss either in killed or wounded.

On the Fourth another battle took place when the rebels met with a severe defeat, losing one thousand men taken prisoners and four batteries. Gen. McClellan moved his headquarters six miles towards Richmond. We shall undoubtedly receive further news before going to press which will be found in its proper place.

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Gambling in the Army.

In passing through Hooker’s division this morning, I saw something deeply mortifying. A hundred men were publicly gambling away their hard earnings, while officers passing to and fro did not venture a word of remonstrance. Soldiers will indulge in petty games, in their tents, but the particular instance here referred to was something vastly different. It reminded me of the outside scenes at [the] race course or an aggravation of such scenes, if any thing.

A dozen men, disgracing the uniforms they wear, had spread their bivouacs on the ground and made temporary faro tables and sweatboards, while their foolish companions were being swindled out of their money. All this while the enemy’s cannon of war were thundering but a  mile off. Such disgraceful exhibitions ought to be checked—if it is desirable to preserve the morale of the army.

Yesterday I saw an officer of one of the New Jersey regiments, brought in by a corporal’s guard from the front so drunk that he could hardly stand. Drunkenness has become so frequent that a general order has been issued, stopping the issue of whisky rations. Liquor, moderately supplied, may be of no harm, but its total exclusion is deemed proper under existing circumstances.—Letter from McClellan’s Army to the N.Y. Express.

How Many Miles a Printer’s Hand Travels.—Although a printer may be sitting all day, yet in his own way he is a great traveller, (or at least his hand is) as we shall prove.

A good printer will set 8,000 ems a day, or about 24,000 letters. The distance travelled by his hand will average one foot per letter going to the boxes in which they are contained, and of course returning, making two feet for every letter he sets. This would make a distance each day of 48,000 feet or more than 9 miles, and in the course of one year, leaving out Sunday, the member travels about 3,000 miles. Truly, this is hand power.

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Lo! the Poor Soldier!—We met in the streets on Sunday a poor soldier from the wars, with one hand shot away, and, as he said, with six bullets in his person. One, which went into his mouth, was under his ear. Said he belonged to a Massachusetts regiment and received his wounds in the Winchester battle—enlisted in Boston, belongs in Eastport, in this State, and is on his way home. The poor fellow had no shirt, and the old blue coat and trousers, the former of which was riddled with balls, appeared to be his only clothing. He was a pitiable looking object truly. Is this the way wounded soldiers are sent home?—Hallowell Courier.

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A Queen of a Quarter of a Century.—Friday (June 20) completed the twenty-fifth year of the reign of Victoria, Queen of Great Britain. She is now in the prime of life, (being crowned at the early age of eighteen,) and has already reigned longer than most of her predecessors, but ten of whom wore the crown a quarter of a century, the longest reign being that of George III, who was King sixty years.

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The 9th Regiment.—This regiment is to be mustered into the U.S. service to-day, by Maj. W. Austine, U.S. Army. The regiment is armed with Austrian guns, which, it is said, are not as good as Enfield rifles. The men are provided with the best kind of food by Quarter-master Davis. The Rev. Lucius C. Dickinson of Cavendish has been appointed Chaplain. The regiment will leave for Annapolis the last of this or the first part of next week.

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With hay at a cent a pound and meal at the same price, the daily cost of keeping a horse will be twenty-eight cents, making $1.96 per week—equal to $101.92 a year.

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The number of horses in the world is estimated at about 27,000,000; of this number, the United States 5,000,000. The general estimate has been eight to ten horses in Europe for every hundred inhabitants.

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“What is the most solemn and awful moment of a naval battle?” asked a lady of a naval officer. “The moment before the battle commences, Madame, when they sprinkle sand on the decks to absorb the blood that is soon to flow,” was the reply of the officer.

FRIDAY
JULY 11, 1862
THE LIBERATOR (MA)

NORTHERN SYMPATHY WITH THE SLAVEHOLDERS’ REBELLION

There is strong evidence that the slaveholding conspirators against the liberties of the American people had expected essential aid from a certain class at the North; but the overwhelming uprising of freemen around the ensign of the republic drove the northern accomplices of the Southern despots into hiding-places, to escape the wrath of an indignant people. Whether the meeting got up in New York, on Tuesday evening, was composed mainly of such traitors, in disguise, we cannot say; but it is pretty evident that the doings of that meeting were such as men of secession tendencies would naturally engage in. The bloody rebellion at the South was set on foot in order to uphold slavery and despotism; therefore all who sympathized with that movement would exhibit the characteristics of Southern haters of popular freedom. Those characteristics, we all know, are a desire to trample anti-slavery men under foot; suppress freedom of speech; uphold the system of compelling men to work without wages; and protect “slave property” in every possible way. At the North, such men must of course profess to be Union men; but by their fruits shall ye know them. In the meeting referred to, it was proposed to hang Charles Sumner! as well as Jeff. Davis. So Brooks of South Carolina thought when he made his brutal assault on the beloved Massachusetts Senator on the floor of the Capitol. Fernando Wood is reported to have proposed the characteristic slaveholding measure of breaking up Congress by force! and that, too, of enacting that the rebels’ property shall be used towards paying the expenses of this war. But enough said; the people understand such men, and will mark them.

 

An Army Officer on Abolitionism.—The following is an extract from a private letter written by an officer of the regular army, holding a high position on the staff of General McClellan, dated June 17, 1862:

I have been told that confessions are good for the soul. I am gong to make one to you. I am at last an abolitionist! Not that I love the Negro, or am prepared to say, “Art thou not a man and a brother!” but I do love my country and the white race. My old prejudices and political feelings have been wiped out one by one, slowly but surely. I could not pass through all that I have witnessed during the last year, and not see what every honest and candid man should, that an institution that can so change a whole people in their feelings and actions toward their fellow countrymen and their country must be wrong, and the sooner it is done away with the better.

You, like myself, have no doubt in times past had a high idea of Southern chivalry. Like many other things down South, I find even that boasted institution a humbug. Among all the Southern officers whom I have met and been brought in contact with, I have found scarcely one that was even the peer of a Northern mechanic. I could tell you of deeds of barbarism perpetrated by these knights of the South that would make you shudder. A day or two since, I was told by an aid of General Keyes that one of our officers was found dead with both his ears cut off. This is one of a hundred cases of their cruelty. Yesterday two sutlers were found in the woods hanging by the neck, and some teamsters with their throats cut.

Names of the Recent Battles.—The following are the names which it seems have been assigned to the recent battles in front of Richmond:

Thursday, June 26—Battle of Mechanicsville.
Friday, June 27—Battle of Gaines’ Mill.
Saturday, June 28—Battle of Chickahominy.
Sunday, June 29—Battle of Peach Orchard; Battle of Savage’s Station.
Monday, June 30—Battle of White Oak Swamp; Battle of White Oak Creek; Battle of Charles City Crossroads.
Tuesday, July 1—Battle of Turkey Bend.6

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New York, July 6.—The Tribune’s special dispatch from Memphis, dated July 6th, states that Richmond dispatches to July 1st and 2d still claim that the rebels captured 12,000 prisoners, 8 Generals, all of General McClellan’s siege guns, and supplies enough for the rebel army for three months. They represent the battle of July 1st as the most fearful and desperate of the entire war. Prisoners were arriving in Richmond all day on the 2d. It is claimed that Hooker and Sumner were wounded, and that the latter was captured. The latest reports are less exultant.

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Important from the Massachusetts First.—A letter from the Massachusetts 1st, says the Transcript, written since the last battle on James river, states that the regiment has been reduced to about 175 men. Major Chandler is missing, Col. Cowdin is sick, and Capt. Baldwin is acting in command. Co. A has about 14 men. Major Chandler was last seen as Hooker’s Division was making the celebrated charge which it is believed saved our army.

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Fortress Monroe, July 5.—Fresh troops from Washington passed up James River yesterday; also artillery, horses, &c. There was a skirmish yesterday morning near our left wing, resulting in the defeat of the rebels. We took 1000 prisoners and three small batteries. Our cavalry then followed the rebels until they passed beyond White Oak Swamp.

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The Richmond Examiner, of July 2, acknowledges that the battle of Monday was very destructive to the rebels. It also states that of the 14,000 troops sent into the battle of Friday, not more than 6000 were fit for duty on the Tuesday following.

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The Haytian John Brown Fund.—This fund, which has been so long held back, is to be distributed forthwith. It amounts to something over $3,000, of which Mrs. Brown is to receive one-half, and the rest is to be distributed among the survivors or relatives of those who engaged in the raid on Harper’s Ferry. Mrs. Leary and Osborne Anderson are requested to send their addresses forthwith to James Redpath, Boston, and all relatives of John Brown’s men are also desired to do likewise. Messrs. B. C. Clarke, Haytian Consul for Boston; William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, Senator Sumner and James Redpath, are appointed by the Haytians as a Committee to disburse the fund.

 

SATURDAY
JULY 12,
1862
THE SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN (MA)

PROGRESS OF THE WAR.
ALONG THE MISSISSIPPI.

There have been several premature rumors of the capture of Vicksburg, but the contest there seems to be still going on. The rebel fortifications around the city are strong and well manned, the rebels having some 14,000 troops in and about the town. But it will undoubtedly be taken, as both Porter and Farragut are at work upon it with their usual energy, and Gen. Butler is at his characteristic strategy, and has set five thousand Negroes at work to cut a canal across the bend of the river, and give it a new channel, thus leaving Vicksburg an island town henceforth, which will be a just penalty for Contumacy. The Mississippi near Vicksburg bends in the shape of a U, Vicksburg being situated outside and near the end, so that the opposite shore makes a long point in front of the city, about two miles wide and several miles long. It was across this point that Ellet’s flotilla communicated with Farragut, without passing Vicksburg. If Gen. Butler’s canal succeeds and the river seeks the new channel, it will henceforth be famous as “Butler’s cut-off.” The rebels along the river below Vicksburg give our fleet some annoyance by erecting batteries on the bluffs, and the little town of Grand Gulf has been bombarded and destroyed because it sheltered one of these batteries. At Ellis’ Cliffs also a battery has opened on our passing vessels, doing some damage, until the rebels were effectually shelled out. These annoyances must be considered a matter of course until we win decisive victories and convince the rebels that they have nothing to gain by further resistance. In many of the towns along the river the people dread the visits of the rebel guerillas much more than those of our troops, and a visit of one of our gunboats to Bayou Sara lately found the people in earnest for protection under the old flag. Indeed, the fact that so few attacks are made on our vessels along the Mississippi and Tennessee rivers is evidence that the people who remain at home do not share the malignity of the rebel leaders.

THE SOUTHWEST.

There is an apparent suspension of active operations in the Southwest. Gen. Halleck’s army is widely scattered, and since the flower of Beauregard’s army went to Virginia, there seems to be no formidable rebel force anywhere in the Southwest. Gen. Buell and Gen. Mitchell’s divisions are at or near Huntsville, Ala., but their expected movement into East Tennessee is not yet made. The only recent fighting in this section ahs been a small battle at Booneville, Mo., in which the second Michigan cavalry met and defeated a much larger force of the enemy. Gen. Mitchell and Gen. Halleck are reported at Washington in consultation with the president. The chief force of the rebels at the Southwest seems to be at Tupelo, Miss., under Gen. Bragg, and is estimated at 40,000. They threaten to retake Corinth and march north, but Gen. Halleck seems to have no fear of such an attempt. A large number of Mississippi state troops have lately gone to Richmond, the determination having become general at the South to fight the thing out in Virginia to the neglect of the entire rebel line elsewhere. One of the most significant indications at the far South is the great number of refugees going up the Mississippi to escape the rebel conscription. The people everywhere in the Southwest are represented as suffering the greatest hardships, the rebel leaders not sparing their people in any degree in order to strengthen themselves. Gen. Curtis, who has been in a rather difficult position in northwestern Arkansas, surrounded by the enemy, has extricated himself by a forced march across the country towards the Mississippi, leaving Pike ad his Indians to be looked after by the Kansas brigade.

NAVAL MATTERS.

Capt. Wilkes, the hero of the Mason and Slidell affair, has been placed in command of the James river fleet, which is interpreted as meaning that the gunboats are no longer to lie idle,7 but are to attack the rebel batteries and clear the way to Richmond. The gallant Foote, the praying commodore, has also recovered his health so far as to be able to resume active duties, and is to be placed at the head of a new expedition, for which vessels are now fitting out, the object of which is for the present concealed. Our fleet in the waters of Georgia and South Carolina have been doing something in the way of dispersing the forces of the enemy along the rivers and inlets, and if the threatened attack should be made on Beaufort by the rebels, the gunboats will have an opportunity to do good service. A rebel nest at St. Marks, Florida, has lately been broken up by the fleet. Although the rebels have no fleet left, and the attempts of their British friends to furnish them have pretty much failed, our navy has by no means finished up its work. If the rebels continue hostilities after they shall be defeated in Virginia, and retire further into the interior, it will be essential to take and hold all their ports and so cut off the supplies from abroad, without which they would soon become powerless. The effort of the government to strengthen the navy is therefore the highest prudence, if there were no possibility of foreign intermeddling to make it essential to our defense.

CONGRESS.

Both branches have “hurried up” their work this week, contemplating an adjournment in a few days. A joint resolution has passed to furnish clothing to wounded soldiers, to replace that lost by the casualties of war. A resolution has passed to publish a full statement of contracts weekly in Washington papers. A bill has passed to carry into effect the treaty with Great Britain for the suppression of the African slave trade. The supplementary emancipation bill and general pension bills were passed. The two branches disagreed on confiscation, treasury note and tariff bills, but conference committees are at work harmonizing them. Sharp discussions have taken place on the proposed employment of Negroes in military service, and on McClellan’s strategic plan. A great deal of profitless and pointless talk is indulged in by congressmen, for “Buncombe,”8 and the close of the session will be felt with relief.

1 the battle” refers to the Seven Days’ Battles, which wound down the previous week at Malvern Hill.

2 “taw” is an archaic verb meaning to push or pull; here the phrase “long taw” translates as “long distance.”

3 Not true. Jackson continued to perform splendidly under Lee until 2 May 1863, when he was accidentally shot by Confederate pickets during the Battle of Chancellorsville; he died eight days later.

4 This story is entirely true. See www.grotonvt.com/AboutGroton/Groton%20Sleeping%20Sentinel.htm.

5 The U.S. Navy as well as merchant marine had always been multi-racial; this was nothing new for the sea services.

6 Today referred to as the Battle of Malvern Hill (which is at Turkey Bend in the James).

7 The gunboats had not been lying idle, but were busy saving the Army of the Potomac at Malvern Hill (as well as providing General McClellan a place to hide out during that battle, aboard USS Galena).

8 “buncombe” (or “bunkum” or “A lot of bunk”) means “an empty or pointless speech delivered to gain favor with voters.” The expression comes from an inane 1820 speech by Felix Walker, Congressman from North Carolina, who said he “felt obligated to give a dull speech for Buncombe”—the county he represented.

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