THE END of the REBELLION!
APRIL 9, 1865
THE NEW ORLEANS TIMES (LA)
Accounts of Fighting in North Carolina.
Richmond Enquirer of the 27th says the situation in North Carolina
becomes more and more interesting. With his army scarcely half
organized, Gen. Johnston has been able to resist the advance of the
enemy from the time he left the Cape Fear River. On three occasions he
has given Sherman a severe lesson in the art of war, while at Kinston he
was no less severely punished by Bragg.
battle of Bentonville was a triumph to our arms. On the 20th
the enemy was entrenched, and no fighting occurred. On the 21st,
there was heavy skirmishing and some severe fighting, in which the enemy
were badly handled. That night he moved off. Gen. Johnston maintains his
position, and will be ready to meet the enemy at all points.1
Carolinian of the 23d says: On the 21st, Gen.
Sherman again attacked Sherman in front and on the flank, and, after a
severe battle, drove him in confusion from the field, capturing a large
number of prisoners and artillery, and demoralizing the Federal army.
same paper states, authoritatively, that the commandants of prisons in
North Carolina have been ordered to prepare to receive 5000 prisoners.
the battle of Averysboro, on the 16th, our loss is set down
at 500, while that of the Yankees is put at 3800.2
Rebel Deserters During March.
March 21.–During March, 2600 deserters from Lee’s army arrived in
this city, to all of whom the oath of allegiance was administered.
During February only 1239 were received.
to Dress for a Photograph.
lady or gentleman, having made up her or his mind to be photographed,
naturally considers, in the first place, how to be dressed to show off
to the best advantage. This is by no means such an unimportant matter as
some might imagine. Let me offer a few words of advice touching dress.
Orange color, for certain optical reasons, is, photographically, black.
Blue is white; other shades or tones of color are proportionably darker
or lighter as they contain more or less of these colors. The progressive
scale of photographic commences with the lightest. The order stands
thus–white, light blue, violet, pink, mauve, dark blue, lemon, blue
green, leather-hound, drab, cerise, magenta, yellow-green, dark brown,
purple, red, amber, maroon, orange, dead-black.
has to be considered in connection with dress. Blondes can wear much
lighter colors than brunettes; the latter always present better pictures
in dark dresses, but neither look well in positive white. ->
contrasts of color should be specially guarded against. In photography,
brunettes possess a greater advantage over their fairer sisters. The
lovely golden tresses lose all their transparent brilliancy, and are
represented black; whilst the “bonnie blue eye” theme of rapture to
the poet, is misery to the photographer, for it is put entirely out. The
simplest and most effective way of removing the yellow color from the
hair is to powder it pearly white; it is thus brought to about the same
photographic tint as in nature. The same rule, of course, applies to
complexions. A freckle, quite invisible at a short distance is, on
account of its yellow color, rendered most painfully distinct when
photographed. The puff box must be called in to the assistance of art.
Here let me intrude one word of general advice. Blue, as we have seen,
is the most readily affected by light, and yellow the least; if,
therefore, you would keep your complexion clear and free from tan
freckles whilst taking your delightful rambles at the seaside, discard
by all means the blue veil, and substitute a dark green or yellow one in
its stead. Blue tulle offers no more obstruction to the action of the
actinic rays of the sun than white. Half a yard of yellow net, though
perhaps not very becoming, will be more efficacious and considerably
cheaper than a quart of kalydor.–All
the Year Round.3
“Time-ly Joke.”–It appears that some of our sailor
friends laugh even in the midst of war, and that iron-clads contain
within themselves vast powers of irony. “In witness whereof,” as the
Government notaries say, we append the following document:
in good order and condition by J. C. Hayes, on account and risk of whom
it may concern, on board the good steamboat call the Bottle, whereof
Water is master for the present voyage, now lying at Pas a l’Outre and
bound for Fort Gaines, the following articles, marked as below, which
are to be delivered, without delay, in like good order, at the Times
office, New Orleans, (unavoidable dangers of the river and fire only
exempted,) into the Editor, or agents, he or they paying freight for
said goods at the rate of two or three drinks.
witness whereof, the owner, master or clerk of said steamboat hath
affirmed the bill of lading all of this tenor and date, one of which
being accomplished, the others to stand void.
at Pas a l’Outre this third of March, 1865.”
person finding this is requested to forward to the Times
office, and by leaving their name and address, will be remunerated for
APRIL 10, 1865
THE HOUSTON TELEGRAPH (TX)
the late Act of Congress, calling for 300,000 Negroes, strengthen the
arms of the Confederacy, or weaken them? Opinions differ, and nothing
but the test will settle the matter.
and communities are divided upon the propriety of arming our Negroes and
sending them forth, with the boon of freedom, to battle for our
nationality. Alabama and South and North Carolina protest, by joint
resolutions, against the measure, whilst Virginia–the Mother of
States, Statesmen, and Negroes–is ready to fight them to the death.
Congress has mastered the situation, and called them to the field, but,
under the law, can the number be had? It provides, in the first place,
no military coercion, but proceeds upon the basis of voluntary consent
of the owner, without the change of any relationship subsisting between
the master and the slave. Should that policy fail, then a call is to be
made upon the Governors of the several States for their quota.
the first plan fail? Everybody knows, in Texas, that it will; for every
possible subterfuge is resorted to by many Negro holders to avoid
sending their quota, under the present labor Bureau system, to work upon
fortifications, shell corn and haul supplies for the army. When the call
is made upon the Governor for the States’ quota, he is powerless to
comply until the authority is vested in him by an act of the
the Legislature of this State divest me of my property without adequate
compensation? It is a vested right in the citizen–the slave is his
property, guaranteed by the law and secured by the constitution of the
State. ‘Tis true that a convention of the sovereignty can alter, amend
or abolish the subsisting relationship between the master and the slave,
but the Legislature cannot do it, as a war power, for she has no such
power, having delegated eh war-defence and treaty-making power to the
Congress of the Confederate States. Unless Congress goes a step beyond
the present act, and pass conscript laws for the black as well as the
white man, the “Corps de Afrique” will fall upon those voluntary and
patriotic citizens living where the enemy has devastated the land, and
the Negro ceased to be profitable–not in Texas, where his labor is so
much coin, by the cultivation of the “dethroned king.”
is no limit to the war-making powers of the government. The power to
declare war, raise armies and support them, is without limitation. It
could not be otherwise, because the emergencies resulting from war could
not be measured, or contemplated by those making the constitution.
the life of the nation be endangered, the Congress charged with the
war-making power by all the States, must provide against the emergency
by calling men to the field. There is no starting nor ending point as to
age, but Congress may begin at 12 and end, not at 60, but with physical
ability to bear arms, which is the true standard, and not a term of
has the right to “rob the cradle and the grave” to defend the life
of the nation–and has been given that as a special charge by the
sovereign States–less than that, our Government would lose the term
“nation” and become a “society.” After the unlimited power to
raise armies, comes the expressed provision to support them, without a
limit. Not this description of property only may be taken, but any and
all, necessary to the maintenance of the army in the field. Congress has
the right to take my corn, bacon, beef, Negroes and cotton, too. There
is a prevalent idea, prompted by interest, that every description of
property may be impressed, except Negroes and cotton.
Negro is of a two-fold character, being person and property. As
property, they are now, and have been from the beginning of the war,
“impressed,” and made available upon the public works, etc., in
accordance with an Act of Congress. If the Congress can take my Negro to
the front to construct defensive works, and whilst so engaged a shell
from the guns of the enemy explodes and kills him, had he not as well
been there with a gun in hand as the spade?
if there be no limitation upon Congress in calling men to the field, but
every person capable of bearing arms may be forced into the service, and
no limit or description of property given for the support of the army,
why did not Congress provide for the immediate conscription of 300,000
Negroes between the ages of 18 and 45, as soldiers in the field?
Emancipation could not have been coupled with the conscription, for that
is beyond the powers of Congress, the institution of slavery being
derived from the States and not the general Government. Nowhere does the
Confederate Constitution inaugurate slavery, but it does provide in the
third clause of the third Section, Art. IV, that each new State or
Territory shall recognize the institution of Negro slavery as it now
exists in the States forming the Confederate States. The men, the
material of the army, is what the country sadly needs, and experience
has proven that the Negro can be made a powerful engine of war.
sooner we approach an embrace the doctrine the better. It is somewhat
humiliating to invoke the aid of the Negro, but if we fail to enlist him
with us, the enemy I sure to arm him against us. Do they not participate
in every battle of the campaign against us? Who can estimate the many
thousands of young masters killed in action by the Negro play-mate of
his early youth; the houses burned which gave him shelter from the
storm; or ladies insulted who had ministered around his bed of
affliction, ere slavery had departed or the dreams of freedom came? Let
the people of Texas, at least, be awake to the importance of the
subject, and arm with guns one-half or all male slaves between the
military age of 18 and 45.
APRIL 11, 1865
THE BOSTON HERALD
PURSUIT OF LEE.
How the Rebel Chief was Forced to
York, April 10.–The Herald’s correspondence recounts the pursuit of Lee’s army. The
24th corps reached near Black’s and White’s station, on
the Southside Railroad, on the morning of the 5th, with
Generals Grant and Ord. The 5th corps and cavalry pushed on
to Jetersville, on the Danville Railroad, and arrived of the 4th.
The 2d, 6th and 9th were following
closely in our rear.
the night of the 5th they were all up on the Danville road
and the 24th up to Burksville Junction. It appears that lee
ordered that portion of his army, cut off by our piercing his line on
Sunday, to join him at Amelia Court House, fearing to have them attempt
to reach Burksville Junction and so on to Danville.
General Grant reached Nottaway Court House, a staff officer arrived
stating that Sheridan had encountered the enemy in small force at
Jetersville, driving him and making important captures.
column had intended to go into camp, but [as] General Grant thought
Lee’s only hope was in forced marches, he therefore ordered the
men who had already tramped 20 miles, on being informed of the stirring
news from Sheridan, clamored to march all night and started off with
cheers. Wherever Grant was recognized as he rode along the line, the
delight of the troops was expressed in the most enthusiastic manner. As
one division exhausted itself in cheering, another would take it up and
so it went along the whole line.
another dispatch was received from Sheridan and its contents were such
as to cause Grant to leave the road and cut across the country to
the night of the 5th, the army lay in line of battle
stretching across three or four miles of country and facing northward at
Jetersville. Custer’s division of cavalry lay on the right flank and
McKenzie on the left.
infantry was formed with the 6th corps on the right, 5th in
the center and 2d on the left.
the night Lee moved off many of his trains. It was feared he would elude
Ord was to march in the morning toward Lynchburg to cut off his retreat
to any point south of that. The whole army in the morning moved five
miles on the road to Deatonville.
the forenoon the 2d and 6th
corps proceeded and fell upon Gordon’s corps, the rear guard of
Lee’s army, in the vicinity of Deatonville, stampeding portions of it
and making many captures of men and material. Gordon took up one
position after another on hill-tops and succeeded in retarding our
pursuit to a limited extent.
and deserters stated that the rebel army was falling to pieces. A
refugee also said that trains were running from Richmond to Danville all
day Sunday and that Davis and his Cabinet arrived at the latter place in
the afternoon and were taken to the residence of Mr. Southerland.
also said that Beauregard telegraphed that Stoneman was on the Danville
and Greensboro Railroad, tearing it up between those places.
Herald’s correspondence with
the cavalry recounts the movements of this arm of the service in pursuit
of Lee. Their rear guard was overtaken on the morning of the 3d,
strongly entrenched across the Nawagine creek, having destroyed the
bridge and felled trees across the ford to impede the pursuit. On
advancing, the enemy opened fire, which was returned with vigor. They
were finally shelled from their position. A number of men were at once
dismounted and the obstructions removed, and the command crossed.
of demoralization on the part of the enemy were at once met with. The
road was strewn with all sorts of munitions, cannon and ammunition were
discovered secreted in the woods. Pushing on, Barringer’s brigade of
cavalry was soon encountered by our brigade, Col. Welles, commanding,
when the rebels scattered like a flock of sheep on being fired upon.
this charge, Lieut. Custer, brother of the general, got detached from
his command, but came in with a rebel battle flag and fourteen
“Johnnies.” Colonel Copehart’s Third Brigade about the same time
overtook the rebels near Dennisville and drove them, gathering much
ammunition and many prisoners and guns.
the rebels rallied to make a stand, when our cavalry formed for a
charge. A strong force of rebel infantry was discovered in the rear,
when our men commenced to fall back slowly, disputing every inch of
ground until they were reinforced, and the rebels were driven again.->
followed them closely until night set in. The rebels have been driven 22
miles, routed at every point, losing men, artillery, wagons, &c.
whole loss was not 50. On the 4th, the march resumed and
continued until afternoon, when the enemy were overtaken and skirmishing
ensued, which continued until night. On the 5th a fight took
place, which has already been detailed.
Movements of Our Army Previous to Lee’s Surrender.
April 10.–A letter dated headquarters, Army of the Potomac,
Jetersville, Va., 7th, says on Monday our cavalry, under the
gallant Sheridan, made important captures of prisoners, guns and wagons.
The cavalry having gained possession of the Danville Railroad some time
previous, were not long in discovering the enemy. The Fifth Corps being
well up in support, preparations were made for another attack. The
Second Division under General Davis charged and drove the enemy, but the
rebel infantry came up and, under cover of the woods, attacked our men,
who were forced back on the infantry, but not until one thousand
prisoners, six guns, and a mile of wagon trains, together with their
drivers, were in possession of the Second Division. The wagons numbered
two hundred and were mostly empty, and were burnt after the mules had
been cut loose and brought in, along with a train belonging to Fitz Hugh
this engagement Sheridan took 300 prisoners, among whom was Gen.
Bragg’s Chief of Artillery. The 1st Pennsylvania regiment
took seven flags with many prisoners.
prisoners taken the past three days foot up [to] 1500, including a
number of officers.
correspondent gives some particulars already in substance officially
telegraphed, and adds that the greatest credit is due to the Army of the
Potomac and its Commander for the bravery and energy displayed during
the series of battles. Some portions of the army have been marching
continuously for several days, the Fifth Corps making over thirty miles
yesterday in their efforts to reach the foe.
Public Rejoicing.–Although the news of the capitulation of
Gen. Lee and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia was received at a
late hour last night, it spread like wildfire, and every one who heard
it was beside himself with joy. But the masses did not learn of it until
the issue of the morning papers. Then it was that countenances beamed
with gladness, and cheers rent the atmosphere of not only “out of
doors,” but of private dwellings. When the people came out on
business, which they did at an earlier hour than usual, there were
joyous countenances, cordial hand shaking, and mutual congratulations on
merchants of Milk, Franklin and Summer streets and vicinity, commenced
forthwith to decorate their shops with national emblems, and the process
is even now going on, while from every staff flutters the starry ensign
in the joyous breeze.
schools of the city re suspended; a salute is to be fired from the
Common. Processions with music are to parade the streets and there will
be an exhibition of fire works on the Common.
York, April 10.–The Post’s special Washington dispatch says Secretary Stanton
expresses his belief that there will be no more heavy fighting. It is
expected that Johnston will surrender. There is reason to believe that
Jeff Davis was at Danville on Saturday night, trying to join Johnston
with the archives of the rebel Government and a large amount of specie.
Commercial’s Washington dispatch says John C. Breckinridge [rebel
Secretary of War] was known to be with Lee on Friday, and hopes are
entertained that he has been captured. Pollard [of the Richmond Examiner], who took advantage of the escape of Richardson, has been
arrested in Richmond and committed to Castle Thunder for treasonable
APRIL 12, 1865
THE HARTFORD DAILY COURANT (CT)
April 11.–The proclamation in reference to the closing of southern
ports was made in accordance with the law passed as early as 1861. It
was then understood, however, that while foreign powers would respect
the effective blockade of those ports, the claim to exercise legal
authority over them as over other ports of the United States would not
be respected. It is believed the time has come, however, when the United
States government can claim to exercise that legal authority over all
its ports whatever, blockaded or not, which belongs to every independent
sovereign power. A sufficient number of southern ports are left open for
legitimate trade, and these now proclaimed closed will, it is presumed,
be reopened after a time. Meanwhile, blockade running is likely to be
issuing of this proclamation is understood to have been the business
upon which Secretary Seward was about to visit City Point to confer with
the President last week.
new British minister has reached Washington and taken possession of the
legation, but has not presented his credentials to the President.
Seward’s condition is gradually improving, though he occasionally
suffers much pain.
Pierpoint to Establish Headquarters at Richmond.
April 11.–The Star of this afternoon says, in order to put a stop to the absurd
rumor afloat in regard to the proposition of the President to recognize
the rebel Legislature of Virginia, we are enabled to state that early on
yesterday the President telegraphed to Governor Pierpoint to come at
once to Washington, where a long conference was held between them, the
object of which was to perfect a plan for the restoration of Gov.
Pierpoint’s government at Richmond.
rebels, in their official proclamations, as well as in their speeches
and newspaper articles, have announced that the honor of southern women
would not be safe if the Yankees should get possession of the land. Now,
is it not very remarkable that, if they believed those statements,
Beauregard should leave his wife in New Orleans, Hardee his wife in
Savannah, and Lee his wife in Richmond, when those cities fell into our
hands? Have they no regard for the safety of their wives?–Prov.
Ewell, after his capture, said General Lee long since wanted to take his
troops westward and there disband them, but Davis would not consent.
total loss by fire at Richmond, foots up $2,146,240. This is considered
a low estimate.
is to be cut down at the Springfield armory to 5000 guns per day, one
half the late production.
cannonading at Richmond was distinctly heard at Arlington Heights,
Washington, a distance of over one hundred miles.
prison is filled with rebel prisoners. Castle Thunder is used as a
receptacle for citizen prisoners.
warehouse opposite the Pemberton prison, Richmond, was filled with
tobacco belonging to the French government, worth $2,000,000 in gold,
but the rebels fired it before they left.
British government is about to abandon its naval establishments on the
coast of Africa for the suppression and prevention of the slave trade.
They do not civilize Africa, and cost the lives of many men and millions
Richmond Whig of Monday says whatever may be the fate of the constitutional
amendment, it is certain that slavery in Virginia is dead. A national
bank of the United States is to be immediately established in Richmond,
where shares in United States stocks will be sold at rates established
in northern cities.
hospitals in Richmond have been taken possession of by the military
authorities, and used for the care and comfort of federal and
confederate sick and wounded; a number of confederate surgeons left in
the city have been paroled to attend to confederate sick and wounded.
Chimborazo, Winder, Jackson and Howard’s Greve hospitals, the four
principal confederate hospitals, are used for the accommodation of
federal wounded. Their accommodations are about 24,000 beds.
Richmond Whig of the 8th inst. said: “The Christian Commission
issued fifteen hundred rations yesterday, chiefly to the suffering poor,
who were burned out by the fire. The quick adjustment of the
commissioner to the relief of the suffering is a double demonstration of
its noble service.”
is estimated that the rebel force surrendered to General Grant on Sunday
by General Lee numbered between twenty and twenty-two thousand men. The
total number of general officers who have become prisoners to General
Grant since the 5th inst. is eighty-two, including General
President, accompanied by Mrs. Lincoln, Senators Harlan, Sumner, and
others, Saturday paid a visit to the general hospitals at City Point,
the President shaking hands with every man, and to every one saying a
word or two of commendation. He looked feeble, and was remonstrated with
by the surgeon in charge for attempting the hand-shaking of several
thousand men, but in answer said: “Gentlemen, the war seems about
over, and I must shake the hands of, and say a good word to, every brave
fellow who has aided in the glorious work.”
is stated that Kirby Smith and the Trans-Mississippi army is all ready
to follow the example of Gen. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia, by
a surrender and general dispersion to their homes. Mississippi is also
ready for reconstruction, and propositions to that end have already been
submitted to the government, and will be consummated upon the basis
proposed, which is a restoration of the authority of the United States
and the abolition of slavery. The army is well supplied, but the people
are destitute of almost everything.
April 11.–Superintendent Latham, of the Grand Trunk railroad, who tore
a flag from the train yesterday, was waited upon by a quiet mob to-day,
and conducted through the city dressed in soldiers’ uniform, and
carrying a flag, which he was obliged to salute, and also to make
patriotic speeches. Finally the flag was nailed to his house.
THE BOSTON HERALD
Richmond correspondent of the New York World
is giving a series of graphic sketches of what he saw and heard in
Richmond, which possess peculiar interest at this time, and some
incidents of life in that city while it was the rebel capital. He says
the number of Unionists in Richmond has been exaggerated, but most of
them were staunch. John Minot Botts was the foremost of them. Dr. Robert
Burton, Charles Palmer, a merchant and a Southerner; T. B. Humphreys, a
railway official; Valentine Heckler. A German butcher; B. Wardwell, an
ice dealer, and Franklin Stearns, a landed proprietor and distiller,
were the best known of them. All but Palmer were Northern men; some were
run out of town; some were imprisoned. Mr. Stearns is a Vermont man by
birth, and one of the wealthiest men in the State. He has suffered much,
but is high minded and above revenge. His farm near Richmond is one of
the most beautiful in the South, and his hospitality to friend and foe
has been unbounded. His family, led by his children’s grandmother, met
our advance soldiers with nosegays and streaming eyes. He never ceased
to talk up the old flag and prophecy the downfall of the rebellion. His
farm, strange to say, is a garden amid the ruin, and the fire within the
city was stayed by a Divine hand just at its threshold. He had no faith
in, nor love of, rebel money, and invested in real estate mortgages, so
that he is therefore yet rich and blessed with rare old age. When the
fire in the city was yet raging, he stood by his hill-top mansion,
looking into the town to see, as he supposed, his great factory in
flames; but the army of the union was coming up, so he only said,
“Thank God! I have not a regret in the world now.” Mr. Stearns was
imprisoned for sending money to Col. Corcoran while in jail. Mr.
Wardwell ran on the flag of truce boat, and sent word to Jeff Davis that
he meant to bring his gallows to Richmond when he came back.
Stearns said to this correspondent:
rebel government was the most atrocious in the world; it starved to
death thirty thousand poor fellows, and made its career one dynasty of
murder; but more bloodshed, even for justice’s sake, will only retard
the perfect peace; we must leave all retribution to God alone!”
the literary world in the rebel capital, he says:
excellence, here were the English correspondents, Vizitelli and
Lawley. The latter was an intense secessionist, and a gentleman;
Vizitelli was a dishonest and vulgar man of genius. He spent a life of
debauchery here, drawing a large salary from the Times for letters which he never penned, asserting to his employers
that the blockading vessels had captured them. This explains why every
southern letter cost the Times
£300 sterling. Vizitelli and two English exquisites, named Gordon and
Cavendish, members of staffs, gave a splendid supper and party at the
Ballard House once, inviting the most excellent people of Richmond; they
ran away without paying for it. The artist, in fact, owes everybody in
Richmond money, He was put out of the Spottswood Hotel, where he
boarded, for repeated and noisy drunkenness, and for penciling
lascivious figures in the ladies’ closets, which were traced to him by
their artistic excellence. When he left, the room in which he lived was
covered in every part of the walls and ceiling with sketches of all
possible kinds, most of them exceedingly fine; the room had to be
white-washed to hide the vestiges of Vizitelli; this genius was a
“sport” of the first water, wearing Wellington outside boots, red
neckties and jockey coats; he was stout and parted his hair in the
middle. There was no literary society, so to speak, in the capitol.
Every body read novels for their plots and poems for their jingle. Blue
stockings were unknown, and Shakespeare, had he lived here, would have
starved to death.
some of the heroes of the rebellion who used to figure at Richmond, the
most mentionable were:
J. E. B. Stuart, who was a vain, gallant, and dissipated man, cavalier
to the backbone, He loved carousals and women; and once after returning
from a long and wearying ride with Early, outraged the latter by making
his band play all night at a tavern and waking up the village girls for
Billy Smith, the governor, who ran away, is described as an ass. He was
a disgusting looking man, whose lips could not hide his teeth and gums.
He was far inferior to Letcher, who was generally sensible when sober.
Smith commanded a brigade, though he knew nothing of soldiering, and,
crossing the Hazel river once, ordered his men to take off their shoes
and stockings to ford it. He was shot at Gettysburg, and in the
political campaign which resulted in his election, made speeches with
the ball in his hand by which he was shot.
good looking and bold, was the most determined of all the subordinate
rebels. He was absolute in Richmond and to the craving citizens who begged
him to save the town by fire, he gave a peremptory refusal. He was among the
last to leave the burning ship.
McGill, of the Catholic Church, remains here, having worked like a fireman
to save his cathedral; all the priests stand by their posts. He is a
the future, the writer says:
is gradually returning, and shape arises from the chaos of the past week.
Nobody with whom I have talked had further hope of Southern independence;
this population en masse is willing to take the oath. It must submit to two
troubles–the loss of slaves and the presence of Yankees. The Negroes
understand matters and mean to be free; but they have no hard words for
their old owners. In a new form slavery will still exist, black men living
in white families to which they belonged, but receiving wages. There will be
little emigration of either class; not four thousand citizens, all told,
followed the rebel government to its ultima
thule. The Negroes are jubilant, but subordinate. A gentleman told me
to-day that, when our soldiers entered the city, he called together his
servants and told them that he was no longer their master. “I want you to
stay with me, my people,” he said, “and you shall have as good wages as
any stranger can give you.”
all stood irresolute, dazzled by their new and brightened era. His wife and
daughters wept at the prospect of the old homestead breaking up; then said
the oldest, “Massa, I will stand by you.” The rest, carried away,
replied likewise. And the Negroes have never worked so well as during the
richer proprietors, who have many Negroes, are contented to lose them; but
the poorer ones wince; these last will not yield without a struggle.
to the invading traders, their name is legion, and they are almost all
shrewd and pitiless. They act on the Canaanite principle of succeeding to
the land, and are turning out the old possessors after true Saxon
precedents. One of them has edged into one of the hotels here by tampering
with the proprietor’s fears; others have moved into the stores, and do
business as if they had titles to them. The greenback, for the first time,
is doing good; for every one that a rebel holds makes him more interested in
the restoration of a Union to redeem them.
is no more faith in the rebellion; it will be a long time before the United
States is greatly beloved, but it will be always obeyed. Our soldiers look
well, most of them being newly uniformed, and behave like gentlemen.
Courtesy will conquer all that bayonets have not won. The brunt district is
still hideously yawning in the heart of town, a monument to the sternness of
those bold revolutionists who are being hunted to their last quarry.
Despotism, under the pleas of necessity, has met with its end here as it
must everywhere. We shall have no more experiments for liberty out of the
Expedition from Norfolk into North Carolina.
Monroe, April 11.–An expedition composed principally of the First
New York mounted rifles left Norfolk on the first inst., on a reconnoisance
up the Chowan River, with the intention, if possible, of reaching Weldon,
North Carolina, which resulted with entire success. The cavalry struck the
Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad and demolished the track for a considerable
distance. While thus engaged they were attacked by six hundred rebels, and
after a severe fight, succeeded in repulsing them. The cavalry then fell
back to Murfreesboro, where their booty was delivered to the gunboats.
Amongst the captures were one thousand bales of superior cotton, a large
amount of tobacco and snuff, and thirty prisoners.
of the cavalry scouted to within a few miles of Weldon, and from prisoners
taken they learned that the town was strongly fortified and garrisoned by a
force of one thousand rebels with several batteries of artillery.
expedition returned last Saturday. This expedition is said to be the largest
sent into northern North Carolina, and accomplished a great deal of good in
ascertaining the exact locality of the rebel forces in that section of the
THE PROVIDENCE EVENING PRESS (RI)
More Drafting and Recruiting.
Washington, April 13, 6 a.m.
Major Gen. Dix, N. Y.:
department, after mature consideration and consultation with the
Lieutenant General upon the results of the recent campaigns, has come to
the following determinations, which will be carried into effect by
appropriate order to be immediately issued:
To stop all recruiting and drafting in the loyal States.
To curtail purchases for arms, ammunition, Quartermasters’ and
Commissaries’ supplies, and reduce the expenses of the military
establishment in its several branches.
To reduce the number of Generals and staff officers to the
actual necessity of the service.
To remove all military restrictions upon trade and commerce, so far as
may be consistent with the public safety.
soon as these measures can be put in operation, it will be made known by
M. Stanton, Secretary of War.
the Potomac Army.
Particulars of the Late
correspondent from the Army of the Potomac says very little fighting
took place on the 7th at Farmville. Some skirmishing between
the enemy’s rear guard and the second corps with the second division
of cavalry, resulted in being unimportant.
army passed through Farmville on the morning of the 7th.
After crossing Appomattox the bridges were burned, and before our troops
could get over, the enemy had taken position a mile from the river,
where they erected works and made a stand in order to allow their wagon
train to get out of the way. On this side of the river just outside of
the town, a division of cavalry had taken up a position, determined to
annoy our advance while reconstructing the bridge. The second division
under Gen. Crook attacked them vigorously, driving them back some
distance, but they had a force dismounted lying in ambush, which poured
a severe fire into our men as they advanced to the second attack, and
they were compelled to fall back on their supports.
rebels soon after retired, indisposed to make another charge. The loss
on both sides was very light. The 2d corps soon after crossed
the river, and pushing on after the enemy, drove them behind their newly
the morning, before the enemy crossed the river, 12 guns were taken from
them, and afterwards 6 more making 18 during the day, and about 2000
prisoners. The number of prisoners taken on the 6th is put
down at 7700, almost entirely from Kershaw’s and Custis Lee’s
field where the surrender took place was almost covered with the
enemy’s dead, all of them shot in the head and the upper part of the
body. The position was a very favorable one for them, but our artillery
had a good range on an adjoining hill, and our men charged up the ascent
with such impetuosity that some were bayonetted before they left their
light breastworks. The road for miles was strewn with broken down
wagons, caissons, and baggage of all kinds, presenting a scene seldom
witnessed on the part of Lee’s army. ->
letter, dated the evening of the 8th, says stragglers were
found scattered all along the line of march, and as they troops pass
they come in and surrender themselves, expressing a determination to
fight no longer, as they considered the rebellion as good as over. Four
guns were brought in this morning, besides a long train of ambulances,
many containing wounded, who were placed in the hospitals and cared for.
Gen. Gordon sent four surgeons through the lines this afternoon, asking
that they be allowed to minister to the wants of those left behind on
the road, but as we have plenty of such help, they will be returned to
their army in the morning.
letter, dated the 9th, says, notwithstanding the
correspondence between Gens. Grant and Lee yesterday, which led all to
expect a formal surrender this morning, the latter exerted all his
energies to escape the net laid before him. He marched rapidly all
afternoon and evening, until he ran against Sheridan at Appomattox Court
House. A sharp fight ensued, resulting in the capture of a number of
prisoners, and checking their retreat. The 24th and 5th
corps were close up in support of the cavalry, and during the night took
up position across the main road, and on the south side, the Appomattox
river on the north cutting them off from retreat in that direction.
Early this morning, Sheridan attacked vigorously, and for some time a
brisk engagement was carried on. About nine o’clock in the morning a
flag of truce appeared in front of his line, and he was informed that
hostilities had been suspended in order to arrange terms of surrender.
This was caused by an agreement made by Gen. Ord, consenting to a
cessation of firing to communicate with Gen. Grant, and was done, it is
said, without proper authority.
Sheridan’s Adjutant General was allowed to come through the rebel
column to communicate with General Meade, who stated he knew of no such
arrangement, and that he was about to move forward in accordance with
his previous intentions. Gen. Lee, however, sent another message
desiring to have an interview with general Grant, to arrange terms of
surrender, and Gen. Meade was thus obliged to grant a two hours’
armistice in order to communicate with Gen. Grant, who had moved around
to the left during the night. Gen. Grant consenting to see Gen. Lee and
discuss the matter, about half-past four o’clock Lieut. Col. Whitier
of Gen. Wright’s staff, came in and reported the terms arranged, and
papers were signed, when the greatest excitement prevailed throughout
our lines, cheer upon sheer rending the air. Soon after, Gen. Meade and
staff, with other officers, rode along the lines of the 2d
and 6th corps, and were greeted with the most enthusiastic
shouts, and the men throwing their hats in the air, and fairly dancing
is understood that the men of Lee’s army will be paroled and allowed
to return to their homes. They gave up everything in their hands, but
last night they destroyed a large amount of property in the shape of
wagons, gun carriages, baggage, papers, &c.
numbers of Lee’s force is put down at about 20,000 men. There are very
few guns in their possession, as they abandoned nearly all they did not
lose in action; 38 guns were brought in yesterday, and several this
rank and file of Lee’s army are said to be well satisfied to give up
the struggle, believing there is no hope of success, but say if Lee had
refused to surrender they would have stuck with him to the last. The
officers are somewhat surly and discontented, but this feeling will soon
wear off when they find how liberally and kindly our people are disposed
to treat them.
APRIL 15, 1865
THE BOSTON TRAVELLER
April 14.–President Lincoln and wife visited the theatre
(Ford’s) this evening for the purpose of witnessing the performance if
the American Cousin. It was announced in the papers that General Grant
would also be present, but that gentleman took the ate train of cars for
theatre was densely crowded, and every body seemed delighted with the
scene before them. During the third act, and while there was a temporary
pause for one of the actors to enter, a sharp report of a pistol was
heard, which merely attracted attention, but suggested nothing serious
until a man rushed to the front of the President’s box, waving a long
dagger in his right hand, exclaiming “Sic
semper tyrannis!” and immediately leaped from the box, which was
in the second tier, to the stage beneath and ran across to the opposite
side, making his escape amid the bewilderment of the audience from the
rear of the theatre, and, mounting a horse, fled.
screams of Mrs. Lincoln first disclosed the fact to the audience that
the President had been shot, when all present rose to their feet,
rushing toward the stage, many exclaiming, “Hang him! Hang him!” The
excitement was of the wildest possible description, and of course there
was an abrupt termination of the theatrical performance.
was a rush toward the President’s box, when cries were heard, “Stand
back and give him air!” “Has any one stimulants?” On a hasty
examination, it was found that the President had been shot through the
head above and back of the temporal bone, and that some of the brain was
oozing out. He was removed to a private house opposite the theatre, and
the Surgeon General of the Army and other surgeons were sent for to
attend to his condition.
an examination of the private box, blood was discovered on the back of
the cushioned rocking-chair on which the President had been sitting,
also on the partition and on the floor. A common single-barrelled pocket
pistol was found on the carpet.
military guard was placed in front of the private residence to which the
President had been conveyed. An immense crowd was in front of it, all
deeply anxious to learn the condition of the President.
had previously been announced that the wound was mortal, but all hoped
shock to the community is terrible.
midnight the Cabinet, with Messrs. Sumner, Colfax and Farnsworth, Judge
Curtis, Governor Oglesby, Gen. Meigs, Col. Hay, and a few personal
friends, with Surgeon Gen. Barnes and his immediate assistants, were
around his bedside.
President was in a state of syncope,
totally insensible and breathing slowly.4 The blood oozed from the wound
in the back of his head. The surgeon exhausted every effort of medical
skill, but all hope was gone.
parting of his family with the dying President is too sad for
President and Mrs. Lincoln did not start for the theatre until 15
minutes after 8 o’clock. Speaker Colfax was at the White House at the
time, and the President stated to him that he was going, although Mrs.
Lincoln had not been well, because the papers had announced that he and
General Grant were to be present, and as General Grant had gone North,
he did not wish the audience to be disappointed. He went with apparent
reluctance, and urged Mr. Colfax to go with him, but that gentleman had
made other arrangements, and with Mr. Ashman of Massachusetts bid him
the excitement at the theatre was at its wildest height, reports were
circulated that Secretary Seward had also been assassinated. On reaching
this gentleman’s residence, a crowd and a military guard were found at
the door, and on entering it was ascertained that the reports were based
there was so excited that scarcely an intelligible word could be
gathered; but the facts are substantially as follows:
ten o’clock a man rang the door bell, and, the call having been
answered by a colored servant, he said he had come from Dr. Verdi, Mr.
Seward’s family physician, with a prescription, at the same time
holding in his hand a small piece of folded paper, and saying, in answer
to a refusal, that he must see the Secretary, as he was entrusted with
particular directions concerning the medicines. He still insisted on
going up, although repeatedly informed that no one could enter the
man pushed the servant aside, and walked heavily toward the
Secretary’s room, and was there met by Frederick Seward, of whom he
demanded to see the Secretary, making the same representation which he
did to the servant. What further passed in the way of colloquy is not
known, but the man struck him on the head with a billy, severely
injuring the skull and felling him almost senseless.
assassin then rushed into the camber and attacked Major Seward,
Paymaster of the U. S. army, and Mr. Hansel, of the State department and
two male servants, disabling them all. He then rushed upon the
Secretary, who was lying in bed in the same room, and inflicted three
stabs in the neck, but severing, it is thought and hoped, no arteries,
though he bled profusely.
assassin then rushed down stairs unmolested, mounted his horse at the
door, and rode off before an alarm could be sounded, and in the same
manner as the assassin of the President.
is believed that the injuries of the Secretary are not fatal, nor those
of either of the others, although both the Secretary and Assistant
Secretary are very seriously wounded.
Stanton and Welles and other prominent officers of the government called
at Secretary Seward’s house to inquire into his condition, and there
heard of the assassination of the President.
then proceeded to the house where the President was lying, exhibiting,
of course, intense anxiety and sympathy. An immense crowd was gathered
in front of the President’s house, and a strong guard was also
stationed there, many persons supposing that he would be brought to his
entire city to-night presents a scene of wild excitement, accompanied by
violent expressions of the profoundest sorrow. Many shed tears.
military authorities dispatched mounted patrols in every direction, in
order, if possible, to arrest the assassins. The whole Metropolitan
police are likewise vigilant for the same purpose.
attacks at both the theatre and the Secretary’s house took place at
about the same hour–ten o’clock–thus showing a preconcerted plan
to assassinate these gentlemen.
evidence of the guilty party who attacked the President is in the hands
of the police.
President Johnson is in the city headquarters and guarded by troops.
APRIL 16, 1865
THE DAILY NATIONAL
who was yesterday our good, gentle, wise, upright, Christian,
affectionate President, is no more. Who realizes
the dreadful fact that Abraham
Lincoln was assassinated on Friday night? The tragedy overcomes
and stupefies the community. All of us feel as if we were passing
through a horrid dream, which is yet to have a bright awakening. But,
alas, it is real; the late President has been butchered. The Great Hand
still presses heavily upon us; our chastisement is not ended! In the
midst of our exultation the nation is bowed down; another great example
is furnished whose moral is humility; an earthly popular idol has been
removed, and a stricken people feel that the Lord God Omnipotent
sad details are before our readers. How he died, where he died, is told
with painful exactness. The harrowing particulars concerning the anguish
and distress of his bereaved and devoted family are disclosed to us, and
we can thus forcibly comprehend how deep is their grief. A noble and
great man, a loving and tender husband and parent–who or what can
replace him to these sobbing and sorrowing ones? It is their consolation
as it is that of the country, to know that no man since Washington has
performed so great a mission as he; none has ever lived in all the tide
of time who evinced more purity, or who was more largely trusted by a
great nation in the issues of its life and death. He did not have, he
could not have, among those worthy of consideration, a single enemy. The
being does not live, himself a just and thoughtful man who assailed his
integrity. And this is saying enough for the personal character of him
in whose hands such a people, at such a time, entrusted both the Sword
and the Purse.
life of Mr. Lincoln in its details is too well known to require
republication at this moment. Everybody is informed about him. All of us
have read that he was essentially an American,
and a representative of our institutions, because he was eh child of
poverty and industry, rough grown on our soil like its grand mountains;
and because he was self-made by the force of his will, by the purity and
religious convictions of his nature, and by that unrelenting industry
and energy which have created us a great and powerful people. History,
in this respect, furnishes no stronger example in favor of true
democracy than Abraham Lincoln.
man is known in history whose personal character was just such a
“household word” as was that of the late President. It was not a
remote and dazzling character, adored and followed like that of
Napoleon, or of Clay or of Jackson, but it was rather that of an honest
neighbor or relative, in whose entire integrity, prudence, great
patience, good hands, Christian purity, and well-balanced and
far-reaching sense, his fellows had implicit reliance. While his friends
supposed that there were many more brilliant and perhaps more able men,
they felt that none was so safe
as he, and so they overlooked what were called his mistakes, and
ratified and endorsed all his official conduct, with almost filial and
fraternal confidence, trust, and hope. Certainly no man is known to the
record of history, in a position so commanding and elevated, who, in the
same degree was rooted in the intimate and family affections of the
large body of people. ->
Lincoln’s statesmanship was rather greater perhaps, in what he
forebore to do, than in what he did. His distinguishing mental trait was
that of eminent common sense. To this he added wonderful individuality
and great astuteness and shrewdness in reconciling or overcoming mere
political intrigues and combinations. He was eminent in simplicity and
directness of thought, and his grasp of mind and keenness of reasoning,
his aptitude in illustration, his power of statement, and his peculiar
talent for popularizing elevated topics were really wonderful. No man
ever wrote who came nearer to the heart as well as the heads of the
masses; his was the faculty of satisfying the millions who read him or
heard him, that, if he was not right always in his positions, at all
events he was sincere and conscientious in what he said.
the period of his murder, the late President was directing his heart,
and soul, and mind to the great work of restoring the Union. His
feelings toward the South, we know, were most charitable, his designs were most liberal; they went
to such an extent as must have harmonized the sections had they been
properly seconded, while all the substantial reforms needed by the
nation would have been embraced in his plan or plans. His extreme
kindness of heart, in this regard, may be noted in the fact that his
last official act (as we state on the highest authority) was to sign a
permit to Jacob Thompson, late Secretary of the Interior under Mr. Buchanan,
to leave this country for Europe.
those significant things, which often look like inspirations, that
frequently attend the latter days of noted men, we will mention an
affecting fact connected with the deceased President. While on a recent
trip to Richmond, he amused himself with reading Shakespeare, and often
to the friends about him. It is a little strange that Mr. Lincoln,
on one such occasion, should have twice read aloud, and called the
marked attention of those about him to the well-known line which
Macbeth, in his remorse, utters about the traitorously murdered Duncan:
is in his grave.
After life’s fitful fever he sleeps well.
Treason has done his worst; nor steel nor poison,
Malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing
Can touch him further.
we must close these crude remarks. It only remains to be said that on
the night of the celebration of the crucifixion of our Saviour,
on the night of the anniversary of the fall of Sumter, in the midst of
the joy of the people over the prospect of peace and reunion, which he
was laboring to promote, Abraham
Lincoln was murdered. Man proposes, but God disposes. May His
mercy not be withdrawn from us. May his spirit grace and strengthen the
present incumbent of the Presidential chair. And kneeling around our country’s
altar, may the nation feel, that as God is above party, so should we accept this dispensation in such spirit as shall
teach us that he has given us Freedom
and a Country to transmit
to future ages.
1 In reality, Bentonville was a
victory for the Union forces, which, while suffering some 1527
casualties, inflicted 2606 on Johnston’s army. Contrary to this
report, it was not Sherman, but Johnston who moved off on the night of
the 21st, burning bridges in his wake. Far from being
“ready to meet the enemy at all points,” Bentonville was the last
major engagement for Johnston’s army.
at Averysboro were, in reality, 865 for Johnston and 682 for Sherman–a
bit shy of the claimed 3800.
was an early combination skin cream and suntan lotion, evidenced as
early as the 1840s, and used at least through the 1880s
Syncope, the medical term for fainting or passing out,
is defined as a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone,
characterized by rapid onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery,
due to global cerebral hypoperfusion (low blood flow to the brain) that
most often results from hypotension (low blood pressure).
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