LAST WEEK INDEX THE END of the REBELLION!

SUNDAY
APRIL 9, 1865
THE NEW ORLEANS TIMES (LA)

Rebel Accounts of Fighting in North Carolina.

The Richmond Enquirer of the 27th says the situation in North Carolina becomes more and more interesting. With his army scarcely half organized, Gen. Johnston has been able to resist the advance of the enemy from the time he left the Cape Fear River. On three occasions he has given Sherman a severe lesson in the art of war, while at Kinston he was no less severely punished by Bragg.

The battle of Bentonville was a triumph to our arms. On the 20th the enemy was entrenched, and no fighting occurred. On the 21st, there was heavy skirmishing and some severe fighting, in which the enemy were badly handled. That night he moved off. Gen. Johnston maintains his position, and will be ready to meet the enemy at all points.1

The Carolinian of the 23d says: On the 21st, Gen. Sherman again attacked Sherman in front and on the flank, and, after a severe battle, drove him in confusion from the field, capturing a large number of prisoners and artillery, and demoralizing the Federal army.

The same paper states, authoritatively, that the commandants of prisons in North Carolina have been ordered to prepare to receive 5000 prisoners.

In the battle of Averysboro, on the 16th, our loss is set down at 500, while that of the Yankees is put at 3800.2

•••••

2600 Rebel Deserters During March.

Washington, March 21.–During March, 2600 deserters from Lee’s army arrived in this city, to all of whom the oath of allegiance was administered. During February only 1239 were received.

•••••

How to Dress for a Photograph.

A lady or gentleman, having made up her or his mind to be photographed, naturally considers, in the first place, how to be dressed to show off to the best advantage. This is by no means such an unimportant matter as some might imagine. Let me offer a few words of advice touching dress. Orange color, for certain optical reasons, is, photographically, black. Blue is white; other shades or tones of color are proportionably darker or lighter as they contain more or less of these colors. The progressive scale of photographic commences with the lightest. The order stands thus–white, light blue, violet, pink, mauve, dark blue, lemon, blue green, leather-hound, drab, cerise, magenta, yellow-green, dark brown, purple, red, amber, maroon, orange, dead-black.

Complexion has to be considered in connection with dress. Blondes can wear much lighter colors than brunettes; the latter always present better pictures in dark dresses, but neither look well in positive white. ->

Violent contrasts of color should be specially guarded against. In photography, brunettes possess a greater advantage over their fairer sisters. The lovely golden tresses lose all their transparent brilliancy, and are represented black; whilst the “bonnie blue eye” theme of rapture to the poet, is misery to the photographer, for it is put entirely out. The simplest and most effective way of removing the yellow color from the hair is to powder it pearly white; it is thus brought to about the same photographic tint as in nature. The same rule, of course, applies to complexions. A freckle, quite invisible at a short distance is, on account of its yellow color, rendered most painfully distinct when photographed. The puff box must be called in to the assistance of art. Here let me intrude one word of general advice. Blue, as we have seen, is the most readily affected by light, and yellow the least; if, therefore, you would keep your complexion clear and free from tan freckles whilst taking your delightful rambles at the seaside, discard by all means the blue veil, and substitute a dark green or yellow one in its stead. Blue tulle offers no more obstruction to the action of the actinic rays of the sun than white. Half a yard of yellow net, though perhaps not very becoming, will be more efficacious and considerably cheaper than a quart of kalydor.–All the Year Round.3

•••••

A “Time-ly Joke.”–It appears that some of our sailor friends laugh even in the midst of war, and that iron-clads contain within themselves vast powers of irony. “In witness whereof,” as the Government notaries say, we append the following document:

“Shipped, in good order and condition by J. C. Hayes, on account and risk of whom it may concern, on board the good steamboat call the Bottle, whereof Water is master for the present voyage, now lying at Pas a l’Outre and bound for Fort Gaines, the following articles, marked as below, which are to be delivered, without delay, in like good order, at the Times office, New Orleans, (unavoidable dangers of the river and fire only exempted,) into the Editor, or agents, he or they paying freight for said goods at the rate of two or three drinks.

“In witness whereof, the owner, master or clerk of said steamboat hath affirmed the bill of lading all of this tenor and date, one of which being accomplished, the others to stand void.

“Dated at Pas a l’Outre this third of March, 1865.”

Any person finding this is requested to forward to the Times office, and by leaving their name and address, will be remunerated for their trouble.

MONDAY
APRIL 10, 1865
THE HOUSTON TELEGRAPH (TX)

Will the late Act of Congress, calling for 300,000 Negroes, strengthen the arms of the Confederacy, or weaken them? Opinions differ, and nothing but the test will settle the matter.

States and communities are divided upon the propriety of arming our Negroes and sending them forth, with the boon of freedom, to battle for our nationality. Alabama and South and North Carolina protest, by joint resolutions, against the measure, whilst Virginia–the Mother of States, Statesmen, and Negroes–is ready to fight them to the death. Congress has mastered the situation, and called them to the field, but, under the law, can the number be had? It provides, in the first place, no military coercion, but proceeds upon the basis of voluntary consent of the owner, without the change of any relationship subsisting between the master and the slave. Should that policy fail, then a call is to be made upon the Governors of the several States for their quota.

Will the first plan fail? Everybody knows, in Texas, that it will; for every possible subterfuge is resorted to by many Negro holders to avoid sending their quota, under the present labor Bureau system, to work upon fortifications, shell corn and haul supplies for the army. When the call is made upon the Governor for the States’ quota, he is powerless to comply until the authority is vested in him by an act of the Legislature.

Can the Legislature of this State divest me of my property without adequate compensation? It is a vested right in the citizen–the slave is his property, guaranteed by the law and secured by the constitution of the State. ‘Tis true that a convention of the sovereignty can alter, amend or abolish the subsisting relationship between the master and the slave, but the Legislature cannot do it, as a war power, for she has no such power, having delegated eh war-defence and treaty-making power to the Congress of the Confederate States. Unless Congress goes a step beyond the present act, and pass conscript laws for the black as well as the white man, the “Corps de Afrique” will fall upon those voluntary and patriotic citizens living where the enemy has devastated the land, and the Negro ceased to be profitable–not in Texas, where his labor is so much coin, by the cultivation of the “dethroned king.”

There is no limit to the war-making powers of the government. The power to declare war, raise armies and support them, is without limitation. It could not be otherwise, because the emergencies resulting from war could not be measured, or contemplated by those making the constitution.

Should the life of the nation be endangered, the Congress charged with the war-making power by all the States, must provide against the emergency by calling men to the field. There is no starting nor ending point as to age, but Congress may begin at 12 and end, not at 60, but with physical ability to bear arms, which is the true standard, and not a term of years. ->

Congress has the right to “rob the cradle and the grave” to defend the life of the nation–and has been given that as a special charge by the sovereign States–less than that, our Government would lose the term “nation” and become a “society.” After the unlimited power to raise armies, comes the expressed provision to support them, without a limit. Not this description of property only may be taken, but any and all, necessary to the maintenance of the army in the field. Congress has the right to take my corn, bacon, beef, Negroes and cotton, too. There is a prevalent idea, prompted by interest, that every description of property may be impressed, except Negroes and cotton.

The Negro is of a two-fold character, being person and property. As property, they are now, and have been from the beginning of the war, “impressed,” and made available upon the public works, etc., in accordance with an Act of Congress. If the Congress can take my Negro to the front to construct defensive works, and whilst so engaged a shell from the guns of the enemy explodes and kills him, had he not as well been there with a gun in hand as the spade?

Then if there be no limitation upon Congress in calling men to the field, but every person capable of bearing arms may be forced into the service, and no limit or description of property given for the support of the army, why did not Congress provide for the immediate conscription of 300,000 Negroes between the ages of 18 and 45, as soldiers in the field? Emancipation could not have been coupled with the conscription, for that is beyond the powers of Congress, the institution of slavery being derived from the States and not the general Government. Nowhere does the Confederate Constitution inaugurate slavery, but it does provide in the third clause of the third Section, Art. IV, that each new State or Territory shall recognize the institution of Negro slavery as it now exists in the States forming the Confederate States. The men, the material of the army, is what the country sadly needs, and experience has proven that the Negro can be made a powerful engine of war.

The sooner we approach an embrace the doctrine the better. It is somewhat humiliating to invoke the aid of the Negro, but if we fail to enlist him with us, the enemy I sure to arm him against us. Do they not participate in every battle of the campaign against us? Who can estimate the many thousands of young masters killed in action by the Negro play-mate of his early youth; the houses burned which gave him shelter from the storm; or ladies insulted who had ministered around his bed of affliction, ere slavery had departed or the dreams of freedom came? Let the people of Texas, at least, be awake to the importance of the subject, and arm with guns one-half or all male slaves between the military age of 18 and 45.

TUESDAY
APRIL 11
, 1865
THE BOSTON HERALD 

GRANT’S PURSUIT OF LEE.
How the Rebel Chief was Forced to Surrender.

New York, April 10.–The Herald’s correspondence recounts the pursuit of Lee’s army. The 24th corps reached near Black’s and White’s station, on the Southside Railroad, on the morning of the 5th, with Generals Grant and Ord. The 5th corps and cavalry pushed on to Jetersville, on the Danville Railroad, and arrived of the 4th. The 2d, 6th and 9th were following closely in our rear.

By the night of the 5th they were all up on the Danville road and the 24th up to Burksville Junction. It appears that lee ordered that portion of his army, cut off by our piercing his line on Sunday, to join him at Amelia Court House, fearing to have them attempt to reach Burksville Junction and so on to Danville.

When General Grant reached Nottaway Court House, a staff officer arrived stating that Sheridan had encountered the enemy in small force at Jetersville, driving him and making important captures.

One column had intended to go into camp, but [as] General Grant thought Lee’s only hope was in forced marches, he therefore ordered the advance continued.

The men who had already tramped 20 miles, on being informed of the stirring news from Sheridan, clamored to march all night and started off with cheers. Wherever Grant was recognized as he rode along the line, the delight of the troops was expressed in the most enthusiastic manner. As one division exhausted itself in cheering, another would take it up and so it went along the whole line.

Soon another dispatch was received from Sheridan and its contents were such as to cause Grant to leave the road and cut across the country to Sheridan’s headquarters.

On the night of the 5th, the army lay in line of battle stretching across three or four miles of country and facing northward at Jetersville. Custer’s division of cavalry lay on the right flank and McKenzie on the left.

The infantry was formed with the 6th corps on the right, 5th in the center and 2d on the left.

During the night Lee moved off many of his trains. It was feared he would elude the column.

Gen. Ord was to march in the morning toward Lynchburg to cut off his retreat to any point south of that. The whole army in the morning moved five miles on the road to Deatonville.

In the forenoon the 2d and 6th corps proceeded and fell upon Gordon’s corps, the rear guard of Lee’s army, in the vicinity of Deatonville, stampeding portions of it and making many captures of men and material. Gordon took up one position after another on hill-tops and succeeded in retarding our pursuit to a limited extent.

Refugees and deserters stated that the rebel army was falling to pieces. A refugee also said that trains were running from Richmond to Danville all day Sunday and that Davis and his Cabinet arrived at the latter place in the afternoon and were taken to the residence of Mr. Southerland.

He also said that Beauregard telegraphed that Stoneman was on the Danville and Greensboro Railroad, tearing it up between those places.

The Herald’s correspondence with the cavalry recounts the movements of this arm of the service in pursuit of Lee. Their rear guard was overtaken on the morning of the 3d, strongly entrenched across the Nawagine creek, having destroyed the bridge and felled trees across the ford to impede the pursuit. On advancing, the enemy opened fire, which was returned with vigor. They were finally shelled from their position. A number of men were at once dismounted and the obstructions removed, and the command crossed.

Evidences of demoralization on the part of the enemy were at once met with. The road was strewn with all sorts of munitions, cannon and ammunition were discovered secreted in the woods. Pushing on, Barringer’s brigade of cavalry was soon encountered by our brigade, Col. Welles, commanding, when the rebels scattered like a flock of sheep on being fired upon.

In this charge, Lieut. Custer, brother of the general, got detached from his command, but came in with a rebel battle flag and fourteen “Johnnies.” Colonel Copehart’s Third Brigade about the same time overtook the rebels near Dennisville and drove them, gathering much ammunition and many prisoners and guns.

Finally, the rebels rallied to make a stand, when our cavalry formed for a charge. A strong force of rebel infantry was discovered in the rear, when our men commenced to fall back slowly, disputing every inch of ground until they were reinforced, and the rebels were driven again.->

We followed them closely until night set in. The rebels have been driven 22 miles, routed at every point, losing men, artillery, wagons, &c.

Our whole loss was not 50. On the 4th, the march resumed and continued until afternoon, when the enemy were overtaken and skirmishing ensued, which continued until night. On the 5th a fight took place, which has already been detailed.

•••••

The Movements of Our Army Previous to Lee’s Surrender.

Washington, April 10.–A letter dated headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Jetersville, Va., 7th, says on Monday our cavalry, under the gallant Sheridan, made important captures of prisoners, guns and wagons. The cavalry having gained possession of the Danville Railroad some time previous, were not long in discovering the enemy. The Fifth Corps being well up in support, preparations were made for another attack. The Second Division under General Davis charged and drove the enemy, but the rebel infantry came up and, under cover of the woods, attacked our men, who were forced back on the infantry, but not until one thousand prisoners, six guns, and a mile of wagon trains, together with their drivers, were in possession of the Second Division. The wagons numbered two hundred and were mostly empty, and were burnt after the mules had been cut loose and brought in, along with a train belonging to Fitz Hugh Lee.

In this engagement Sheridan took 300 prisoners, among whom was Gen. Bragg’s Chief of Artillery. The 1st Pennsylvania regiment took seven flags with many prisoners.

The prisoners taken the past three days foot up [to] 1500, including a number of officers.

The correspondent gives some particulars already in substance officially telegraphed, and adds that the greatest credit is due to the Army of the Potomac and its Commander for the bravery and energy displayed during the series of battles. Some portions of the army have been marching continuously for several days, the Fifth Corps making over thirty miles yesterday in their efforts to reach the foe.

•••••

The Public Rejoicing.–Although the news of the capitulation of Gen. Lee and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia was received at a late hour last night, it spread like wildfire, and every one who heard it was beside himself with joy. But the masses did not learn of it until the issue of the morning papers. Then it was that countenances beamed with gladness, and cheers rent the atmosphere of not only “out of doors,” but of private dwellings. When the people came out on business, which they did at an earlier hour than usual, there were joyous countenances, cordial hand shaking, and mutual congratulations on every side.

The merchants of Milk, Franklin and Summer streets and vicinity, commenced forthwith to decorate their shops with national emblems, and the process is even now going on, while from every staff flutters the starry ensign in the joyous breeze.

The schools of the city re suspended; a salute is to be fired from the Common. Processions with music are to parade the streets and there will be an exhibition of fire works on the Common.

•••••

New York, April 10.–The Post’s special Washington dispatch says Secretary Stanton expresses his belief that there will be no more heavy fighting. It is expected that Johnston will surrender. There is reason to believe that Jeff Davis was at Danville on Saturday night, trying to join Johnston with the archives of the rebel Government and a large amount of specie.

The Commercial’s Washington dispatch says John C. Breckinridge [rebel Secretary of War] was known to be with Lee on Friday, and hopes are entertained that he has been captured. Pollard [of the Richmond Examiner], who took advantage of the escape of Richardson, has been arrested in Richmond and committed to Castle Thunder for treasonable language.

WEDNESDAY
APRIL
12, 1865
THE HARTFORD DAILY COURANT (CT)

Washington Items.

Washington, April 11.–The proclamation in reference to the closing of southern ports was made in accordance with the law passed as early as 1861. It was then understood, however, that while foreign powers would respect the effective blockade of those ports, the claim to exercise legal authority over them as over other ports of the United States would not be respected. It is believed the time has come, however, when the United States government can claim to exercise that legal authority over all its ports whatever, blockaded or not, which belongs to every independent sovereign power. A sufficient number of southern ports are left open for legitimate trade, and these now proclaimed closed will, it is presumed, be reopened after a time. Meanwhile, blockade running is likely to be effectively ended.

The issuing of this proclamation is understood to have been the business upon which Secretary Seward was about to visit City Point to confer with the President last week.

The new British minister has reached Washington and taken possession of the legation, but has not presented his credentials to the President.

Secretary Seward’s condition is gradually improving, though he occasionally suffers much pain.

•••••

Gov. Pierpoint to Establish Headquarters at Richmond.

Washington, April 11.–The Star of this afternoon says, in order to put a stop to the absurd rumor afloat in regard to the proposition of the President to recognize the rebel Legislature of Virginia, we are enabled to state that early on yesterday the President telegraphed to Governor Pierpoint to come at once to Washington, where a long conference was held between them, the object of which was to perfect a plan for the restoration of Gov. Pierpoint’s government at Richmond.

•••••

The rebels, in their official proclamations, as well as in their speeches and newspaper articles, have announced that the honor of southern women would not be safe if the Yankees should get possession of the land. Now, is it not very remarkable that, if they believed those statements, Beauregard should leave his wife in New Orleans, Hardee his wife in Savannah, and Lee his wife in Richmond, when those cities fell into our hands? Have they no regard for the safety of their wives?–Prov. Journal.

•••••

General News.

General Ewell, after his capture, said General Lee long since wanted to take his troops westward and there disband them, but Davis would not consent.

The total loss by fire at Richmond, foots up $2,146,240. This is considered a low estimate.

Work is to be cut down at the Springfield armory to 5000 guns per day, one half the late production.

The cannonading at Richmond was distinctly heard at Arlington Heights, Washington, a distance of over one hundred miles.

Libby prison is filled with rebel prisoners. Castle Thunder is used as a receptacle for citizen prisoners. ->

A warehouse opposite the Pemberton prison, Richmond, was filled with tobacco belonging to the French government, worth $2,000,000 in gold, but the rebels fired it before they left.

The British government is about to abandon its naval establishments on the coast of Africa for the suppression and prevention of the slave trade. They do not civilize Africa, and cost the lives of many men and millions of money.

The Richmond Whig of Monday says whatever may be the fate of the constitutional amendment, it is certain that slavery in Virginia is dead. A national bank of the United States is to be immediately established in Richmond, where shares in United States stocks will be sold at rates established in northern cities.

All hospitals in Richmond have been taken possession of by the military authorities, and used for the care and comfort of federal and confederate sick and wounded; a number of confederate surgeons left in the city have been paroled to attend to confederate sick and wounded. Chimborazo, Winder, Jackson and Howard’s Greve hospitals, the four principal confederate hospitals, are used for the accommodation of federal wounded. Their accommodations are about 24,000 beds.

The Richmond Whig of the 8th inst. said: “The Christian Commission issued fifteen hundred rations yesterday, chiefly to the suffering poor, who were burned out by the fire. The quick adjustment of the commissioner to the relief of the suffering is a double demonstration of its noble service.”

It is estimated that the rebel force surrendered to General Grant on Sunday by General Lee numbered between twenty and twenty-two thousand men. The total number of general officers who have become prisoners to General Grant since the 5th inst. is eighty-two, including General Lee himself.

The President, accompanied by Mrs. Lincoln, Senators Harlan, Sumner, and others, Saturday paid a visit to the general hospitals at City Point, the President shaking hands with every man, and to every one saying a word or two of commendation. He looked feeble, and was remonstrated with by the surgeon in charge for attempting the hand-shaking of several thousand men, but in answer said: “Gentlemen, the war seems about over, and I must shake the hands of, and say a good word to, every brave fellow who has aided in the glorious work.”

It is stated that Kirby Smith and the Trans-Mississippi army is all ready to follow the example of Gen. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia, by a surrender and general dispersion to their homes. Mississippi is also ready for reconstruction, and propositions to that end have already been submitted to the government, and will be consummated upon the basis proposed, which is a restoration of the authority of the United States and the abolition of slavery. The army is well supplied, but the people are destitute of almost everything.

Portland, April 11.–Superintendent Latham, of the Grand Trunk railroad, who tore a flag from the train yesterday, was waited upon by a quiet mob to-day, and conducted through the city dressed in soldiers’ uniform, and carrying a flag, which he was obliged to salute, and also to make patriotic speeches. Finally the flag was nailed to his house.

THURSDAY
APRIL 13,
1865
THE BOSTON HERALD

War Matters.

The Richmond correspondent of the New York World is giving a series of graphic sketches of what he saw and heard in Richmond, which possess peculiar interest at this time, and some incidents of life in that city while it was the rebel capital. He says the number of Unionists in Richmond has been exaggerated, but most of them were staunch. John Minot Botts was the foremost of them. Dr. Robert Burton, Charles Palmer, a merchant and a Southerner; T. B. Humphreys, a railway official; Valentine Heckler. A German butcher; B. Wardwell, an ice dealer, and Franklin Stearns, a landed proprietor and distiller, were the best known of them. All but Palmer were Northern men; some were run out of town; some were imprisoned. Mr. Stearns is a Vermont man by birth, and one of the wealthiest men in the State. He has suffered much, but is high minded and above revenge. His farm near Richmond is one of the most beautiful in the South, and his hospitality to friend and foe has been unbounded. His family, led by his children’s grandmother, met our advance soldiers with nosegays and streaming eyes. He never ceased to talk up the old flag and prophecy the downfall of the rebellion. His farm, strange to say, is a garden amid the ruin, and the fire within the city was stayed by a Divine hand just at its threshold. He had no faith in, nor love of, rebel money, and invested in real estate mortgages, so that he is therefore yet rich and blessed with rare old age. When the fire in the city was yet raging, he stood by his hill-top mansion, looking into the town to see, as he supposed, his great factory in flames; but the army of the union was coming up, so he only said, “Thank God! I have not a regret in the world now.” Mr. Stearns was imprisoned for sending money to Col. Corcoran while in jail. Mr. Wardwell ran on the flag of truce boat, and sent word to Jeff Davis that he meant to bring his gallows to Richmond when he came back.

Mr. Stearns said to this correspondent:

“The rebel government was the most atrocious in the world; it starved to death thirty thousand poor fellows, and made its career one dynasty of murder; but more bloodshed, even for justice’s sake, will only retard the perfect peace; we must leave all retribution to God alone!”

Of the literary world in the rebel capital, he says:

“The litterateurs, par excellence, here were the English correspondents, Vizitelli and Lawley. The latter was an intense secessionist, and a gentleman; Vizitelli was a dishonest and vulgar man of genius. He spent a life of debauchery here, drawing a large salary from the Times for letters which he never penned, asserting to his employers that the blockading vessels had captured them. This explains why every southern letter cost the Times £300 sterling. Vizitelli and two English exquisites, named Gordon and Cavendish, members of staffs, gave a splendid supper and party at the Ballard House once, inviting the most excellent people of Richmond; they ran away without paying for it. The artist, in fact, owes everybody in Richmond money, He was put out of the Spottswood Hotel, where he boarded, for repeated and noisy drunkenness, and for penciling lascivious figures in the ladies’ closets, which were traced to him by their artistic excellence. When he left, the room in which he lived was covered in every part of the walls and ceiling with sketches of all possible kinds, most of them exceedingly fine; the room had to be white-washed to hide the vestiges of Vizitelli; this genius was a “sport” of the first water, wearing Wellington outside boots, red neckties and jockey coats; he was stout and parted his hair in the middle. There was no literary society, so to speak, in the capitol. Every body read novels for their plots and poems for their jingle. Blue stockings were unknown, and Shakespeare, had he lived here, would have starved to death.

Of some of the heroes of the rebellion who used to figure at Richmond, the most mentionable were:

General J. E. B. Stuart, who was a vain, gallant, and dissipated man, cavalier to the backbone, He loved carousals and women; and once after returning from a long and wearying ride with Early, outraged the latter by making his band play all night at a tavern and waking up the village girls for a dance.

Extra Billy Smith, the governor, who ran away, is described as an ass. He was a disgusting looking man, whose lips could not hide his teeth and gums. He was far inferior to Letcher, who was generally sensible when sober. Smith commanded a brigade, though he knew nothing of soldiering, and, crossing the Hazel river once, ordered his men to take off their shoes and stockings to ford it. He was shot at Gettysburg, and in the political campaign which resulted in his election, made speeches with the ball in his hand by which he was shot. ->

Breckinridge, good looking and bold, was the most determined of all the subordinate rebels. He was absolute in Richmond and to the craving citizens who begged him to save the town by fire, he gave a peremptory refusal. He was among the last to leave the burning ship.

Bishop McGill, of the Catholic Church, remains here, having worked like a fireman to save his cathedral; all the priests stand by their posts. He is a Kentuckian.

Of the future, the writer says:

Order is gradually returning, and shape arises from the chaos of the past week. Nobody with whom I have talked had further hope of Southern independence; this population en masse is willing to take the oath. It must submit to two troubles–the loss of slaves and the presence of Yankees. The Negroes understand matters and mean to be free; but they have no hard words for their old owners. In a new form slavery will still exist, black men living in white families to which they belonged, but receiving wages. There will be little emigration of either class; not four thousand citizens, all told, followed the rebel government to its ultima thule. The Negroes are jubilant, but subordinate. A gentleman told me to-day that, when our soldiers entered the city, he called together his servants and told them that he was no longer their master. “I want you to stay with me, my people,” he said, “and you shall have as good wages as any stranger can give you.”

Hey all stood irresolute, dazzled by their new and brightened era. His wife and daughters wept at the prospect of the old homestead breaking up; then said the oldest, “Massa, I will stand by you.” The rest, carried away, replied likewise. And the Negroes have never worked so well as during the past week.

The richer proprietors, who have many Negroes, are contented to lose them; but the poorer ones wince; these last will not yield without a struggle.

As to the invading traders, their name is legion, and they are almost all shrewd and pitiless. They act on the Canaanite principle of succeeding to the land, and are turning out the old possessors after true Saxon precedents. One of them has edged into one of the hotels here by tampering with the proprietor’s fears; others have moved into the stores, and do business as if they had titles to them. The greenback, for the first time, is doing good; for every one that a rebel holds makes him more interested in the restoration of a Union to redeem them.

There is no more faith in the rebellion; it will be a long time before the United States is greatly beloved, but it will be always obeyed. Our soldiers look well, most of them being newly uniformed, and behave like gentlemen. Courtesy will conquer all that bayonets have not won. The brunt district is still hideously yawning in the heart of town, a monument to the sternness of those bold revolutionists who are being hunted to their last quarry. Despotism, under the pleas of necessity, has met with its end here as it must everywhere. We shall have no more experiments for liberty out of the Union.

•••••

Successful Expedition from Norfolk into North Carolina.

Fortress Monroe, April 11.–An expedition composed principally of the First New York mounted rifles left Norfolk on the first inst., on a reconnoisance up the Chowan River, with the intention, if possible, of reaching Weldon, North Carolina, which resulted with entire success. The cavalry struck the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad and demolished the track for a considerable distance. While thus engaged they were attacked by six hundred rebels, and after a severe fight, succeeded in repulsing them. The cavalry then fell back to Murfreesboro, where their booty was delivered to the gunboats. Amongst the captures were one thousand bales of superior cotton, a large amount of tobacco and snuff, and thirty prisoners.

Parties of the cavalry scouted to within a few miles of Weldon, and from prisoners taken they learned that the town was strongly fortified and garrisoned by a force of one thousand rebels with several batteries of artillery.

The expedition returned last Saturday. This expedition is said to be the largest sent into northern North Carolina, and accomplished a great deal of good in ascertaining the exact locality of the rebel forces in that section of the State.

FRIDAY
APRIL 14
, 1865
THE PROVIDENCE EVENING PRESS (RI)

No More Drafting and Recruiting.

War Department,
Washington
, April 13, 6 a.m.

To Major Gen. Dix, N. Y.:

The department, after mature consideration and consultation with the Lieutenant General upon the results of the recent campaigns, has come to the following determinations, which will be carried into effect by appropriate order to be immediately issued:

First. To stop all recruiting and drafting in the loyal States.

Second. To curtail purchases for arms, ammunition, Quartermasters’ and Commissaries’ supplies, and reduce the expenses of the military establishment in its several branches.

Third. To reduce the number of Generals and staff officers to the  actual necessity of the service.

Fourth. To remove all military restrictions upon trade and commerce, so far as may be consistent with the public safety.

As soon as these measures can be put in operation, it will be made known by public orders.

Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War.

•••••

From the Potomac Army.
Particulars of the Late Battles.

Washington, April 13.

A correspondent from the Army of the Potomac says very little fighting took place on the 7th at Farmville. Some skirmishing between the enemy’s rear guard and the second corps with the second division of cavalry, resulted in being unimportant.

Lee’s army passed through Farmville on the morning of the 7th. After crossing Appomattox the bridges were burned, and before our troops could get over, the enemy had taken position a mile from the river, where they erected works and made a stand in order to allow their wagon train to get out of the way. On this side of the river just outside of the town, a division of cavalry had taken up a position, determined to annoy our advance while reconstructing the bridge. The second division under Gen. Crook attacked them vigorously, driving them back some distance, but they had a force dismounted lying in ambush, which poured a severe fire into our men as they advanced to the second attack, and they were compelled to fall back on their supports.

The rebels soon after retired, indisposed to make another charge. The loss on both sides was very light. The 2d corps soon after crossed the river, and pushing on after the enemy, drove them behind their newly built earthworks.

In the morning, before the enemy crossed the river, 12 guns were taken from them, and afterwards 6 more making 18 during the day, and about 2000 prisoners. The number of prisoners taken on the 6th is put down at 7700, almost entirely from Kershaw’s and Custis Lee’s divisions.

The field where the surrender took place was almost covered with the enemy’s dead, all of them shot in the head and the upper part of the body. The position was a very favorable one for them, but our artillery had a good range on an adjoining hill, and our men charged up the ascent with such impetuosity that some were bayonetted before they left their light breastworks. The road for miles was strewn with broken down wagons, caissons, and baggage of all kinds, presenting a scene seldom witnessed on the part of Lee’s army. ->

Another letter, dated the evening of the 8th, says stragglers were found scattered all along the line of march, and as they troops pass they come in and surrender themselves, expressing a determination to fight no longer, as they considered the rebellion as good as over. Four guns were brought in this morning, besides a long train of ambulances, many containing wounded, who were placed in the hospitals and cared for. Gen. Gordon sent four surgeons through the lines this afternoon, asking that they be allowed to minister to the wants of those left behind on the road, but as we have plenty of such help, they will be returned to their army in the morning.

Another letter, dated the 9th, says, notwithstanding the correspondence between Gens. Grant and Lee yesterday, which led all to expect a formal surrender this morning, the latter exerted all his energies to escape the net laid before him. He marched rapidly all afternoon and evening, until he ran against Sheridan at Appomattox Court House. A sharp fight ensued, resulting in the capture of a number of prisoners, and checking their retreat. The 24th and 5th corps were close up in support of the cavalry, and during the night took up position across the main road, and on the south side, the Appomattox river on the north cutting them off from retreat in that direction. Early this morning, Sheridan attacked vigorously, and for some time a brisk engagement was carried on. About nine o’clock in the morning a flag of truce appeared in front of his line, and he was informed that hostilities had been suspended in order to arrange terms of surrender. This was caused by an agreement made by Gen. Ord, consenting to a cessation of firing to communicate with Gen. Grant, and was done, it is said, without proper authority.

Gen. Sheridan’s Adjutant General was allowed to come through the rebel column to communicate with General Meade, who stated he knew of no such arrangement, and that he was about to move forward in accordance with his previous intentions. Gen. Lee, however, sent another message desiring to have an interview with general Grant, to arrange terms of surrender, and Gen. Meade was thus obliged to grant a two hours’ armistice in order to communicate with Gen. Grant, who had moved around to the left during the night. Gen. Grant consenting to see Gen. Lee and discuss the matter, about half-past four o’clock Lieut. Col. Whitier of Gen. Wright’s staff, came in and reported the terms arranged, and papers were signed, when the greatest excitement prevailed throughout our lines, cheer upon sheer rending the air. Soon after, Gen. Meade and staff, with other officers, rode along the lines of the 2d and 6th corps, and were greeted with the most enthusiastic shouts, and the men throwing their hats in the air, and fairly dancing with joy.

It is understood that the men of Lee’s army will be paroled and allowed to return to their homes. They gave up everything in their hands, but last night they destroyed a large amount of property in the shape of wagons, gun carriages, baggage, papers, &c.

The numbers of Lee’s force is put down at about 20,000 men. There are very few guns in their possession, as they abandoned nearly all they did not lose in action; 38 guns were brought in yesterday, and several this morning.

The rank and file of Lee’s army are said to be well satisfied to give up the struggle, believing there is no hope of success, but say if Lee had refused to surrender they would have stuck with him to the last. The officers are somewhat surly and discontented, but this feeling will soon wear off when they find how liberally and kindly our people are disposed to treat them.

SATURDAY
APRIL 15, 1865

THE BOSTON TRAVELLER

Washington, April 14.–President Lincoln and wife visited the theatre (Ford’s) this evening for the purpose of witnessing the performance if the American Cousin. It was announced in the papers that General Grant would also be present, but that gentleman took the ate train of cars for New Jersey.

The theatre was densely crowded, and every body seemed delighted with the scene before them. During the third act, and while there was a temporary pause for one of the actors to enter, a sharp report of a pistol was heard, which merely attracted attention, but suggested nothing serious until a man rushed to the front of the President’s box, waving a long dagger in his right hand, exclaiming “Sic semper tyrannis!” and immediately leaped from the box, which was in the second tier, to the stage beneath and ran across to the opposite side, making his escape amid the bewilderment of the audience from the rear of the theatre, and, mounting a horse, fled.

The screams of Mrs. Lincoln first disclosed the fact to the audience that the President had been shot, when all present rose to their feet, rushing toward the stage, many exclaiming, “Hang him! Hang him!” The excitement was of the wildest possible description, and of course there was an abrupt termination of the theatrical performance.

There was a rush toward the President’s box, when cries were heard, “Stand back and give him air!” “Has any one stimulants?” On a hasty examination, it was found that the President had been shot through the head above and back of the temporal bone, and that some of the brain was oozing out. He was removed to a private house opposite the theatre, and the Surgeon General of the Army and other surgeons were sent for to attend to his condition.

On an examination of the private box, blood was discovered on the back of the cushioned rocking-chair on which the President had been sitting, also on the partition and on the floor. A common single-barrelled pocket pistol was found on the carpet.

A military guard was placed in front of the private residence to which the President had been conveyed. An immense crowd was in front of it, all deeply anxious to learn the condition of the President.

It had previously been announced that the wound was mortal, but all hoped otherwise.

The shock to the community is terrible.

At midnight the Cabinet, with Messrs. Sumner, Colfax and Farnsworth, Judge Curtis, Governor Oglesby, Gen. Meigs, Col. Hay, and a few personal friends, with Surgeon Gen. Barnes and his immediate assistants, were around his bedside.

The President was in a state of  syncope, totally insensible and breathing slowly.4 The blood oozed from the wound in the back of his head. The surgeon exhausted every effort of medical skill, but all hope was gone.

The parting of his family with the dying President is too sad for description.

The President and Mrs. Lincoln did not start for the theatre until 15 minutes after 8 o’clock. Speaker Colfax was at the White House at the time, and the President stated to him that he was going, although Mrs. Lincoln had not been well, because the papers had announced that he and General Grant were to be present, and as General Grant had gone North, he did not wish the audience to be disappointed. He went with apparent reluctance, and urged Mr. Colfax to go with him, but that gentleman had made other arrangements, and with Mr. Ashman of Massachusetts bid him good-bye. ->

When the excitement at the theatre was at its wildest height, reports were circulated that Secretary Seward had also been assassinated. On reaching this gentleman’s residence, a crowd and a military guard were found at the door, and on entering it was ascertained that the reports were based on truth.

Everybody there was so excited that scarcely an intelligible word could be gathered; but the facts are substantially as follows:

About ten o’clock a man rang the door bell, and, the call having been answered by a colored servant, he said he had come from Dr. Verdi, Mr. Seward’s family physician, with a prescription, at the same time holding in his hand a small piece of folded paper, and saying, in answer to a refusal, that he must see the Secretary, as he was entrusted with particular directions concerning the medicines. He still insisted on going up, although repeatedly informed that no one could enter the chamber.

The man pushed the servant aside, and walked heavily toward the Secretary’s room, and was there met by Frederick Seward, of whom he demanded to see the Secretary, making the same representation which he did to the servant. What further passed in the way of colloquy is not known, but the man struck him on the head with a billy, severely injuring the skull and felling him almost senseless.

The assassin then rushed into the camber and attacked Major Seward, Paymaster of the U. S. army, and Mr. Hansel, of the State department and two male servants, disabling them all. He then rushed upon the Secretary, who was lying in bed in the same room, and inflicted three stabs in the neck, but severing, it is thought and hoped, no arteries, though he bled profusely.

The assassin then rushed down stairs unmolested, mounted his horse at the door, and rode off before an alarm could be sounded, and in the same manner as the assassin of the President.

It is believed that the injuries of the Secretary are not fatal, nor those of either of the others, although both the Secretary and Assistant Secretary are very seriously wounded.

Secretaries Stanton and Welles and other prominent officers of the government called at Secretary Seward’s house to inquire into his condition, and there heard of the assassination of the President.

They then proceeded to the house where the President was lying, exhibiting, of course, intense anxiety and sympathy. An immense crowd was gathered in front of the President’s house, and a strong guard was also stationed there, many persons supposing that he would be brought to his home.

The entire city to-night presents a scene of wild excitement, accompanied by violent expressions of the profoundest sorrow. Many shed tears.

The military authorities dispatched mounted patrols in every direction, in order, if possible, to arrest the assassins. The whole Metropolitan police are likewise vigilant for the same purpose.

The attacks at both the theatre and the Secretary’s house took place at about the same hour–ten o’clock–thus showing a preconcerted plan to assassinate these gentlemen.

Some evidence of the guilty party who attacked the President is in the hands of the police.

Vice President Johnson is in the city headquarters and guarded by troops.

SUNDAY
APRIL 16, 1865

THE DAILY NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER (DC)

He who was yesterday our good, gentle, wise, upright, Christian, affectionate President, is no more. Who realizes the dreadful fact that Abraham Lincoln was assassinated on Friday night? The tragedy overcomes and stupefies the community. All of us feel as if we were passing through a horrid dream, which is yet to have a bright awakening. But, alas, it is real; the late President has been butchered. The Great Hand still presses heavily upon us; our chastisement is not ended! In the midst of our exultation the nation is bowed down; another great example is furnished whose moral is humility; an earthly popular idol has been removed, and a stricken people feel that the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth.

The sad details are before our readers. How he died, where he died, is told with painful exactness. The harrowing particulars concerning the anguish and distress of his bereaved and devoted family are disclosed to us, and we can thus forcibly comprehend how deep is their grief. A noble and great man, a loving and tender husband and parent–who or what can replace him to these sobbing and sorrowing ones? It is their consolation as it is that of the country, to know that no man since Washington has performed so great a mission as he; none has ever lived in all the tide of time who evinced more purity, or who was more largely trusted by a great nation in the issues of its life and death. He did not have, he could not have, among those worthy of consideration, a single enemy. The being does not live, himself a just and thoughtful man who assailed his integrity. And this is saying enough for the personal character of him in whose hands such a people, at such a time, entrusted both the Sword and the Purse.

The life of Mr. Lincoln in its details is too well known to require republication at this moment. Everybody is informed about him. All of us have read that he was essentially an American, and a representative of our institutions, because he was eh child of poverty and industry, rough grown on our soil like its grand mountains; and because he was self-made by the force of his will, by the purity and religious convictions of his nature, and by that unrelenting industry and energy which have created us a great and powerful people. History, in this respect, furnishes no stronger example in favor of true democracy than Abraham Lincoln.

No man is known in history whose personal character was just such a “household word” as was that of the late President. It was not a remote and dazzling character, adored and followed like that of Napoleon, or of Clay or of Jackson, but it was rather that of an honest neighbor or relative, in whose entire integrity, prudence, great patience, good hands, Christian purity, and well-balanced and far-reaching sense, his fellows had implicit reliance. While his friends supposed that there were many more brilliant and perhaps more able men, they felt that none was so safe as he, and so they overlooked what were called his mistakes, and ratified and endorsed all his official conduct, with almost filial and fraternal confidence, trust, and hope. Certainly no man is known to the record of history, in a position so commanding and elevated, who, in the same degree was rooted in the intimate and family affections of the large body of people. ->

Mr. Lincoln’s statesmanship was rather greater perhaps, in what he forebore to do, than in what he did. His distinguishing mental trait was that of eminent common sense. To this he added wonderful individuality and great astuteness and shrewdness in reconciling or overcoming mere political intrigues and combinations. He was eminent in simplicity and directness of thought, and his grasp of mind and keenness of reasoning, his aptitude in illustration, his power of statement, and his peculiar talent for popularizing elevated topics were really wonderful. No man ever wrote who came nearer to the heart as well as the heads of the masses; his was the faculty of satisfying the millions who read him or heard him, that, if he was not right always in his positions, at all events he was sincere and conscientious in what he said.

About the period of his murder, the late President was directing his heart, and soul, and mind to the great work of restoring the Union. His feelings toward the South, we know, were most charitable, his designs were most liberal; they went to such an extent as must have harmonized the sections had they been properly seconded, while all the substantial reforms needed by the nation would have been embraced in his plan or plans. His extreme kindness of heart, in this regard, may be noted in the fact that his last official act (as we state on the highest authority) was to sign a permit to Jacob Thompson, late Secretary of the Interior under Mr. Buchanan, to leave this country for Europe.

Among those significant things, which often look like inspirations, that frequently attend the latter days of noted men, we will mention an affecting fact connected with the deceased President. While on a recent trip to Richmond, he amused himself with reading Shakespeare, and often to the friends about him. It is a little strange that Mr. Lincoln, on one such occasion, should have twice read aloud, and called the marked attention of those about him to the well-known line which Macbeth, in his remorse, utters about the traitorously murdered Duncan:

Duncan is in his grave.
After life’s fitful fever he sleeps well.
Treason has done his worst; nor steel nor poison,
Malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing
Can touch him further.

But we must close these crude remarks. It only remains to be said that on the night of the celebration of the crucifixion of our Saviour, on the night of the anniversary of the fall of Sumter, in the midst of the joy of the people over the prospect of peace and reunion, which he was laboring to promote, Abraham Lincoln was murdered. Man proposes, but God disposes. May His mercy not be withdrawn from us. May his spirit grace and strengthen the present incumbent of the Presidential chair. And kneeling around our country’s altar, may the nation feel, that as God is above party, so should we accept this dispensation in such spirit as shall teach us that he has given us Freedom and a Country to transmit to future ages.

1 In reality, Bentonville was a victory for the Union forces, which, while suffering some 1527 casualties, inflicted 2606 on Johnston’s army. Contrary to this report, it was not Sherman, but Johnston who moved off on the night of the 21st, burning bridges in his wake. Far from being “ready to meet the enemy at all points,” Bentonville was the last major engagement for Johnston’s army.

2 Casualties at Averysboro were, in reality, 865 for Johnston and 682 for Sherman–a bit shy of the claimed 3800.

3 Kalydor was an early combination skin cream and suntan lotion, evidenced as early as the 1840s, and used at least through the 1880s .

4 Syncope, the medical term for fainting or passing out, is defined as a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, characterized by rapid onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery, due to global cerebral hypoperfusion (low blood flow to the brain) that most often results from hypotension (low blood pressure).

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