OCTOBER 6, 1861



The following letter contains an appeal to the people of Texas, which we feel will be promptly and cordially responded to:

Richmond, Va., Sept. 20, 1861.

Editors Picayune—Through you I address this note to the people of Texas. I wish to call their attention to the helpless condition of the sick soldiers from Texas now in Virginia.

The patriotic citizens of Louisiana, Alabama and other States, have made munificent donations towards founding hospitals for the sick and wounded of their respective States in Richmond. The State of South Carolina has the sum of twenty thousand dollars deposited in one of the banks of Richmond for the same purpose. The city of New Orleans has sent several committees to Virginia, composed of the best medical talent of the country, to look to the wants of her brave sick and wounded. Texas now has three thousand troops in Virginia—this number will soon be increased to six thousand—they will have to undergo the rigors and hardships of a winter campaign in a country whose climate is much colder than they have ever before experienced. The long, weary and fatigueing journey of the two regiments who marched from Houston to New Iberia, in Louisiana, where for ten days the noble boys marched up to their knees in water, through the marshes and lagoons of Southern Texas and Louisiana, and never, during their whole march, having a dry place to lay their tired and weary limbs at the expiration of the day’s journey, has brought many of the gallant fellows to the sick couch, from which few have yet arisen. I visited the camps of three regiments yesterday, and was astonished to find the effects of that terrible march upon them. Those whom I had seen starting out from their loved “Lone Star State,” only a few weeks ago, so lithe, elastic and gay, were now haggard, pale and careworn. Then it was I was struck with the great advantage of these State hospitals. If Texas had one now in Richmond these poor fellows could go into it, and in a few weeks, with the kind and skillful treatment of competent nurses, would be prepared to don their armor and go again into the field. In a State institution of this kind the sick and wounded will obtain little delicacies which it is impossible for the larger and more crowded institutions to provide. In the event of their being wounded on any of the battle-fields, the soldiers can be sent to Richmond to their hospital and remain until their entire recovery.

I suggest that every patriotic son and daughter of Texas contribute to this truly laudable enterprise. Let every person contribute some thing; those who cannot furnish money, let them subscribe sheets, bandages, castile soap, towels, and all those little articles so essential to a sick room, and which are so well known to the sweet and lovely ministering angels (I mean sublunary)1 of Texas; every one contributing their mite will form a fund sufficient to put this enterprise in operation, and I am well satisfied that our next Legislature will make appropriations to continue it.

I suggest that E. H. Cushing, Esq., of Houston, and the Rev. T. B. Wilson, of Marshall, Texas, will consent to act as the Treasurers of this fund, for your respective sections of the State, that you appoint agents in each and every town in the State, to solicit subscriptions, and when you think you have sufficient to commence, employ the best medical men of Texas to go to Richmond, and take charge of it. The prayers of every soldier in the service will be your recompense. I do not confine this fund to those soldiers from Texas, who are in the Virginia service, alone, but would urge the division of it—half to be sent to found a similar institution in Missouri for our brave Texans who are daily gaining fresh laurels under the gallant Ben McCulloch. My pays is $135 a month; it is all I have. I cheerfully give $5 of it to put the ball in motion.

Very sincerely, &c.,

Tom P. Ochiltree
Aid de Camp to Gen. Sibley, C.S.A.


European Policy as to Mexico—The London Shipping Gazette of Sept. 11, contains the following in relation to the position and disposition of Europe—particularly England and France—towards Mexico:

The expectation that a combined Anglo-French naval and military expedition is to be immediately organized to obtain redress for the indignities and injuries inflicted on British and French interests in Mexico, is regarded with satisfaction by all who have watched the painful consequences of the toleration so long shown to the various governments in that country. It is reported that Spain also is anxiously desirous of some respectable adjustment that may put an end to the previous horrors; and the private letters, last received from Mexico, reiterate the assertion that foreign intervention is prayed for by the whole population, with the exception of the military or political robbers, for whom the existing anarchy has been created. Under the circumstances, too, it is assumed that the Federal Cabinet in Washington will be disposed cordially to cooperate in the work, so that it shall permanently conciliate all rational claims. Whether the question is to be dealt with by the general combination which seems thus in prospect, or by England and France alone, it is evident that further delay is at an end.

It is bandied in some quarters that it is the object of the two powers to have a strong force in Mexican water, and thus take advantage of any contingency that may arise during the pending conflict between the Northern and Southern States.


The Steamboatmen and the Soldiers—It is with feelings of peculiar pleasure that we call attention to the statement of Mr. Geo. H. Kirk, Chairman of the Committee of the Steamboatmen, who have placed in the hands of Messrs. A. B. James & Co., to be forwarded to our gallant volunteers at the seat of war, 1023 blankets.


OCTOBER 7, 1861



“No longer than eight and twenty years ago the Presbyterian Synod of South Carolina and Georgia issued an address in which occurs this eloquent protest against the curse of chattelship in men:

‘The influence of the Negroes upon the moral and religious interests of the whites is destructive in the extreme. We cannot go into detail. It is unnecessary. We make our appeal to the universal experience. We are chained to a putrid carcass. It sickens and destroys us. We have a millstone about the necks of our society to sink us deep in the sea of vice.’

“The ‘putrid carcass’ still rots beneath the Southern sun. Its stench pervades the land; its deadly exhalations taint the general air. It has poisoned and blighted all around it. It has corrupted politics, debauched morals and corrupted Religion to the heart!”

--Albany Evening Journal

The worst feature about the charge which has come over public sentiment on the subject of slavery is not mentioned in the above extract. Slavery, by the increase of its power and political influence, has become  respectable in the estimation of that large class of Northern men, who bow before success, even if achieved by Satan and his emissaries. Should we publish as our own such words as are quoted above from Southern Ministers of the Gospel, the entire doughface press of the North, from the force of habit, would brand us in glowing capitals as abolitionists and traitors. Yet the words were true when uttered and they are equally true at the present moment; morally considered, slavery has not improved since it was denounced as a millstone about the neck of Civilization and Christianity; while politically, it has been going from bad to worse, until at last, it takes the Union by the throat in a struggle. Yet even now while slavery on the one side, and the freest government of the world upon the other, are contending for the mastery of a continent, men among us would treat the GREAT BLACK SIN like a wayward child rather than as an enraged Demon, bent upon our utter destruction. But as this class of men were converted to the power of slavery, they may be converted to loyalty by the power of Freedom.


Military Seizure of Liquors—Saturday morning, by command of Lieut. Col. Fillebrown, two men, named John Campbell and Samuel McCracken, who had been selling liquor to the soldiers at Camp McClellan, were arrested and brought into the city, and given into the hands of the police. These men had chartered a boat which lay in the creek near the camp ground, from which they were dealing out a poor article of N. E. Rum by the glass or measure, to suit their customers. A ten gallon keg, half a dozen bottles, a tumbler, and a couple of tin measures, and the oars of the boat, were taken possession of, and lodged at the Police Office. The boat was retained in the custody of the soldiers.


The New York World, a very excellent paper in its way, has done as much as any of the New York Dailies to create and encourage the late popular clamor against Maj. General Fremont. This clamor MAY have caused an advance by the General before his preparations to meet his powerful adversary were wholly completed, and if his march ends in disaster his friends may fairly argue, that he should have been let alone and not made the subject of virulent newspaper attacks, at least until the charges against him had in some measure been substantiated before the proper tribunals. We have not yet lost faith in the gallant Colonel of old times, and its seems that the confidence of his friends is shared by the administration, which retains him in a command of scarcely less importance than that of McClellan, while we hope for the best, yet the anxiety of the public in regard to Missouri is almost painful, and every item of news from that State is sought for with avidity. The World says:

“It is almost appalling to think of the great responsibility that now rests on General Fremont. The good wishes and prayers of millions of loyal men are fervent for his success, and the national rejoicing will be unbounded if he returns to his headquarters a conqueror. The necessity he is laid under of redeeming a reputation which suffers from the fall of Lexington, will impel him to hazard all that a prudent man may dare, but it would be great misfortune if the powerful motives that act on him should carry him to the verge of rashness and lead him to trust too much to fortune. The stake is so great that the government should have some plan matured and in reserve for the immediate rescue of that important state, in case General Fremont should not be successful. The necessity is most urgent for the prosecution of the campaign in the Southwest with such energy so to bring it to an early close, and release a large army, before the setting in of winter, for an irresistible expedition in to the cotton states.

From Fortress Monroe

Fortress Monroe, Oct. 4—The Pawnee returned from Hatteras, and reports the loss of propeller Fanny, on Tuesday night, while on the way from the Inlet to Chicamacomico, the encampment of the 20th Indiana Regiment. She was captured by three rebel tugs, which pout out from Roanoke Island. Two rifled cannon, 25 men of the Indiana regiment, including Quartermaster Ira N. Holt, several of Hawkins’ regiment, and a large number of stores fell into the hands of the rebels. The Captain and crew of the propeller alone escaped. The Pawnee brings no other news of importance.

Passengers by the Old Point boat say that Magruder has ordered the evacuation of New port News in twelve hours.


8, 1861

Why Com. Stringham was Removed

Com. Stringham was removed from command of the Atlantic blockading squadron, it now appears, because he resented some unjust and impertinent censures from the war department, probably emanating from some officious subaltern, who considered himself the whole department. Thus, one after another, our best commanders are disabled while the army and navy are suffering for lack of services. Com. Stringham explained to his officers, when he took leave of them on the Minnesota, the flag-ship of the fleet, of which the following account is give in a letter of one of his officers: “He said that some time ago the United States sloop-of-war Jamestown came into the Roads with two water-tanks bursted, to have them repaired. He said that as water was of the utmost importance on board of a ship, especially a man-of-war, and being a ‘great water man’ himself, he saw the necessity of having the tanks properly repaired; consequently he deemed it expedient to send her to New York, which he did. Shortly afterwards, the United States gunboat Flag came in with her wood-ends started and bowsprits gone, having been in collision with the United States steam frigate Susquehanna. He sent her round to the Washington navy yard to have her repaired. He had had command of three navy yards, and knew perfectly well that the Flag could be repaired in two days, whereas it would consume a week here (as it really did) to finish her. The department sent the Flag back again to Hampton Roads, and at the same time sent him a letter censuring him for want of proper judgment and ability to have command of this squadron. The department suggested that the Flag could have been repaired at Newport News—a most ridiculous suggestion to any one who is acquainted with the place. He then read to the officers and crew the correspondence which passed between himself  and the department, and commented upon them, but not in lengthened speech. He said he was to much excited and affected to give a full expression of his feelings. He wished us all well, said the Minnesota was a fine ship, that we had done our duty, upon every occasion, to his satisfaction, and that if any one thought we could have done better at Hatteras, they had better try some other place. He then bade us farewell and returned to his cabin deeply affected, and were most of the officers and ship’s company. After having changed his uniform and put on civilian’s dress, he left his cabin for the last time. After lingering a short time by the cabin door, to give some direction as t the disposition of his baggage, the old gentleman, alone and unattended, advanced to the line of officers and shook hands with each one separately. Upon reaching the gangway he raised his hat to the men, whipped nimbly over the side and entered his barge, which was lying alongside. The word ‘Lay aloft!’ was given, and in an instant every man was in the rigging, from truck to dead eye, and nine rousing cheers went up for as good and brave a man as ever trod a war ship’s deck.”


The rebellion is played out—and “skunked” at that—in Western Virginia. That section is now considered perfectly secure for the Union cause. Gen. Lee’s undoubted bravery, Wise’s reckless activity, Floyd’s audacious thievery, all combined, were no match for our excellent commanders, brave troops, and the sympathies of the hardy mountaineers. The loyal state government at Wheeling will stand until Eastern Virginia can be subjugated by the federal armies.

A Mayor Wounded in a Riot

A serious riot occurred at Hudson City, N. J., on Saturday night, between members of the Barney Rifles, who are quartered at the U.S. arsenal, on the hill, and some three hundred citizens. One of the soldiers ran against a woman in the street, and was chastised for it by a citizen who saw the occurrence. The rowdy soldier returned to camp, gave information of his having been beaten, raised a mob of his comrades, and led an attack on the Newkirk House with stones and other missiles, the proprietor being mistaken for  the man who punished the soldier. The windows and blinds were demolished, and the inmates of the house narrowly escaped from serious injury. George Van Buren was wounded in the head by one of the stones which was thrown into the sitting-room. The fire bell was sounded in a short time after the attack on the house, and between three and four hundred men assembled. Col. Kozlay sent out a squad of men with muskets to bring in all the soldiers that were about the city. As the squad of men came near the Newkirk House they were attacked by the citizens, and some of the men were badly injured. Mayor Carpenter was present, and in trying to quell the disturbance was stabbed five or six times about the head and body, and is very seriously, if not fatally injured. Coroner Donnelly interfered and saved the life of one of the soldiers who was armed with a hatchet. There were serious apprehensions of further disturbances, and a strong force of special policemen has been sworn in, and eight companies of the local militia notified to hold themselves ready for immediate service. The citizens will insist upon having about 40 of the soldiers delivered up to the authorities for trial.  Some of the soldiers, it is alleged, while out about the city, have insulted women to such an extent as to cause a bitter feeling against them. Great excitement prevailed during Sunday. In case of further difficulty, the fire bells of Hudson City, Jersey City and Hoboken would be sounded, and as many as 3000 men could be brought together for an attack on the camp. Col. Kozlay, however, is enforcing very strict discipline and restricting the issue of passes to the soldiers.

Miscellaneous War News

The violation f the blockade at Savannah by the British steamer Bermuda is very aggravating, as it furnishes the enemy with a large amount of the most important supplies. The freight of the Bermuda was 70 tons of gunpowder, 7000 Enfield rifles, ten rifled cannon, 60,000 pairs shoes, a large quantity of blankets and cothing, and an extraordinary amount of quinine and morphine. Remonstrances against her sailing, and, indeed, against her completing her cargo, were made by Mr. Adams in London, but the British foreign office could not see its obligation to arrest the unlawful voyage. There will be an inquiry as to whose fault it was that she was allowed to evade the blockading fleet, but that is of little consequence now.


9, 1861


A letter from the blockading squadron at Pensacola gives the following account of a brilliant and successful naval exploit in that port on the night of the 16th ult.:

“It appears that a privateer that had for some time been fitting out at the Pensacola Navy Yard, was about completed, and ready to sail, her armament, a very heavy one, being on board, and crew by her, as could be discovered with good telescopes from the fort. It was resolved by the officers of the Colorado to frustrate their designs. So on the night of the 16th (if I mistake not) an expedition left the ship just after the moon set, in four boats, for this purpose. The party numbered 96 men, all told, consisting of Lieuts. Sproston and Blake, Midshipman Steere, Capt. Reynolds of the marines, and Third Assistant Engineer White, besides a dozen Marines, and the remaining party of sailors. The brig lay in the slip at the side of the Navy Yard, where were quartered some four thousand soldiers, and on the wharf just adjoining the vessel was a 10-inch gun which commanded that part of the harbor.

The party proceeded with muffled oars with great caution, and were near the vessel before they were discovered. On being discovered they were fired upon by the rebels on the vessel. A man in the “top” of the privateer, who was doing the most damage t0 our men, was discovered by Engineer White, when he seized a rifle and shot the man, he falling from the top to the deck a corpse. The boats’ crews, under Lieutenants Russell and Blake and Midshipman Steere, boarded the vessel and engaged in a hand to hand encounter with the pirates. In the meantime, Midshipman Steere2 and Assistant Engineer White with a party of men were in the cabin and hold of the vessel engaged with cotton, tow and spirits of turpentine in firing the vessel.3 This being effectively accomplished, Lieut. Russell gave the order, “every man to the boats,” and the privateersman was left in a sheet of flames.

While this was going on, Lieut. Sproston landed on the wharf, shooting the sentry who had his piece leveled at him (Lieut. S.) and effectually spiked the ten-inch gun, that it might not be used against them as they retired, bringing the tompion4 away as a trophy. After the party had entered the boats and dropped off in the stream, Lieuts. Sproston and Blake, in each of whose boats was a howitzer, opened on the crowd that rushed down to the wharf to quench the flames, and then came off to the ship in good order, bringing off all the party, though three were killed and fifteen wounded. Two of the killed were sailors and one a marine.

Nearly all the officers engaged in the affair on our side were slightly injured. A ball struck a brandy flask in the breast pocket of Lieut. Blake, breaking the glass to pieces, the glass

cutting the ball in two, the sharp edges of the ball cutting into his body. Being conscious of a wound, but not knowing its extent, and finding his coat quite wet, as he was retiring, he asked one of his sailors what the fluid was with which his coat was wet. Jack put it to his nose and instantly replied “good brandy, sir!” Midshipman Steere, after firing four times, or rather missing fire that number of times with one of North’s miserable revolvers, at a man on the wharf, sprang from the privateer to the wharf and gave chase to him, but “secesh’s” legs being too long for him, and not finding himself in a very good neighborhood, he returned without his man. A ball struck the shoulder of Capt. Reynolds of the marines, and another the arm of Lieut. Sproston, but neither of them were seriously wounded.

A “contraband” who came over to the fort on the 21st, reports that our party killed thirty, beside the wounded. He say the people are sick of the war, are afraid their town will be burned by our forces, and anxious to make peace.


Government Horses and Mules—A point of decided attraction at Washington, is the horse yards near the National Observatory, in the West end of the city. There all the thousands of horses and mules brought by contractors from distant parts of the country are put on trial, or inspected to test their soundness, &c. Each horse is first tried for his wind, by a boy riding him swiftly up and down a good stretch toward the river. For this testing of the wind there is one special inspector, and he decided promptly. If deemed good in that respect, the horse is at once passed to a combination of other inspectors, standing ready for the duty of testing the animal as to all other qualities. The first knowledge of acceptance of the animals is imparted by the order of the brand, and immediately the hot branding iron, in ready hands, just from the fire, is clapped upon his shoulder, and the magic letters “U.S.” there appear, with a quick start and snort from the horse. Many, of course, are rejected, to the chagrin of the contractors. Those accepted are immediately turned into the extensive enclosures, where are long ranges of feeding troughs, with plenty of provender and grain, &c. The fractiousness of many animals causes amusing scenes in their trial and training.


A rigidly pious old lady down east says, “This civil war is a judgment upon the nation for permitting women to wear hoops.”


The Missouri Democrat says that the illustrated newspaper artists at Jefferson City, Mo., have the pictures of the next battle in that State in a commendable stage of completeness.

OCTOBER 10, 1861



When the war first began at the South, the Jeff. Davis government attempted to negotiate a loan of fifteen millions of dollars. They offered eight per cent. interest; but nobody, except those who could not help themselves, took any interest in it; the loan was confessed, even at the South, to be a failure. Vice-President Stevens labored upon his puerile scheme of raising money upon pledge of cotton and tobacco; but no one would buy cotton or tobacco that could not be delivered out of the United States, and so that scheme broke down. That brought te Confederacy to the usual resort of distressed governments, the direct issue of promises to pay, at some undefined day, irredeemable in specie at present. This plan has been tried many times, and is the most feasible mode of financiering, in such cases, for immediate wants; but when pursued for any great period, it results in a depreciated currency, and, of course, in a proportional appreciation of prices which makes it impracticable for any great length of time. It worked so in our Revolutionary war; a paper currency of vast amount, never redeemed, was put afloat; and sold by the half bushel as waste paper a few years later. So the French assignants depreciated enormously, in spite of stringent decrees intended to keep them up in value, and ultimately went out of sight. . .

The Southern Confederacy is issuing its county notes, according to the explanation given by a writer in the New York World, of the financial proceedings at the South. Already their currency has become so depreciated that merchants avoid it when they can; and public meetings have to be held to overawe the reluctant and get all parties to accept it as a currency. Such meetings have been held in various parts of the South, as we learn from occasional glimpses at Southern papers. The World says:

“There are two points to be noted in connection with Southern financial matters. First, the currency is exclusively of paper; no gold is ever seen. Second, as yet this paper, from a cause we will presently explain, has not very heavily depreciated.

“The examples of Southern Currency we have seen are based not upon the credit of the Confederate government, but upon that of some county or municipality in the Southern States. The following, as nearly as we can judge, is the modus operandi:

“The Confederate government requires three hundred million dollars to conduct its operations; this sum is apportioned among the seceded States according to population, and by them reapportioned among the several counties in the States. Each county on average is required say five hundred thousand dollars of Confederate bonds, for which it pays in paper promises to pay based upon its credit. This paper is the present currency of the Southern States, and though it is inconvertible into gold it has still basis enough to give it a certain value.”

There are 736 counties in Secessia. If each issues the moderate average of a half million, it would give an aggregate of three hundred and sixty-eight millions of currency. With this in their hands, the agents of the government would pay for the army supplies, the clothing, etc. But all such expedients result in enormous debts, and ultimate repudiation. If the war continues a year from December, 1861, it is estimated our government will owe seven hundred and fifty millions of dollars, and what the Southern States will owe no man can begin to conjecture. Whoever pays both the debts of the South and the North will need a long purse.


Washington, Oct. 9—The policy of the Government in regard to employing foreigners in the military service is as follows, the statement being made on good authority: 1st, No one has been authorized to enlist or raise troops in Canada, as has been affected to be understood there; 2d, No commissions have been offered of rather overtures made to military men in France of other European States as has been assumed there; 3d, The government has not tendered the command of the army to Gen. Garibaldi as has been reported in Europe. What is true is, 1st: That every foreigner who has come with a good character and credentials, and offered his services t the government for the support of the Union has been accepted and no other is in the employ of the United States; 2d, Gen. Garibaldi, being a naturalized citizen of the United States, it was reported to the Government by one of  our consuls that the General was contemplating a visit to this country, and that he had intimated conditionally a disposition to engage in the service of the United States; he was informed that if that was so his services would be accepted with pleasure, and he would receive a commission as Maj. General, being the same rank which was conferred on Gen. Lafayette in the army of the revolution. Gen. Garibaldi, upon consideration of the subject has concluded not to offer his services at present, but thinks that he may by and by revisit the United States.


On Friday last, a balloon was seen passing over Washington, and it was thought by many to have started from the rebel camp on an ærial reconnoisance; but as it subsequently descended in Maryland it proved to be the air ship of La Mountain, which had ascended from the Union camp of the Potomac. It appears that when La Mountain rose to a certain distance he cut the rope which connected his balloon with the earth regardless of the danger, and then soared up to an elevation of a mile and a half, and got directly over the rebel lines. Here he was enabled to make a perfect observation of their position and all their movements, the results of which he has communicated to head-quarters, and which are said to be of the utmost importance. When La Mountain completed his observation he threw out sufficient ballast to enable him to rise to a height of three miles, when he fell in with a counter current which carried him back in the direction of Maryland, thus passing over Washington and coming down in safety. This is probably the most important ærial reconnoisance on record.


Upwards of a thousand hands are employed at the Troy arsenal and the greatest activity prevails in all departments. As many as three hundred and forty thousand ball cartridges were lately made in one day, to complete an urgent order from the war department. The average is two hundred and fifty per diem.5


Dr. Hayes, the Arctic explorer, has not been heard from since his expedition left Upernavic, last fall, though there is a vague rumor that Greenlanders from one of the outposts north of Upernavic last winter saw some white men on the loose ice with dogs and sleds.6


OCTOBER 11, 1861


In whatever light the Constitution may be regarded, whether as an anti-slavery of a pro-slavery instrument, all must agree that it does not pretend to guarantee the perpetuity of slavery. It recognizes it as existing; it endows it with the moist important privileges; it even offers a premium for its extension and continuance; but, in spite of all this, it nowhere declares the system safe from ultimate assault and overthrow. In providing for its own amendment, it makes no exception in favor of slavery beyond the year 1808. The compromises of 1787 are as liable to alteration as any the most trivial clause in all the bond. Furthermore, the Constitution nowhere establishes, nowhere affords the power to establish the servitude of any race. So far, then, freedom has a strong hold on the national charter. Slavery exists by local law, or, more properly, local usage; the Constitution acknowledges it, but does not create it.

Now it would seem unnecessary to assert that laws are made for subjects, and privileges designed for obedient subjects. To impose laws on a foreign people, and to confer privileges on those who scout your authority, would be equally preposterous. Yet this is the conduct of our government. The slave Staes repudiate the Federal authority—refuse submission, and back their refusal with bullets and bayonets; nay, not content with that, they seek to demolish the government which, as of their own choice, they were morally bound to support. Will any one, a half century hence, believe that the United States government was so infatuated as to enforce the rendering unto Cæsar what had long ceased to be Cæsar’s due? That it fought with its rebellious subjects on the one hand, and on the other treated them as if still obedient? That, dealing with them as enemies (and justly)—destroying them on the battle-field, incarcerating them without process of law, and confiscating any and all of their property except their slaves—it refused, from constitutional scruples, to interfere with their privilege of slavery, while it disregarded the rights which as loyal men they might have claimed? In short, that the administration was so suicidal as to support the cause and the sustenance of the war, because it could see no difference between Jeff. Davis and an honest citizen?

But grant that the Constitution bars the way to confiscation of property in human flesh, though not to that of any other worldly possessions, not even to the taking of life itself. There is something above the Constitution, though vested in it, and that is, martial law. General Fremont proclaimed it in Missouri, and under it freed the slaves. He did what he had a right to do. He did what he was bound to, on the score of justice or of expediency. What says the President? Fetter those freedmen! By what right, Mr. Lincoln? The Constitution? It was superseded by martial law. What Fremont has done, and what he may yet do, has your authority implicitly, or he would be only a brigand. You may check him, but until you do so, his word is law, his credit is unimpeachable. Has he made a contract? If not fraudulent, you must acknowledge it. Has he made an armistice? You

must sanction it. But he has done nothing fraudulent; he has not exceeded his authority. You may, as commander-in-chief, revoke his martial law, but while it lasts, he is commander-in-chief, and his acts are good.

Well, Fremont has freed the slaves of the rebels in the interval between his proclamation of martial law and the President’s letter. The slaves are freemen. Can Mr. Lincoln turn back the hand on the dial? We assert he cannot. He may have authority to keep slaves in bondage, but whence does he derive the power to transform freemen into slaves? We have seen that that instrument does not provide against such an emergency as that in which Fremont found himself. The conclusion is evident. The President has violated the Constitution, and this time, unlike his previous violation, which the people of the North have joyfully sanctioned, he has done so in the interest of slavery. We have a right, then, to protest loudly against such infamy.  Mr. Lincoln has already received the stigma of the “slave-hound of Illinois;” it was reserved for his last public act—as weak as it was wicked—to brand him forever with the disgraceful distinction of being the first man on the American continent who, not only when slavery was perishing, would not let it die, but even stooped, under the guise of law, to reduce free men to slaves.


Montgomery (Ala.) Advertiser--The total white population of the eleven States now comprising the Confederacy is 6,000,000, and, therefore, to fill up the ranks of the proposed army (600,000) about ten per cent. of the entire white population will be required. In any other country than our own, such a draft could not be met, but the Southern States can furnish that number of men, and still not leave the material interests of the country in a suffering condition. Those who are incapacitated for bearing arms can oversee the plantations, and the Negroes can on undisturbed in their usual labors. In the North, the case is different; the men who join the army of subjugation are the laborers, the producers, and the factory operatives. Nearly every man from that section, especially those from rural districts, leaves some branch of industry to suffer during his absence. The institution of slavery in the South alone enables her to place in the field a force much larger in proportion to her white population than the North, or indeed any country which is dependent upon free labor. The institution is a tower of strength to the South, particularly at the present crisis, and our enemies will be likely to find that the “moral cancer,” about which their orators are so fond of prating, is really one of the most effective weapons employed against the Union by the South. Whatever number of men may be needed for this war, we are confident our people stand ready to furnish. We are all enlisted for the war, and there must be no holding back until the independence of the South is fully acknowledged.


OCTOBER 12, 1861



In the Missouri convention, now in session, a  resolution has been offered instructing the committee on ways and means to consider the expediency of confiscating rebel property in the state, and devoting it to the reimbursement of loyal men who have suffered from rebel depredations. Gov. Gamble’s message calls for a more simple and efficient military law, and prompt measures to provide the necessary means for carrying on the state government.

Advices from Washington state that Representatives Steele of New jersey and Dawes of Massachusetts arrived in that city yesterday. They are members of the house committee appointed last session to investigate all contracts made by the government as to the business at the war and treasury departments. They have left for St. Louis.

The Harriet Lane is about to take aboard a heavy armament of 32-pounders. The Pensacola, though drawing 17 feet of water, reached Alexandria without the least difficulty, and now lies off that city. All quiet down the Potomac, There are no indications of life about the rebel batteries. The R. B. Forbes lies in the channel awaiting orders.

The Pawnee, Pocahontas, Seminole, Harriet Lane and Anacosta are in process of repair and changing their armaments, &c.

The rebel cavalry pickets made their appearance yesterday morning a mile from Lewinsville, but soon retired. Our pickets stationed near Prospect Hill were driven in by the rebels in force, their object being doubtless to ascertain the position of our advance.

All our troops are in a comfortable condition; those who recently changed their position being tented and their wants supplied.

Over 40,000 horses have arrived at Washington since the rebellion broke out, at a cost of over five millions.

General McClellan and staff crossed the Potomac yesterday morning for a visit to the outposts.

Advices received by the state department from England and France are highly encouraging. Public sentiment in those countries has greatly improved in reference to our war.

Secretary Cameron and Adjutant-General Thomas arrived at St. Louis yesterday. It is understood that they are on business connected with the Department of the West, and will remain some days.

A scout, returned from Springfield, Mo., to Jefferson City, on Friday, reports only one thousand rebels at the former place.

Ben McCulloch was at Camp Jackson with only 150 men, waiting reinforcements from Arkansas. Large numbers of McCulloch’s force were with Price at Lexington, and the rest were with Hardee. McCulloch is expected to join Price at Lac River about the 20th, and the combined forces expect to march on Jefferson City. The foregoing is believed to be entirely reliable.

The Boston Advertiser states that 5000 Enfield rifles have been ordered from England for this state, in addition to the 15,000 already purchased by the governor. They will be received probably within a fortnight. There are also about 3000 Windsor rifles on hand here, and 2000 have been supplied to other states. The supply of blankets is sufficient for the regiments now preparing to go south, and 10,000

additional, ordered from England, will arrive soon. The state has on hand clothing enough for the regiments now organizing, and orders for further supplies will be filled in season to meet any emergency.

The annual match between the married and the single members of the Boston Cricket Club took place Thursday, at East Cambridge, and resulted in a victory by the bachelors.

Rose sublime—a very high crimson—is to be the prevalent color for ladies this fall. It is used a great deal, mixed with black, and with a very showy effect. It is brought out in dresses, bonnets, and every article of ladies’ outside wear. Flame color, too, is to be much worn.

The New Bedford Mercury states that Mrs. Samuel A. Frazer, of Duxbury, is now engaged in knitting stockings for the soldiers in the army. She was employed eighty-five years ago in knitting stockings for the soldiers in the revolution. She is now 92 years of age.

It is estimated by those who have good means of judging, that full 11,000 Massachusetts seamen are now employed in the service of the navy department.

A general order has been issued from the English war department with authorizes the payment of one farthing per pound for the recovery of all shot fired from garrison or field guns.

The subscriptions collected for a German fleet, in the principal towns of Prussia, already amounts to upwards of $75,000.


Foreign Advices—The Asia at New York brings two days’ later news from Europe. The news, as given by telegraph, is not of special interest. In sympathy with the American Fast on the 26th ult., religious services were held in one of the Presbyterian churches in Liverpool. By the Glasgow off Cape Race, we have three days’ still later news. A company has been formed in England for the cultivation of cotton in India by coolie labor.


No Favors Asked of England—This passage in Senator Wilson’s patriotic and eloquent speech in New York on Wednesday, was received with tremendous cheers: “Sir, I wasn’t to see the war closed, closed triumphantly; but after the professions and the criticisms that have come to us from over the Atlantic, as God is my judge, I do not want to win it through any favor of the men of the British Isle.”


General Butler is on a visit to Connecticut, with reference to the organization of a body of picked men for special service under his command. He has had an interview with Gov. Buckingham.


Preparations for the Coming Battle—As an indication that a great battle upon the Potomac is not far distant, we learn that the government has fitted up the National and the Adams Houses for Hospitals. A reporter visited them; they are in every respect well adapted for the purpose, well supplied with beds and clean white bedding, attentive nurses and the best ventilation; there are a great many patients, having been brought from the army in and around Washington.

1 Literally, “beneath the moon,” meaning “of the earth” and so, in this case, not heavenly angels.

2 Yes, Mr. Steere seems to be in two places at the same time . . .

3 Tow is made of the fibers of flax, hemp or jute, used for starting fires.

4 A tompion is a wooden plug inserted into the open muzzle of a cannon to keep rain and sea water out of the barrel.

5 Meaning 250,000.

6 Dr. Isaac “Polar” Hayes was a famous explorer. He survived this expedition. See his obituary on the NY Times website.

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