NOVEMBER 24, 1861


We are informed by a gentleman that N. S. Morse, Esq., of the Bridgeport Farmer, a democratic paper formerly published in Bridgeport, Connecticut, is in Richmond. This establishment was thrown into the streets some weeks since I’m excited mob of abolition soldiers and citizens, headed by the great charlatan, Barnum, and the sewing machine and needle inventor, Howe. The infamous outrage was committed about seven o’clock in the evening. Mr. M. was alone in the building at the time.  Knowing that it would be useless for a single man to undertake to contend against a mob pf over a thousand, he made his escape through the scuttle to a house, where he was concealed. After the entire contents of the building had been destroyed the mob commenced searching for him, and continued until early the next morning, entering every dwelling where they thought there was a possibility of finding him; and it one time passing within a few feet of the place where he was hid. They threatened to hang him, and would undoubtedly have put their threat into execution if they have succeeded in finding him.  On the Monday following Mr. M. commenced making preparations to issue his paper again. But he was indicted for treason, and a warrant was issued for his arrest by Seward. He immediately left Bridgeport, and was closely pursued and followed from town to town for over two weeks.  At length he escaped into Canada; thence making its way through the western states into the Southern Confederacy.—Examiner, 19th.


Intelligence received at the passport office, Richmond, from a most reliable source, says the Examiner of the 19th, confirms the accounts of the enemy fitting out two more expeditions at Annapolis, Maryland. The trops embarking are to be commanded by Captains Porter and Gibbons—the former officer was with Major Anderson at Fort Sumter.

The New York Herald of the 12th, noticing the success of the first grand expedition south, says:

Nor is this the only naval expedition against the rebel states. There are two or three others now being fitted out, which will be equally successful, and in the course of six weeks or two months one hundred thousand men will occupy all the important points on the coast; not, perhaps, to make an advance into the interior just now, but as safe bases for future operations, and as outlets for the produce of the southern loyalists and the interchange of northern commodities. With Fortress Monroe, Hatteras, Beaufort, Pensacola, Key West and the other places to be seized and occupied, in possession of the Federal army and navy, the rebels will be surrounded by a cordon of military posts which will not only completely cut off their external communications, but threaten so many vital points at the same time that their grand army will be broken up into fragments and rendered powerless without a blow; and then the time will have come for a forward movement upon Richmond and the other capitals of the rebellious states.


Chronicling the arrival in Richmond on the 18th of Capt. Bulloch, the Examiner remarks:

Capt. James D. Bulloch, who lately successfully ran the blockade while in command of the splendid steamship  Fingal, has arrived in Richmond. Capt. Bulloch says that the people of England are nearly all in favor of the Southern Confederacy.  Our cause is advocated by the respectable middle classes, the nobility and merchants, and a majority of the press of Great Britain.  He thinks there is a likelihood of Lord Palmerston’s proving indifferent to the questions involved in the seizure by the Yankees, on the high seas, from a British a vessel, of Messrs. Mason and Slidell. Lord Palmerston’s indifference (if he evinces any) is doubtless caused by his being snubbed at Washington while he represented his government there as its chief diplomatic agent, which he has, it is said, neither forgotten nor forgiven. 


Pensacola, Nov. 22—Fort Pickens opened fire at 9:30 this morning, on the gunboat Nelms and the transport steamers Time and Cushman. The two latter were lying at the Central wharf, and the Nelms in the basin. The Federals fired a number of guns before our batteries replied. When the ball fairly opened, the excitement was intense. The Nelms quit the basin under a shower of shot and shell, and proceeded to a spot opposite the city.

At 11 o’clock the Nelms arrived at her wharf, and reports that it is not certain whether the land batteries or Pickens opened the ball. The Time occupied her old position, and is apparently unhurt. The Colorado, Niagara, and one gunboat, are bombarding Fort McRae. One of the Negro crew of the Time has arrived—he reports the Time within range of the enemy’s guns; also, that the enemy threw a shot through the hospital, but doing no injury otherwise.

A gentleman from Washington reports one or two killed at the navy-yard, and some buildings injured. Also, the wife of a sergeant-major killed in the yard.

A dispatch says: “Our guns and batteries are uninjured; firing still heavy on both sides; the frigates have changed position and are not discernable from the city.”


A report, apparently well authenticated, was circulated at the levee yesterday, to the effect that the Federal ball-proof gunboat, lately built at St. Louis, on being launched had sunk so far that the guns could not be placed upon her. This may occasion some delay in their operations, and in their proposed land and water attack.

The Federal gunboats are congregating at Cairo in large force to receive their guns—the Maria Dening having reached there with them day before yesterday. It is believed there is no truth in the report that the ball-proof gunboat had sunk.

NOVEMBER 25, 1861

The present condition of the army and navy and the seaboard defences of the country, compared with what they were when the rebellion commenced, exhibits in a striking manner the vitality and strength of the government. In April, with an army of some eighteen thousand strong. We could scarcely count a thousand regulars east of the Mississippi. The bulk of our troops were on the Pacific coast, in the territories, and on the borders of Texas; and they were officered by men who, to a great extent, were already traitors at heart, and ready to join the conspirators whenever the opportunity presented itself. Of the same proclivities were most of the officers in charge of our most important defensive works on the coast, from Norfolk to Galveston. Our naval force had been scattered to the ends of the earth. We had two or three vessels of war on the Atlantic Coast, perhaps five or six in the Gulf of Mexico, and as many more dismantled or in ordinary. Apart from the regular army, now greatly augmented in numbers, the government has at its disposal not far from six hundred thousand men, well equipped and furnished with all the appointments of effective field of duty. The latest statements we have seen of our naval force warrant the belief that we have in the commission about two hundred and twenty-five vessels, with eighty on the stocks, one-half of which will be completed by the first of March. And in this statement no account is made of the thirty or forty mortar floats1 now in process of construction on the Mississippi, and which will accompany he seven new gunboats soon to be sent down that river. The work of preparation, in every aspect has been immense, and it has been carried forward by the government and people with a devotion which gives assurance of success.


The War News, since Saturday, is not of great interest. Accounts from Baltimore represent that Gen. Dix has obtained a firm foothold in South-eastern Virginia. The capture of three rebel officers and seven cannon is announced. Preparations were making for county meetings, to allow the people to renew their allegiance to the federal authority.

An arrangement has been made by which the federal prisoners at Richmond are to be supplied with necessary clothing by the United States Quartermaster-General.

About midnight, Friday, the steamer Cambridge went up the James river as far as Warwick and opened a hot fire on the rebel batteries there. Between forty and fifty shells were fired and the rebel camp was entirely demolished.

There has been very great activity at Fortress Monroe the past week. Preparations are being made for active operations. Gen. Butler has spent a day or two at Old Point and was at last accounts on his way up to Baltimore. 



Thus far during the war, the prisoners on both sides have been generally humanely treated; but since the conviction of two or three privateersmen by our courts, the confederates have selected fourteen of our chief men among the prisoners in their hands as hostages and placed them in cells with felons’ fare. This will call for retaliatory action on the part of our government, and it is already rumored that Mason, Slidell, Faulkner, Gwin, Barron and Benham will be among the first victims of the new regime.


The federal steamer San Jacinto, having on board Messrs. James M. Mason, John Slidell, and their secretaries, came up and anchored in Nantasket Roads, at an early hour yesterday morning. The steam-tug May Queen took down Capt. McKinn and Marshall Keyes. The tug was alongside the San Jacinto at ten o’clock. The Advertiser reports that the prisoners soon appeared at the gang-way, attended by the secretaries, and shaking hands with two lieutenants of the steamer, descended to the lesser craft. Mr. Mason, it is added, by great effort, maintained his usual self-assurance and haughtiness; but Mr. Slidell was a good deal affected in view of his surroundings. His knees trembled like unto those of Belshazzar of old, and his lips quivered as he spoke. The prisoners were safely landed at Fort Warren, and the San Jacinto steamed up to the city and came to anchor off the navy yard about two o’clock. No visitors were allowed on board. Capt. Wilkes went on shore in the evening and took rooms at the Revere House. He receives a public welcome from the authorities of Boston this afternoon, in Faneuil Hall.



The Richmond papers of Wednesday contain some scraps of news from the confederate army. The small pox, violent fevers and the “black measles” were alarmingly prevalent among the rebel troops near Bowling Green, Kentucky, and deaths were occurring daily. A dispatch from Charleston, dated Nov. 17th, says:

“The unexpected failure of our shore batteries at Bay Point and Hilton Head to demolish at least one of the attacking vessels has sadly shaken the confidence in the efficacy of our guns against the monster frigates and iron-clad gun-boats which they may have to again encounter; and now so alarmed are many of the sordid souls that infest all southern cities, that the effect may already be seen in the lengthening of the freight trains which leave almost hourly for the interior. In Savannah the panic is even more general and decided, whole neighborhoods having been suddenly left deserted by the exodus of the wives and children of those who are in arms at Fort Pulaski and the batteries on the Savannah river.”


A Hint for Clear Starching.—Collars, undersleeves, or handkerchiefs, of very fine muslin or lace, will not bear much squeezing or rubbing, when washed. They can be made perfectly white without either, by the following process: Rinse them carefully through clear water, then soap them well with white soap, place them in a dish or saucer, and cover with water; place them in the sun. Let them remain two or three days, changing the water frequently, and turning them. Once every day take them out, rinse carefully, soap and place in fresh water. The operation is a tedious and rather troublesome one, but the finest embroidery or lace comes out perfectly white, and is not worn at all, where, in common washing, it would be very apt to tear. When they are white, rinse and starch in the usual way.

NOVEMBER 26, 1861


New York, Nov. 25.—The Herald’s Washington dispatch says that some important arrests were made in Maryland by the naval expedition which went down the lower Potomac a few days ago under the direction of a government detective and returned to Washington yesterday.

The parties, six in number, proved to have belonged to a secret organization in St. Mary’s county, for the purpose of conveying men and arms to the rebels in Virginia.

A rebel spy, recently returned from Richmond with a large number of letters and papers in his possession, was also taken, together with a quantity of correspondence found in the different post offices in lower Maryland.

This capture has developed the source from which the rebels have been obtaining Northern papers and other valuable information.

The Tribune’s Washington dispatch says the reports of the Secretaries approach completion.

The great interest which the war will give to that of the Secretary of War, will be heightened by Mr. Cameron’s distinct avowal of his policy of placing arms in the hands of slaves willing to use them for the cause of the Union. Mr. Cameron will appeal to Congress and to the Governors of States to bind the Government to practice the closest economy, and will sternly require economy and accountability for every subordinate in the bureaus and the army in the field.

Mr. Chase’s report will recommend necessarily a large increase of revenue duties. It is said that Mr. Chase will fully develop the theory that the slaves in the rebel States should be employed under wages to raise cotton, rice, sugar and tobacco for Government account.



Our soldiers are sending home a large amount of money. Out of four hundred thousand dollars recently paid to the soldiers at Port Royal, over two hundred and fifty thousand were sent at once to their families. The Tammany Regiment sent home eleven thousand dollars. Mayor Wightman, of Boston, has received and paid over through the agency of this system of allotment about sixty thousand dollars.


An Old Soldier of New Hampshire.--Samuel Downing, an old revolutionary soldier, living at Edinburgh, N.Y., will be one hundred years old on the 30th inst. This anniversary is to be appropriately celebrated, and as part of the programme the old hero is to fell a tree with his own hands and a new ax. He served in the revolution three years and a half, and enlisted at Exeter, N.H.


On the 20th there sailed from New London and New Bedford something new in the way of a blockading fleet. The fleet is composed of old, but substantial whaling vessels, laden with picked stone. In the bottom of each ship a hole was bored, into which was fitted a lead pipe five inches in diameter, with a valve so fixed that, though perfectly safe even for a long voyage, it can be very quickly removed. It is calculated that the ship will be filled and sunk to the bottom in twenty minutes after the removal of this valve. The captains of the ships are said to be first rate seamen, and well acquainted with our coast.



The Charleston Mercury of Oct. 26, has an elaborate article on the foreign policy of secessiondom. It says that three Commissioners were at first appointed, to England, France, Russia and Belgium—which was a mistake, as one man would have done just as well. Now two more are added and their countries specified, and they are supplied with Secretaries. The Mercury does not have much confidence in this arrangement, though it thinks that Messrs. Mason and Slidell have “eminent social fitness for their posts” and it expects worthy things from them! But its principal idea is that the recognition of the Southern Confederacy will come naturally by its exhibition of de facto independence, and that any attempt to hurry up this recognition by negotiation, involves the consideration, an inducement, which will implicate future relations. The article thus seems to confirm the rumors which come from Europe respecting the tender of some consideration which was to have been made by Mr. Slidell as the price of recognition.


D’Israeli, the English statesman and writer, is said to be completely broken down in mind and body, by the use of opium, and is nearly imbecile, with no prospect of recovery.


Prompt Retribution.—A farmer living about one mile from Guyandotte,2 ascertaining that a Federal soldier had escaped from the recent massacre, took his gun and went out and shot him. The body was found by Zeigler’s avengers; on learning all the circumstance, they proceeded to the scoundrel’s house, surrounded it, and took him out and shot him. They ordered his family away, they fired the building, and stayed long enough to see it completely demolished.

NOVEMBER 27, 1861


Passengers who arrived at Baltimore yesterday from Old Point Comfort, say that the Norfolk Day Book has a dispatch from Richmond to the effect that an engagement was going on at Pensacola. The paper states that the Niagara and Colorado engaged Fort McRae, and that their fire was briskly replied to, and that the vessels were damaged and had to haul off, and that Fort Pickens was firing on the Navy Yard and barracks.

One version of the affair says, on Saturday Fort Pickens opened on the Navy Yard and barracks. The Colorado and Niagara had participated, and hauled off very much damaged.

A dispatch to the New York Tribune says that Bragg telegraphs that he is taking the bombardment coolly. The rebels claim to have breached the walls of Fort Pickens. The Navy Yard was on fire three times and put out. The village of Warrington was burned by Col. Brown’s fire on the first day.

The fact of the bombardment was known to the rebels in Baltimore, by some mysterious method of communication, on Monday afternoon. The facts will of course be very much distorted by the rebels. It will be remembered that the Wabash was said to have “hauled off very much damaged” from Port Royal, so we need not give up the Niagara and Colorado yet. The Niagara is a screw frigate of 4500 tons, and the first vessel of her class in the United States navy. She was built at Brooklyn, in 1855, from models designed by the late George Steers. The vessel is propelled by three engines, which can be worked singly or together, up to 2300 horse power. She carries 500 men, exclusive of officers. Her armament is the most formidable and effective of any ship in the navy. It consist of 11-inch guns for throwing shells weighing 180 pounds, and shot weighing 270 pounds a distance of four miles. The guns are all on the spar deck, and working on traverse plates can be discharged from either side of the ship. She is the flag-ship of the Gulf Squadron, Capt W.W. McKean flag-officer.

The steam frigate Colorado is 4300 tons burden, carries 44 guns, 500 sailors, and a marine guard of 50. One of her guns weighs 15,000, and another 12,000 pounds. She can throw a broadside of 1414 pounds, and her armament, which cost $81,250, consist of 40 Paixhan broadside guns, two Dahlgren pivot guns, and two howitzers. She carries 76,000 pounds of powder, and about 2000 shells, and a full complement of small arms and ammunition. She is commanded by Captain Theodorus Bailey.

The steamer Hatteras, Com’r G.F. Emmons, was at Fort Pickens 19th inst., and probably took part in the engagement. She is a new vessel, built at Wilmington, Del., and purchased by the government. She is furnished with four 32-pounders and one 20-pound rifled cannon.


Capt. Marwick, of brig Castilian, at this port, states that on the 21st inst., in lat. 38 53, lon. 72 40, he saw twelve sail of old whalers, the roughest looking craft afloat, bound South with a fair wind and going in fine style. He spoke one of them, and was informed that they were the “Rat-hole squadron, bound South with sealed orders.”3

An Interesting Rebel.—First Lieutenant of Marines, John R. F. Tatnall, left the coast of Africa in the San Jacinto, but before the steamer arrived here, he was within the walls of Fort Lafayette. Yesterday he was conveyed to Fort Warren. He avowed his secession sentiments very freely while on the coast, and, refusing to do duty on the passage home, was put ashore at Key West, and sent to New York in the steamer Rhode Island. Young Tatnall is a son of Capt. Tatnall, commander and hero (?) of the rebel flotilla at Beaufort, who evinced a masterly skill in keeping out of the way of our fleet. The Lieutenant is a native of Connecticut, but a citizen of Georgia, and entered the service fourteen years ago. He has a fine figure and a martial bearing, an interesting lisp, and eye-glass and an affected, “foine wethaw” style of pronunciation, which give him an air of effeminacy.


Privateers.—The privateering business has received a check in the capture of the schooner Beauregard, Capt. Libby, of Charleston, by the U.S. barque W. G. Anderson, acting volunteer Lieut. William G. Rogers commander. The Anderson was at Key West on the 21st inst. Her prize carried one pivot gun and a crew pf 27 men.

The schooner Maria Pike, which arrived at New York yesterday, reports that on the 17th inst., off Double-headed-shot Keys, an unknown barque was captured by a small Nassau-built privateer. The barque Edward Everett, from Matanzas for Boston, in ballast, was in company, but was not molested.

The British war steamer Barracouta, 5th inst., reported, Oct. 27, three degrees south of the Bermudas, boarded privateer Sumter. The commander informed the British officer who went on board that he had sent a challenge to the gunboat Crusader to come out and fight him, but the latter declined. The British officer did not hear of her making any captures. As the Crusader arrived at New York Sept. 6, and still there, it is evident that the captain of the Sumter is fond of telling old stories.


When the San Jacinto anchored at Holmes’s Hole,4 on the morning of the 22d inst., there were about one hundred sail of vessels detained there by contrary winds. It was immediately determined by the masters of those vessels to compliment Capt. Wilkes by hoisting their flags. He was notified of their intention, and answered by saying that he appreciated the compliment, and would hoist his ensign in return. In half an hour every vessel in port, with the exception of two English vessels, were gaily dressed out in flags, presenting a beautiful appearance as the fleet extended in a line two miles long, by three-quarters of a mile wide. At one time, from the deck of the San Jacinto, one hundred and thirteen national ensigns could be seen flying. A salute of thirteen guns was fired by the Light Artillery Company of Holmes’s Hole, and another salute of thirteen guns by private individuals, which was acknowledged by Captain Wilkes dipping his ensign three times.

NOVEMBER 28, 1861



The latest Richmond papers contain a dispatch from New Orleans, dated on the 20th, which shows that the rebels there are in a terrible state of excitement concerning an apprehended attack on Columbus, Ky. The doughty Capt. Hollins had gone up the river with his fleet, and had shortly after telegraphed for the steam ram, heard of in the recent naval affair at the Belize. We may expect soon to have another bombastic dispatch from Hollins, for he cannot remain long without performing some exploit—on paper. A battery of 20 guns was at once to go up the river. There were said to be 17,000 troops and 70 cannon. A great meeting has been held at Memphis to enlist sympathy and raise money to repel his expected attack on the place named.

The rebel ambassadors, Mason and Slidell with their Secretaries, are now in close custody at Fort Warren in Boston Harbor. The last time when Mason was in Washington he boastfully asserted that the next time he visited that city it would be in the character of an ambassador. He probably did not then think of making Fort Warren his headquarters. From some examination of English authorities on this subject it appears to our city contemporaries that the act of Com. Wilkes in arresting these ambassadors is fully justifiable, even in the light of English interpretation.

The Rebel government, probably alarmed at the aspect of affairs, has removed its archives from Richmond to Nashville, Tennessee, and court will be held there for the present. The public mind is much disturbed in Richmond, the people are removing their effects and leaving, and the remaining prisoners there have been ordered further south, some to Salisbury, N.C., and the balance to Tuscaloosa, Ala.


The Schoolmaster Abroad.—As an evidence of the “general intelligence” of the House of Representatives, we cite the fact that eight different members of the Committee on Mileage and Debentures spelled the word committee in eight different ways. They are as follows: Addison County Committy; Bennington County Commity; Caldeonia County Comitie; Essex County Committie; Lamoille County Comite; Orange County Committe; Washington County Comittee; Windsor County Comittie. None of these various methods of spelling the word agrees with either Webster or Worcester, we believe. The spelling, however, betrays a very commendable degree of originality. The case, perhaps, is very much like that of the Pennsylvania lawyer, who when taken to task in court by the opposing counsel, for bad spelling, retorted that a man must be a d----d fool if he could not spell a word more than one way. –Bennington Times


The Pony Express is discontinued in consequence of the completion of the Pacific telegraph. While running it brought through about 700 letters per week. Rates, $1.10 for every half ounce; one dollar going to the pony and 10 cents to the Government. Some of the letters brought through cost upwards of $25.

Thanksgiving.—This time honored festival will be observed to-day in eleven loyal States of this now distracted Union. In none of them have the people more occasion for thankfulness and praise than in our own cherished Commonwealth. The beautifully expressive language of the Governor’s Proclamation duly sets forth the numerous occasions for our gratitude to the Giver of all good for the benefits we have received, and the mercies that have strewn our pathway as with garlands of flowers. While our people are making ample preparations for the more outward and physical observance of this interesting occasion, we are happy to know that very many of the soldiers of Vermont, now dwelling in tents in a State far distant from their native hills, and within sound of the enemy’s guns, will receive ample testimonials that they are remembered in the circles where their seat at the festival board will be vacant. May their Thanksgiving be joyous.


Snow and Sleighing.—The first snow of the season in this vicinity fell on Saturday, and a moderate continuation followed through Sunday and Monday—amounting in all to four or five inches. The merry jingling of sleigh bells on Monday brought to mind the fact—hardly before realized thanks to the remarkably mild weather of the Autumn now closing—that Winter is upon us. We trust that it will be a mild Winter to our patriotic soldiers, the families they have left behind, and all loyal people, but terrible as the “Jack-King” in his wrath to rebels and traitors.


Railroad Arrangements.—The establishment of a new line between Washington and New York, the trains for which leave the latter City at 11 o’clock P.M., has rendered new arrangements necessary through this section even to [the] Canada line. The Boston and New York Express, arriving at Springfield an hour earlier than heretofore, the trains above us start at such hours as to connect at Bellows Falls at 1:15 instead of 2:25 P.M. This brings the afternoon trains from the North into Brattleboro at 2:40 instead of 3:30. This arrangement was agreed to in Philadelphia on the 13th inst., and went into effect the next day. The Vermont Central and Valley roads altered their time table, to correspond on Monday of last week and the Rutland & Burlington this week.



The federal steamers Georgia and Georgiana arrived at Baltimore Monday morning from  Newtown, Worcester county, Md. A force of 1,000 federal troops were preparing to go into Virginia. On their way up Pocomoke Creek, a boat was sent ashore with Gen. Dix’s proclamation, which was read to quite a number of Virginians in a farm house, who declared it entirely satisfactory, and claimed the protection of the federal government against the secessionists, who were forcing them into the rebel ranks against their will. The gunboat Resolute has been giving them protection through the day, but at night they would go to seek shelter in the woods.


NOVEMBER 29, 1861


We have already given our readers an account of the successful results of the great naval expedition at Port Royal, by which a foothold has been gained by the Government upon the soil of South Carolina, and the glorious stars and stripes been hoisted in place of the emblem of secession, which, for several months had floated undisturbed over that birthplace of disunion. We trust the government will leave nothing undone which can add to the certainty of holding the position thus acquired, and making it the base of operations which will send terror to the heart of the rebellion and cause it soon to lay down its arms and return its allegiance to the Constitution.

The importance of the position thus secured can hardly be over-estimated. This will appear the more evident when one looks at the map of that locality, and notes the peculiar situation of the place, with its excellent harbor, extensive inland water communications, and its relative position to the railroad connection between Charleston and Savannah, and other important points.

The position of Port Royal is equally admirable, whether considered in a military, naval or political light. It is between Savannah and Charleston, and doubtless within a few days the communication between those important towns will be easily cut off. The network of inland waters that extends in either direction will enable us, if we choose, to transport troops on gunboats, either to Savannah or Charleston, without going within range of the guns of Fort Pulaski at the former place, or Sumter or Moultrie at the latter. We can thus attack the two largest towns in South Carolina and Georgia at their weakest point, besides being able to run up into their country and annoy and frighten them whenever they make a military demonstration. The Island of Hilton, on whose northern point stands one of the forts just captured, extends to Tybee Sound, and is within sight of the light-house of Savannah Harbor, not thirty miles away. Charleston itself is distant less than sixty miles. As a naval station, Port Royal is still more important; is, in fact, indispensable. It would be impossible to maintain the blockade during the winter months with any degree of effectiveness, without the possession of a port to which our ships could run incase of a storm, and a depot of stores, where they could be supplied.

The capture of the two forts at Port Royal entrance has effectually exploded two very often repeated boasts of the rebels—viz: that one South Carolina soldier is equal in battle to five Yankees, and that the slaves are ready to fight for their masters. With regard to the boasted bravery of the South Carolinians we have only to remember how they fled before the shower of shells and shot from Commodore Dupont’s guns, leaving behind them the most unmistakable evidences of the haste and trepidation with which they departed, and of their faith in the adage, “Discretion is the better part of valor.”

With regard to the devotion of the slaves to their masters, it is well known that so far from defending them, they refused even to escape with their masters, choosing, rather, to take their chances with the Yankees, with the hope of escaping from their masters. A correspondent of the New York Times writes that in just two days after the battle, he saw eighty fugitive slaves, contraband of war, who had escaped from their masters and hurried within the Federal lines. This was on the southern headland of the bay, and on the northern side there are half as many more. They report that the rest are coming. They declare that, since March they have been waiting and watching for the Yankees. And this is in South

Carolina—this is where the blacks are so contented, where they were so attached to their masters, where we were defied to seduce them away. No attempt has been made or will be made to entice them, much less to excite an insurrection, but those who come in will be welcomed, will be clad and fed and set in work for the National cause. I talked for an hour with various of them. They were all men or boys—of every age—some had been house servants, some field hands, most were stupid and stolid in an extraordinary degree, but they had very definite ideas relative to the Yankees. Through their jargon, at first nearly unintelligible, I was able at last to get at those ideas. They said they believed the Yankees to be friends; that they came in to work, to do whatever they were bidden; they had expected us, but dared to speak of it to their masters; they had seen the fight from up the river, and had hurried down as soon as it was over. They all report that since last March they have been waiting for us; they all declare that so far as they know, all the blacks are anxiously waiting for us.

The same writer, under a later date, after speaking of the desertion of the place by the white populations, says—

What is, perhaps, quite as important as the desertion of the whites, is the fact that the Negroes were pillaging vacant houses. The place contains in the Summer about two thousand inhabitants, but in Winter only five hundred. It is the resort of some of the wealthiest inhabitants of South Carolina during the warm weather, and many of the houses are suitable for persons of fortune and distinction. Into all of these the Negroes had broken, and were plundering with eagerness. Capt. Ammen immediately stopped the marauding, and in the few instances in which he found the blacks armed, took away their weapons. Some half a dozen had firearms. The Negroes asserted that their masters had endeavored to compel the blacks to accompany them in their flight, even shooting and killing several of those who refused. This, however, proved unavailing, for the speedy approach of the National gunboats encouraged the slaves to remain. They were coming into the town in large numbers from the surrounding country.

The account of the feelings of the blacks, and of the attempt of the South Carolinians to compel them to accompany their masters has been confirmed in various quarters, and tallies exactly with what I was told yesterday by some Negroes whom I saw it Seabrook, a hamlet about 6 miles from Hilton Head.  At that place some two hundred Negroes had gathered during the day, and continued to come in until long after I had left at nightfall.  They were men, women and children, and of all ages.  All reported the same story, and hold it without any apparent conceit.  They came from across Skull Creek, which divides Hilton Island from the main land; many were from the Pinckney estate, but they came from several plantations, and agreed that their masters had endeavored to take them along in the flight that seems to be general in this whole neighborhood.  The Negroes, however, assured me that they refused to fly, and in several instances the white men shot at them.  I heard of two blacks who were wounded.  The rest were indignant; they declared that all would come in to the National forces who could get away; and that none would accompany their masters in list absolutely forced to.  They manifest the greatest elation at their escape, and like those whom I first questioned, the day after the fight, declared that the whole black population have long expected the coming of the Yankees, and were everywhere anxious to hurry to our lines.  There was a jubilee last night in the Negro quarters at Seabrook, dancing and singing around fires that they built, and inside the captured Fort Walker, a religious meeting was held and thanks offered to God for their deliverance.

NOVEMBER 30, 1861


If the national flag now floats over the soil of every seceded state except Alabama in Arkansas.  In Virginia it floats over one third of the state; in North Carolina, at Hatteras Inlet; in South Carolina, at Port Royal and 1/half-dozen neighboring islands; in Georgia, on Tybee Island; in Florida, at Key West, Santa Rosa Island and other points; in Mississippi, that Ship Island; in Louisiana, at Chandeleur Island; in Texas, at El Paso; and in Tennessee, at the Bristol, Elizabethtown, and other points in the eastern part of the state.


We are likely to be saved all vexatious disputes as to what shall be done with the Negroes.  The rebels are settling the question for us.  If they are met the Negroes to fight against the government, as there are reports of their doing in various places, there will be no alternative but to meet them on their own terms.  We cannot afford to have the four millions of northern workers in arms against us, when a word will bring them to our side.  If it comes to this it will be by the act in choice of the rebels, and they must take the consequences.


This team are Belle Creole, from Cincinnati for Pittsburg, deeply laden, and the steamer Fallstone from Kanawha, with a portion of Col. Lyttleton's command, collided Friday night, 7 miles above Cincinnati.  The Belle Creole sunk almost immediately, and the concussion knocked eight or ten soldiers into the river from the Fallstone, and it is thought that all but one are drowned.  The cargo of the Belle Creole was valued at $20,000--insured in a Cincinnati office.


When the prisoners from Hatteras Inlet reached Fort Columbus, two slaves belonging to an officer, and brought in with the others, were placed on the island and no further notice taken of them.  When the prisoners were removed the contrabands still remained, but insular life not been pleasant and supposing themselves to be held as prisoners under a supposition of disloyalty, they forwarded a request to Washington, stating that they were willing to take the oath of allegiance.  The government having no prejudice against color, send an order to the military authorities on Governor's island to administer the oath of allegiance and release them.


Lieut. Selden, just arrived from Richmond, states that the feeling of anger, indignation and chagrin, at the arrest of Slidell and Mason was beyond all description.  They had previously been exulting in the success of the rebel envoys in reaching Cuba, and they were certain that they would reach Europe without difficulty.  He states that it is the severest blow which the rebel government has yet received. Mr. Selden says that, up to the time of his leaving Richmond, two days since, he had heard nothing of the proposed removal of the rebel capital to Nashville.  Being a Virginian himself, he was treated with additional indignity and severity on account of his loyalty, and by none more than his own relatives, who live in Richmond and vicinity.


Most people like oysters.  The country boy who goes to a cattle show for the first time, feeling rich with ten cents in his pocket, thinks he has disposed of the larger part of his cash to good advantage, by investing in a half bowl of smoking bivalves, and a millionaire expects oysters of his breakfast table with as much regularity as hot rolls or coffee.  Oysters can no longer be regarded in the light of the luxury to most people.  They are as much a part of the regular diet as beef or bread, and anything which should cut off our regular supply of these testaceous delicacies, would create almost as much consternation as the cattle murrain, or some wide spread blight in the crops.  People have, for some time passed, had apprehensions that the war was going to interfere unpleasantly with the oyster supply from the fact that hitherto a large share of our oysters have come from Virginia waters, which are no longer accessible to the trade.  But we may dismiss all fears on this subject, for the experience of the last few months proves that we are independent in this matter, and that our own oyster beds will prove amply sufficient to supply the demand.  The capacity of the New Jersey and East river beds has never been fully tested, owing to the long time dependence on Virginia, but the largest dealers are becoming convinced that the interest of the trade will be most prominently secured by the patronage and development of our home fields, and the trade which has been turned aside from Virginia by the secession proclivities of that ancient commonwealth, will never go back there.  The oysters from the northern beds have long been considered the best in the market, so that, according to present indications, we show not only have our usual supply of bivalvular comforts, but they will also be a unusually good quality.

Few people have any idea of the magnitude of the oyster trade, and the value of this commodity which is consumed a yearly.  There are single individuals in a New York, whose trade in wasters has amounted to more than half a million of dollars annually, and there are several hundred dealers in that city who yearly receive a hundred thousand dollars each in the business.  The whole value of the oysters brought to New York annually, for several years before the rebellion, was from ten to twenty millions of dollars.  The oyster business like all other branches of trade, suffers some depression from the war, and it is said by good authorities that the sales this year will not be more than half as large as a formerly.  The supply will be fully up to to, perhaps exceed the demand, and prices will be quite as low as in past years.


1 Commonly referred to by the Navy as “bombers” because of the large 13” or 15” mortar shell, (e.g., a very big "bomb,") they fired.

2 Located in what is now West Virginia, adjacent to Huntington at the confluence of the Ohio and Guyandotte Rivers.

3 See 26 November 1861. This is the Stone Fleet, bound south to block up the port of Charleston.

4 On Martha’s Vineyard in Massachusetts.

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