DECEMBER 1, 1861



Memphis, Nov. 30.--it is reported, on the authority of the St. Louis Republican, which ought to be pretty good authority for such kind of news, that Kansas Montgomery and his forces had been captured by the Missourians.

The whole command was released after having taken the usual oath not to serve against the Confederate States in the present war, in less after having been duly exchanged.  Unfortunately, the ruffian Lane succeeded in making his escape.

The same authority states that Siegel's army was surrounded by the southern forces of Missouri, and that Generals Price and McCulloch were marching on St. Louis.  We'll send you further and fuller particulars the moment they are received here.

Missouri News Confirmed.
Intelligence via Arkansas: the Federals Flying.


Memphis, Nov. 30.--we have just received here a telegraphic to dispatch from Des Arc, Arkansas, which fully confirms the news telegraph to you as obtained through St. Louis, to the effect that the Federals are flying everywhere in Missouri before our elated troops, who are sweeping everything before them, flushed with the prospect of speedily delivering their gallant state from the heel of an abolition despotism.

It gives us the intelligence that Siegel was in full retreat, and that McCulloch's cavalry was harassing him a dreadfully on their quote "brilliant retrograde." Our troopers had captured one hundred of their wagons, with army stores, provisions, &c.

The Federals have evacuated Kansas, terrified at the victorious advance of our troops in that direction.  They have left it to our undisputed sway to be occupied or not, at our pleasure or convenience.

The St. Louis Republican of the 25th, through in regular time by the submarine express, reports that troops are being hurried back from Cairo for the defense of St. Louis, which city is considered to be in great danger from our advancing columns.  If this be true if all interfere with their projected Columbus expedition to some extent.



The Richmond Examiner of the 26th says:

And almost general stampede of slaves on the eastern shore is said to have taken place in consequence of the enemy's invasion into Accomac and Northampton.  It is estimated that there are about ten thousand slaves in these two counties, outnumbering as they do the whites in Northampton; and this large amount of property is, of course, at the entire mercy of the enemy.  The slaves are escaping from their masters with the permission and connivance of the enemy, who have made no attempts whatever to arrest or check their exodus to Delaware and other portions of the hospitable north.


Com. Tatnall's Property.--Ex-Commodore Tatnall, who commanded the pop gun fleet of the rebels at Port Royal, owns a large amount of property at Sackett's Harbor, New York.  Measures have been taken for the confiscation of his furniture, which is estimated to be worth $15,000.  A libel and information were filed by the district Atty., And last week in motion for condemnation was made in the United States court at Buffalo. Eli Cook appeared for Tatnall as claimants of the property, and propose to answer and defend.  The district attorney asked leave to amend the libel, which was granted, and then three weeks were allowed Mr. Cook to answer the amended libel after it should be served.  The case will probably be tried at the next term in Albany.

Northern Intelligence.

From a Washington letter to the Chicago Times we extract the annexed paragraph:

There is authority for saying that the president and Mr. Seward are both now convinced that the south are united as one man in this attempt to achieve for themselves a separate nationality, and that, to crush the rebellion and conquer a piece, it will be necessary to call forth the entire strength of the loyal states, and to put into the field at once, not half a million, but a million, of troops.  This will be urged in the forthcoming president's message as a sine qua non for the successful prosecution of the war.

A Washington correspondent of the Tribune says it is proposed in Federal circles to punish Virginia--that Congress will probably be called on to change the territorial boundaries of Delaware, so as to give this little state all the land between the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware River, and to change the boundaries of Maryland, so as to give her all the eastern counties of Virginia, and to leave to the state of Virginia, as organized by the convention at Wheeling, the territory between the Blue Ridge and the Ohio.



From the Examiner of the 26th we copy the annexed items:

The Seizure of our Commissioners.--It was currently reported yesterday that information had reached here, through northern papers of a late date, that Lord Lyons had made a formal demand upon the Lincoln government for the release and rendition of our commissioners, at present confined in Fortress Monroe.  As the report obtained yesterday an extensive circulation in official circles, we mention it, without, however, having been able to verify it or to trace it up, except to secondary sources of information.

A Female Spy Arrested.--Among the prisoners lately captured near Fairfax was a woman, whose actions strongly lead to the belief that she was employed by the enemy as a spy.  She came into the Confederate lines pretending to be anxious to dispose of some garden stuff contained in a cart.  If another female, with her at the time, has been detained near Fairfax Court house.  The party most strongly suspected was brought to this city on Sunday, along with three New York military abolitionists, who were sent to prison.

Departure of Prisoners Southward.--Three hundred and fifty more Yankee prisoners started southward yesterday in charge of seventy men, (Gardiner, Ga., volunteers,) under command of Capt. Thomas L. Bundley.  The confederate commissary who accompanied them carried with him, besides other articles for their subsistence, twenty barrels of bread and sixteen hundred pounds of cooked meat, which was expected to last four days, or until the party arrived at Montgomery, Ala., en route for Tuscaloosa.

Yankee Prisoners.--Two hundred more Yankee prisoners are to be sent to-day two Tuscaloosa, Alabama.  Thirty arrived here yesterday from the western part of the state.


Release of British Minors from the Federal Army.--the Washington correspondent of the Philadelphia Press writes:

An arrangement is about to be entered into by which all the British minors who have enlisted in the American army are to be returned to their respective homes.  Many of these youngsters have volunteered from Canada; and as Lord Lyons is not now in the very best of humorous, he has demanded that they shall be returned.  The secretary of war and the secretary of state have graciously condescended to accede to his request.

DECEMBER 2, 1861


Our troops have got a foothold in another rebel state, Georgia, the "Empire State" of the South.  We have news by the transport Illinois that about a week ago a small naval detachment left Port Royal, and doubtless, coasting along the inland water-way, reached and took possession of Tybee Island, off the coast of Georgia.

Tybee Island lies in the mouth of the Savannah River, which is here the dividing line between South Carolina and Georgia, to the southward of the bar, and about twenty miles southwest from Port Royal.  It is one of the long chain of sea islands which stretch all along the coast of this and the adjoining States.  The island is small, not as large as Port Royal Island, and is chiefly of use to us as a stepping stone to Cockspur Island, lying immediately to the north of it, on which is situated Fort Pulaski--a very strong work, that defends the entrance to the Savannah River, and is the defensive outpost of the city of Savannah itself.  Tybee Island has been notable chiefly with mariners on account of its light-house, (Tybee Light) one of the most prominent on the Southern coast.  It is the fixed light, 108 feet above the sea, on the north east end of the island, and in clear weather it may be seen at the distance of twelve miles.  This beacon was extinguished by the barbarians of Georgia shortly after they had seceded from the Union, and its absence must have troubled considerably the immense fleet of vessels which has run the blockade at this point, and which so troubles the diplomatic soul of Jeff. Davis.  The National Government will now, of course, have the beacon put in order and relighted--still further to the grief of Emperor Jeff.  Many vessels are lost on these banks, and the southern breakers are dangerous.  Tybee is a nice little "bit of ocean," long, narrow, and somewhat marshy, in the coast county of Chatham, and in climate and scenery is very much like Port Royal any other Carolina Sea islands.  A small amount of Sea Island content is raised upon it, and its inhabitants are but few.  It has a beautiful creek to the west of it, where the ship of any burden may lie in safety at anchor.  If any of the vessels of war now cruising on the Carolina coast, or any of the others now in this vicinity getting ready for a southern trip, should suddenly make their appearance in that deep creek, Fort Pulaski had better look out for its we're as well as its front, and the rebels at Savannah had better be getting ready for their sackcloth and ashes.  Savanna is fourteen miles above Tybee Island, on the Savannah River.  It has a good harbor.  Vessels requiring fourteen feet of water, up to the wharves of the city, and larger vessels come up to the Five Fathom Hole, four miles below.  The city is defended by Fort Wayne on the west side, buy Fort Jackson at Five Found Hole, and by Fort Pulaski on Cockspur Island.  They have also, since secession, erected a small fort, on Skidaway Island, covering the creek to its west, by which gunboats could get up towards the rear of Savannah.  The guns on the parapet are mostly field pieces, mounted on a frame-work of wood, instead of regular

carriages.  Besides theses, strong earthworks have lately been thrown up on the main land along the river, and on the islands in the river, to resist a naval attack, as well as earthworks on the west and south to resist a land attack.  Every spot of the vantage ground has been seized upon and prepared for defense.  The city, like every other secession city, considers itself impregnable.  Nevertheless, it seems the people will decamp when they hear of Port Royal and such things.  The cotton shipped from Savannah amounts to about 400,000 bales of upland, annually.

The geographical conformation of Georgia is very analogous to that of South Carolina, and maybe concisely described thus: From the ocean for a distance of seven miles there is a chain of islands, intersected by rivers, creeks and inlets, communicating with each other, and forming an inland navigation for vessels of 100 tons burden along the whole coast.  These islands consist of salt marsh and a land of gray, rich soil, which produces Sea Island cotton of a superior quality.  The coast on the main land, four or five miles, is a salt marsh.  Back of these is a narrow margin of land, nearly resembling that of the islands; this is partially or wholly overflowed at the return of the tide, and constitutes the rice plantations.  Then commence the pine barrens, which were each from sixty to ninety miles from the coast.  Beyond this is the country of sand-hills, thirty or forty miles wide; and a part of the State beyond this again is what is called "Upper Country" of Georgia.  Like the southern part of South Carolina, the southern part of Georgia is thinly populated by whites.  The plantations are large, and the slave element is dense.  The gross population of Georgia, by the census of last year, was 1,057,327, divided into 595,097 free people and 462,230 slaves.  The State claims to have raised fifty regiments for secession service.  The secession disease in the State, however, is not of the same malignant type which afflicts her wanton Palmetto sister.  The population of Savannah is entered as 22,202, but we know from the papers of the town, that when the news of the Port Royal affair reached there, a great part of the population took to its heels and fled to the interior. 


Washington, Nov. 29--Com. Dupont reports that Fort Pulaski is at the mercy of our forces the moment the latter desire to take it; also that reliable accounts informed him that Savannah was being evacuated by the people as fast as possible, fearing, probably, that Com. Rogers would attempt to take it; he further states that Com. Tatnall, of the rebel fleet, had given it as his opinion, that the entire rebel defenses of the Southern coast must be abandoned, as they could not stand against the armament of our fleet.


DECEMBER 3, 1861


From the New York Journal of Commerce, Dec. 2.--We understand that the marine underwriters have to do they raise the charge of insurance against the "war risk" from the nominal rate of one per cent., Where it has been for some time to five per cent in addition to the ordinary sea risk.  This is regarded by merchants and shipowners as very exorbitant, and in our opinion it was uncalled for and impolitic.  The action of the underwriters throughout the year in relation to this one item of business has not been, in our judgment, as carefully considered as it should have been; and the fitful and uncertain policy adopted has been at times very injurious to the interests of American shippers and ship owners, of whom these companies make the most of their living.  There is nothing in the recent news from Europe to warrant an advance of 400 per cent.  in the rate of insurance against the risk of capture. The ship seized and burnt by the Nashville was returning in ballast to the United States. Had the vessel been loaded with neutral property, no such result would have occurred, since the Confeds are too smart to provoke a collision with foreign powers by interfering with their property. When the rate of insurance was advanced here before, the effect was to give a decided advantage to the foreign shipping in port, all of which made large freights at a handsome rate of difference; after the foreigners were loaded, then the rate was again a reduced, and our shipping took the second chance.  We do not believe that this advance will be sustained, but its present effect is to discriminate against our ships, and to create unnecessary alarm throughout the community.


A New View.--the lead article in the Charleston Mercury, advising the destruction of property that may not fall into the hands of the "Lincolnites," says--

"To leave our horses to arm them, our cattle to feed them, our slaves to strengthen them, and our cotton to enrich them, or to run their factories, appears to us to be the worst policy possible."

This is all very well, except the leaving "our slaves to strengthen them." We have been told here for years that the slaves are attached to their masters; we were told so down to the 7th of November.  One would say them that they would not greatly strengthen "the Lincolnites." In fact, to say that they would, is rather an important admission for those to make who defend the institution as resting on divine right.  But the whole argument for slavery is becoming confused in a truly alarming way.


From the Philadelphia Ledger, Nov. 20.--Messrs. Merrick & Sons are now receiving the iron plates designed for the Government steamer which they have contacted with the Navy Department to build, and which is to be completed by the fifteenth of July next.  The plates are fifteen feet long, twenty-eight and a half and thirty and a half inches wide, and 4 inches thick.  They are made by the Bristol Forge Company, and at the works of Bailey Brown and Co., Pittsburg. A two and a half ton hammer is required in their manufacture.  Some doubt has been expressed as to the ability of any iron works in these parts to turn out such plates; but we understand that there is no difficulty about it; and that enough plate of the kind could be made in a short time at Pennsylvania establishments to cover the sides of every ship in the navy.  After being received at the foundry the plates are placed, the edges and ends made straight and smooth, and grooved like the flooring board.  The groove is one inch wide by half an inch deep.  Screws are to be used in fastening plates to the planking of the ship.  They are to be put in from the inside of the vessel and are not to go through the plates.  The vessel is to be covered with the plates four feet under water, and three feet above it, and they are to extend eighty-five feet fore and aft of the center-line, which will make 170 feet of planking.  The iron is to come up to the line with this spar-deck, above which they will be a light rail.  The sides of the ship, with a view to cause the shot to glance, will have an ankle of thirty degrees from 3 feet above the load lines.  In order to carry this extra weight to ship pass to be large.  The tonnage of the ones under contract is to be three thousand five hundred.  She will be 230 feet long, 80 feet beam, and have a draught of 14 feet.  In her construction she will be different from the French ship La Gloire, about which so much has been written.  The French ship is very deep in the water, while the vessel to be built here will be almost flat bottomed, which, notwithstanding the additional weight, will make her a little draft.  Her machinery will be much the same as that of a first class sloop-of-war, except that she will have four boilers and a blower.  The latter is to make the boilers to steam even though the smoke stack should be shot away.  The vessel is to be constructed by Cramp & Son, under the superintendence of Mr. Henry Hoover, Naval Constructor, and the machinery under that of Mr. C. E. Wood, Chief Engineer.


Promoting Desertion--There is a report that an establishment in Alexandria, at which soldiers desiring to desert were supplied with citizens' clothes and passes to Washington, has just been broken up, and the managers of the concerned arrested.

Every man who has been induced to desert by those engaged in this business is to date liable to the penalty of death.  What, then, should be the penalty inflicted upon those who have brought our men into such disgrace and peril?  Should they be shot, too--or made to take the oath of allegiance?  

DECEMBER 4, 1861


Providence Post.--Certain eminent men, known for these many years throughout the country as leading Democrats, have given utterance during the war to sentiments with reference to the slaves that, in our opinion cannot be considered as the Democratic.  We allude especially to a speech delivered recently by Col.  John Cochrane to his regiment in New York in which he said, "I ask you whether you would not use their slaves?  Whether you would not arm the slaves, and carry them in battalions against their masters?"

It is possible that Col.  Cochrane meant nothing more than merely to say, that rather than be killed himself he would call on a Negro to help him.  If so, then it is a great pity that Col.  Cochrane did not say precisely what he meant; for his language has given to the enemies of Democracy both ground and occasion for asserting that Democratic policy counsels the arming of the slaves in carrying on the war; or in other words that the Democratic party, at some points of the slavery question, is neck and neck with the most violent of the abolitionists.

But we are inclined to think that Col.  Cochrane did mean all that he said, and that he really believes that the slaves ought to be armed.  He was one of the four most of the intemperate school of Democrats, under the leading of that now arch traitor, John C. Breckenridge; and according to the old rule of extremes of meeting, he ought to be by this time, in his views about slaves in the war, in agreement with the ultra rabid abolitionists.  Indeed, all nearly of the old Democrats who sympathize with him in his present views with reference to the use of the slaves for war purposes, were also sympathizers with them, and fellow workmen, too, in advocating in supporting, as the best man for the Presidency, that same traitor, John C. Breckenridge.  It used to anger of an exceedingly to predict that the day was not far distant when they and the fiercest and most fanatical of the abolitionists would be found sleeping together in the same bed, and plotting together at the same council board.  They themselves will now hardly deny that the prediction was well founded.  In the hearts of many of them, as we happen to know for a fact, exists and seethes and rages, as much and as bitter and intense hatred of the South, as exists and seethes and rages in the hearts of certain abolitionists; and very naturally, too, four by the unwise obstinacy of the Southern delegates at Charleston and Baltimore, the Presidency of the nation was lost to the Democratic party; enhance the eagerness for revenge and themselves on the South through a means of the slaves.

But all this will come up for discussion and decision hereafter.  What we would say this morning is, that we formally and solemnly protest, as a sound and faithful and consistent Democrat, against making the Democratic party responsible in any way or shape for the opinions of any one of its individual members, no matter what may have been his position in the party, or what his political antecedents.  No one man's opinions constitute the Democratic creed.  And further, we assert, and are prepared to maintain, that the arming of the slaves and marching them in battalions against their masters, as Col. Cochrane et id omne genus1 are advising and urging, is wholly at variance with, and indirect hostility to the spirit and principles of pure, genuine, old school Democracy.

If a single glance at what would be the consequences of a general arming of the slaves against their masters, will be sufficient to show how totally undemocratic is the frightful proposition of Col. Cochrane and his influential sympathizers.  If all of the South would be repeated the bloody deeds of St. Domingo; the most horrible atrocities that

savage violence could contrive, and inhuman butchery invent, would be committed, helpless white women and innocent white children being the victims; Henry Ward Beecher's hell if would in reality be let loose; that most cruel, most hideous and most fiendish war that can be fought on earth would be inaugurated--a war of extermination of a race, ending perhaps with the extermination of both Southern races, the white and black; and finally, each southern state would be given over to the fire to be thoroughly wasted, and to the sword to be entirely depopulated.  Nor would these be all the consequences.  The conquering armies would seize and appropriate the conquered territory, would laugh defiance at our Government in any attempts it might make to control the division of this boils, would settle down upon the rich farms and plantations, and would establish another Southern Confederacy that in all probability would be more powerful by many odds than would then be in the northern states.  Endless war would be the doom of Ireland; universal slaughter and an indefinite Lien of anarchy would be are cursed inheritance.

If this single glance will of itself show, without resort to argument, that arming the slaves is wholly hostile to the spirit of Democracy.  That spirit, in its essays at firmness, forgets not a gentleness; in dealing with the erring it ever bears in mind that to err is human; it seeks not to compel until it has exhausted itself in efforts to persuade; it permits no wrong to be done to any man, how ever much of wrong the man himself may have done to others; around the helpless and the innocent it ever exhorts its disciples to stand themselves, and be to such a wall of safety and defense; it wars not for them your sake of gaining battles by bravery, and winning glorious and victories, but only for the sake of self defense, for guarding the weak, for punishing evil doers, for a advancing the great interests of Humanity, and for securing more speedily terms of the honorable peace that shall establish Peace permanently.  It goes nowhere with the sword without also carrying the olive branch.  Whilst priding itself upon been just, it prides itself more upon being merciful.  It ever remembers that He who loves man most bore meekly and patiently the most and the worst indignities from man, and died praying for man's forgiveness.  No Democrat actuated by such a spirit, can sanction the arming of the slaves.


Floating Batteries for the Mississippi--The floating batteries building at St. Louis for opening the navigation of the Mississippi, are distinct affairs from the gunboats, and are to be towed by the latter.  The batteries are of solid timber twelve inches square, and lying in three tiers of this timber deep.  This is strongly bolted together, and forms the hull of the vessel.  Wells are cut through the two upper chambers about four and a half feet square, and lined with zinc to keep out the water.  These wells serve for magazines or places for keeping the ammunition.  There are four of these in each float.  This was solid platform is sixty by  twenty-five feet, being a broader in the middle than at the ends, each end being sharpened.  The whole is covered with thick plank.  Entirely around the outside of the float is a parapet or bullwark of iron, three-eighths of an inch in thickness and six and a half feet in height.  This is inclined inward, so as to give a glancing direction to any shot that may strike it.  The armament of these floats is to consist of 64-pound mortars, three upon one side, and so arranged as to deliver their charges over the parapet that surrounds them, and which protects those who serve them.  There are 38 of these monstrous batteries to be built, 25 of which are nearly ready for use, and the remainder are begun.


DECEMBER 5, 1861


Military Commissions to Merchant Vessels.

By the act of the 5th of August last, Congress authorized the President to instruct the commanders of suitable vessels to defend themselves against and to capture pirates.  This authority has been exercised in a single instance only.  For the more effectual protection of our extensive and valuable commerce in the Eastern seas especially, it seems to me that it would be advisable to authorize the commanders of sailing vessels to recapture any prizes, which pirates may make of the United States vessels and their cargoes, and the Consular Courts established by law in Eastern countries to adjudicate the cases, in the event that this should not be objected to by the local authorities.

The Indian Tribes.

The relations of the government with the Indian tribes have been greatly disturbed by the insurrection, especially in the southern superintendency and that of New Mexico.  The Indian country south of Kansas is in possession of the insurgents from Texas and Arkansas.  The agents of the United States appointed since the 4th of March for this Superintendency have been unable to reach their posts, while the most of those who were in office before that time have espoused the insurrectionary cause, and assumed to exercise the powers of agents by virtue of commissions from the insurrectionists.  It has been stated in the public press that a portion of these Indians had been organized as a military force, and are attached to the army of the insurgents.  Although the Government has no official information upon the subject, letters have been written to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs by several prominent chiefs, giving assurance of their loyalty to the United States, and expressing a wish for the presence of the Federal troops to protect them.  It is believed that upon the repossession of the country by the Federal forces, the Indians will readily cease all hostile demonstrations and resume their former relations to the Government.

The Navy.

If the report of the Secretary of the Navy presents in detail the operations of the branch of the service, the activity and energy which have characterized its administration, and the results of the majors to increase its efficiency and power.  Such have been the additions, by construction and purchase, that it may almost be said that a navy has been created and brought into service since our difficulties commenced.  Besides blockading our extensive coast, squadrons larger than ever before assembled under our flag had been put afloat, and performed deeds which have increased our naval renown.  I would invite special attention to the recommendation of the Secretary for the more perfect organization of the Navy by the introduction of additional grades into the service.  The present organization is defective and unsatisfactory, and the suggestions submitted by the Department will, it is believed, if adopted, obviate the difficulties alluded to, promote harmony and increase the efficiency of the Navy.

The World's Fair.

At your late session a joint resolution was adopted authorizing the President to take measures for facilitating a proper representation of the industrial interests of the United States at the Exhibition of Industry of all Nations, to be holden at London in the year 1862.  Oh I regret to say I have been unable to give personal attention to this subject.  A subject at once so interesting in itself, and so extensively and intricately connected with the material prosperity of the world.  Through the Secretaries of State and of the Interior, a plan or system has been devised, and partly matured, which will be laid before you.

Disposal of Contrabands--Colonization Recommended.

Under and by virtue of the act of Congress entitled " and act to confiscate property used for insurrectionary purposes," approve August 6, 1861, the legal claims of certain persons to the labor and service of other persons have become forfeited, and numbers of the latter list liberated are already dependent on the United States, and must be provided for in some way.  Besides it is not impossible that some of the states will pass similar enactments for their own benefits respectively, and by the operations of which persons of the same class will be thrown upon them for disposal.  In such case I recommend that Congress provide for accepting such persons from such States according to some mode of valuation in heu pro tanto2 of direct taxes, or a pond some other plan to be agreed on with such States respectively, that such persons on such acceptance by the General Government be at once deemed free, and that, in any event, steps be taken for colonizing both classes, or the one first mentioned, if the other one shall not be brought into existence, at some place or places in a climate congenial to them.  It might be well to consider, too, whether the free colored people already in the United States could not so far as individuals may desire, be included in such causation.  To carry out the plan of colonization may involve the acquisition of territory, and also the appropriation of money beyond that to be expended in the territorial acquisition.  Having practiced the acquisition of territory for nearly sixty years, the question of Constitutional power to do so is no longer and open one with us.  The power was first questioned by Mr. Jefferson, who, however, in the purchase of Louisiana, yielded his scruples on the plea of great expediency.  If it be said that the only legitimate object of acquiring territory is to furnish homes are white men, this measure effects that object, for the immigration of colored men leaves additional room for the white men remained or coming here.  Mr. Jefferson, however, placed the importance of procuring Louisiana more on political and commercial grounds that on providing room for population.  On this whole proposition, including the appropriation of money with the acquisition of territory, does not be expediency amount to actual necessity, that without which the government cannot be perpetuated, the war continuing?


The rebels have been panic stricken since the Port Royal affair, and some of the Southern papers are advocating the raising of a great army by conscription.  Nearly every able bodied man in and about Charleston has already been pressed into service. Com. Tatnall is reported as saying recently that the South will be utterly unable to defend its line of coast from our naval power--search was his experience at Hilton Head.


DECEMBER 6, 1861


That this infernal rebellion is an inevitable and direct result of American slavery.  Let no side issues for a moment divert us.  By every power within human means that can be brought to bear upon the people at home, the brave soldiers abroad in the fight, and the government, through press and pulpit, klaxon broad and high the verdict of a thirty years' history, that this is A SLAVEHOLDERS' REBELLION, cruel and relentless.

All of its barbarous character, there is crowded into less than a twelvemonth an amount and strength of evidence never before paralleled.  The long catalogue of its crimes is but too familiar to us all.  There is nothing in the country or in its relations, except slavery, which could have engendered this mighty strife.  Diversity of interests in the sections, whether a business or religion, in the short space of eighty years, however sharp there competitions, furnishes no explanation of the mighty events which now pass before us.

All men may harmlessly shape and force the powers of external nature to do their bidding.  The waves of the sea and the storm, the cataract and the red lightning, may be disrobed of their terrors at the touch of genius.  Unconquerable will and the farthest stretch of human power over nature are productive of incalculable benefit to all; but no man--well or ill-born--can be vested with the response will power over his fellow-men without degenerating into a tyrant.  A few years' exercise of such power over the week and friendless cannot fail to exhibit the evidence of this truth.  Twenty or thirty years' practice though surely confirm it, and bring to view, in all their disgusting deformity, the wide extremes of the tyrant and the slave.  Tyranny, ambitious and unjust, low and selfish in its aims, and bending all things to its relentless sway, it preys alike upon the individual and society.  To compass it ends, it inflicts its insidious poison into both social and political life till Institutions of freedom dissolved before it, or in the whirlwind of passion it sweeps away the choicest fabrics of government and society.  Freeman and slave alike are but the tools of its cruel ambition.  To rule or ruin is its governing motive.  Peaceably if it can, forcibly if it must.  It is confined to no age or country.  It is visible everywhere and under all conditions, varying only in degree; and it should be among the highest duties of a good government, by force, if need be, two arrest it in its earliest exhibitions.

If you see unfortunate condition of this country, thus early in its history, to be cursed by a form of tyranny which has its roots in slavery.  This dreadful conflict is the result of its insolent machinations throughout the vast departments of our government.  Under a professed respect for law and order in the desecrated nature of "democracy," by secret and damnable plottings, it had at length all that crushed out the political life of the nation.  With the army and navy crippled and dispersed by a traitorous administration, the fell doctrine of secession had well-nigh culminated in the subjugation or dismemberment of the Union; and for the first time in our history on a scale never before surpassed in wickedness, the government was to have been prostrated by a slaveholders' conspiracy to be forever held in subjection to its sway.

The people of the North, with your thoughts engrossed by matters that tell for peace, had been unmindful of the extent or designs of those who had held the reins for so many years.  But when Sumter fell, the people a book from sleep as by the "crack of doom." The bearings and magnitude of the conspiracy were soon known.  Resistance in conflict were inevitable. Thirty-three millions of people, with opportunities unsurpassed in the tide of time, we're not only forced into this suicidal war, but by complication of their foreign relations rendered liable at any moment to be dragged into a war with one or more of the powerful nations on the opposite side of the sea.

And yet we have among us, even while the contest thickens, and at the time when the best endeavors of the government are put forth to save us, apologists for American slavery, who cannot or will not see any necessary connection between it and this foul rebellion.  Instead of loyally seconding the efforts of the patriotic, these men traitorously labor for a "peace" which, if obtained, would be but the inauguration of new and interminable ills.

Let us listen to no peace that is not preceded by the utter destruction of rebellion; no peace that has not its foundations laid in the highest and broadest liberty for ALL.  Let no vacillation mark the courage of the people or the policy of the government.  Carry the war, if need be, to the remotest extreme of "Africa." At every step of its resistance, let the rebellion feel the dread power of the insulted and mighty North.  On its head and front the blows fall thick and fast.  Overbearing in her insolence and pride, let South Carolina, the seat of secession and foremost among her recreant sisters, let this war which she precipitated upon us press the chalice to her lips.  If she still resists, lay her boasted capital in the dust, and make its site as wide of discovery to the antiquary in future years as that of Babylon or Nineveh.  And, finally, let slavery and secession rest for ever in a common grave.


In speaking of the wasting [of] the black flag by South Carolina, the Richmond correspondent of the Petersburg Express says:--

The spring of hope must now, with the Yankees, die upon the winter winds.  Already has the black flag been hoisted up on the soil of South Carolina, and war to the knife, the knife to the hilt, and thence to the shoulder, been proclaimed by her noble sons as the only booty which Yankee hireling the invaders shall receive at their hands.  This is right.  It is the only way to conquer a piece with a people so lost, and degraded as those which compose the grand army of the rump government.  We look anxiously for news from the sunny South; hopefully, prayerfully, with no misgivings.  Now that the rallying cry is "no quarter to the invaders of our soil," may we not believe that the course inaugurated by South Carolina will be followed up by our whole army, and thus and this war?  "So mote it be."


Anti Slavery Progress.  The following unwilling testimony is borne by the editor of the New York Commercial Advertiser: "It is," he says, "unquestionably true that a large element of the North would see every trace of slavery obliterated as our armies move southward.  It is true that this feeling is not confined to what is called the old abolition party, but is largely shared by those who were formerly known as are most conservative citizens."


Wheeling, Va., Dec. 2--In the Convention, today, Mr. Hogan, of Barne, offered the following:--

Whereas, Negro slavery is the origin and foundation of our national troubles, and the cause of the rebellion in our midst that is seeking to overthrow our government; and,

Whereas, slavery is incompatible with the word of God, detrimental to the interest of a free people, as well as wrong to slaves themselves, therefore,

Resolved, That the Convention inquire into the expediency of making the proposed new State a free State, and a provision be inserted for the gradual emancipation of all slaves within the proposed boundaries of the new State, to be submitted to the people of the same for their approval or rejection.

Referred to the Committee on Fundamental and General Provisions.

DECEMBER 7, 1861


The New Orleans Crescent, of November 23, made this statement: "Yesterday morning, Lieut. Morel, of the third district police, upon information received, arrested a German named Frenzel, who lives on Charles street, in the second district, charging him with being an incendiary and a traitor to the state and southern confederacy.  It appears that Frenzel, who is quite an intelligent man, had excited lieutenant Morel's suspicions, some time since, by remarks that he was reported to have made in favor of Lincoln and his dynasty; he was watched, the result of which was that he was heard to boast that there was a powerful organization in this city--at least 5,000 strong--which, the moment that the Lincoln army made its appearance here, or on our coast, would rise and help them to the best of their ability.  He further is reported to have said that his society which helped cut all the rebels' throats; if and that, as no one knew or suspected its existence, it was all the more powerful."



There is no opposition among any portion of the loyal people of the country to the proposed confiscation of rebel property, slaves included.  The New York Journal of Commerce, the most conservative of conservative papers says of it:

"On this ground, whatever differences of opinion that there may be among us as to the abstract questions connected with slavery, the North can be united.  The slave property of rebels is unquestionably the subject of confiscation as much as their horses or their cotton.  No one desires confiscated slaves to be returned to slavery.  The government should make provision for that; and if in the end it shall be that every slave in the rebellious states has acquired freedom in this manner, no reasonable man, North or South, can object to the effects of the administration of constitutional law.  This is the course of law and order.  It is the course provided in the constitution, and pursuing it, the government will carry the terrors of the law with them into the heart of the rebellion.  We suggested some weeks ago the organization of a court of confiscation.  We do not approve of the plan, which has been proposed, of appointing commissioners of confiscation.  This is an innovation on our simple style of law.  It would be sufficient to organize the court of inferior jurisdiction to the Supreme Court of the United States, having roving powers in the South, and let judges hold courts were ever the Union forces are in possession.  Let the due forms of law be thoroughly administered, and every case subjected to trial as the constitution provides.  Let titles to property be thus given which will stand the test of future insemination, and let slaves be confiscated to the government uses, and taken care of by government provision, in colonies or otherwise.  Proclaim that this plan as the adopted plan of government, and let it, if possible, be circulated among the rebels, and every slaveholder now in all arms will see offered him at once the choice of peace and prosperity, or war and ultimate poverty.  Against a proclamation of absolute emancipation he would feel the necessity of fighting to the last.  Against the terrors of law thus threatened, if he has not gone mad, he will not long hold out, but will accept the mercy which is always be extended to penitents."


A letter from Port Royal, published in the New York Tribune, confirms the statement that slaves were shot down who refuse to fly into the interior with their masters, on the approach of the Yankee invaders, and adds reports of other outrages too shocking for belief:

"A slave named Priscilla, formerly owned by Mr. Graham of Grahamville, now a servant of Capt.  Charles E Fuller, one of the brigade quartermasters, relates that before she left the plantation, the slaves were ordered into a barn to shell corn; that when all were in, the doors were locked, the barn was fired, and men, women and children were burned alive.  But the Capt. Fuller assures me that he has no doubt of the fact.  When, after such a horror as that, I add that two slaves captured at the Beaufort a few days ago are known to have been taken to the mainland and hanged, I seem to record only a common-place barbarity, the truth of which needs now affirmation.  It is not merely men who are trying to escape that are murdered.  The families of those who have escaped are treated with the utmost cruelty, and some of them have actually been massacred.

"One other fact of a different nature, and I turn from this frightful picture of the amenities of the social institution, whose rights and amenities are so carefully acknowledged and protected.  I am indebted for the account to General Viele.  If there is a slave girl in camp who left her master under the following circumstances: She had been compelled to share her master's bed, and the tearful reluctance with which the story was gradually drawn from her showed how bitterly she felt the disgrace to which she had been compelled to submit.  Her master's wife discovered the fact, remove her from the house, and inflicted upon the innocent victim of her husband's brutality the severest punishment--repeated floggings.  She escaped at the first opportunity, and came to the camp.  Is this tragedy horrible enough?  The girl was the personal attendant of her master's daughter, 18 years old."



"Regular and Irregular and Defective."

We are learning the duties of red tapeism.  The bills for lumber to make bunks for the poor and sick men, and the charges of the physician who was called in before the army doctors arrive, are rejected as "irregular." We can buy feed here for stock any less expense than the mere transportation from headquarters, that the quartermaster throws out the bills as "irregular," and says that requisition should be made upon him.  So, instead of buying corn on the spot at ten cents a bushel.  We must pay twenty-five at St. Louis and twelve cents a bushel for transportation.  Any other course would be "irregular," an expose our officers to censure.


At one place we found a hundred thousand dollars worth of provisions exposed to the weather.  But there was no quartermaster to remove them, and it would have been "irregular" for any one else to interfere and put them in a place of safety, so they were left out, and perished.  I have been in trouble so many times for trying to do my whole duty, instead of being "regular," that I have given it up entirely and learned to look only at one thing: What is best for our own regiment?

Officers' School.

Our evening officers' school is beginning to show its effects.  Some who at first were unable to comprehend or recollect, now begin to answer questions readily.  Than most of the officers of the regiment take a great interest in it, and improve rapidly.

1 “and that whole type.”

2 “alas, for so great a,” meaning, “in lieu of” a direct tax.

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