, 1863

The Hegira to Canada.—The Detroit Free Press says:

The passage of the conscription act was the signal for the second setting in of the tide of Canadian immigration. Knees which bore up strongly in favor of emancipation and Negro equality, give unmistakable evidence of weakness at the prospect of doing service in the field. The thriving village across the river is becoming a popular place of resort as a fashionable sea-side town during the watering season. One would judge, from a casual observation, that Windsor was enjoying a continual holiday, and that all the people sauntered about with nothing to do. The influx of skedaddlers fills the hotels and boarding-houses, and even citizens have to open their hospitable doors.

The flight of frightened patriots, if it increases, will soon be equal to the great hegira of August last, when a provost guard had to be extemporized and stationed upon the docks and in the streets to watch every man who walked abroad with a suspicious looking valise. The “grand movement” upon Canada in this case is not confined to white men. The “American citizens of African descent” strongly suspect there is to be an opportunity for them to show their fighting qualities, and the result is that they are making tracks from the country with more haste than dignity. Many of them are leaving daily for British soil, showing that, though they have an ardent affection for “Father Abraham,” they prefer that the white men should settle this little difficulty without their assistance.


Provost Court.Judge Peabody.—Charles Howard, the Negro lieutenant who made a business of manufacturing passes, signing the name of General Banks thereto, was sent to Fort Pickens for eighteen months.

John Sailrain, arrested for intemperate violence towards his wife, was sent to the Workhouse for thirty days.

Mary Farrell, for being drunk and expressing a hope that all the Yankees in the city would get their brains blown out, was sent to the Workhouse for sixty days.

An ancient female who had imbibed too extensively, was sent to the Workhouse for sixty days.

Mrs. Coly was fined $10 for making a malicious charge against Mary Daly, to wit, that Mary had thrown slops at her.

John Brown, for expressing a determination to cut the throat of a woman of bad repute on Barrack street, was fined $20.

John Reisbaugh had to pay $5 for slapping the face of M. West.

Thos. Bailey and G. Bovie, arrested for having arms and ammunition in their possession, and for repairing arms in a shop at the corner of Toulouse and Trémé streets, where special Officer Fitzpatrick made the large seizure a few days ago. Mr. Roselins said that there were only two guns in order, and for them an order would be produced; the rest were remnants of guns. The Judge said that they might be converted into arms, and therefore ordered that they be confiscated. Bailey besides was fined $100 and Bovie $20.

Wm. Healey was sent for six months to the Parish Prison, for stealing a bale of cotton from the levee which he sold to a man named Kaufman for 35 cents per pound. Kaufman pleased innocence, and was discharged.

John Gorman, for running a cab without a license, was fined $25. He had a license for another cab, which was then at a shop getting repairs.

Two cab drivers, named Preston and Curran, were up for getting a row on St. Charles street. Curran was fined $10 and Preston $5.

French Reconquest of Canada.—Mr. Ramean, a French publicist, in a recent publication on the French in Canada, takes the ground that his countrymen are gradually wresting Canada from the control of the English. He assumes that they are the superior race of the Province; that they are an invincible and unconquerable people, as is evidenced by the history of the colony. A hundred years of British domination has not caused the British race to prevail yet in the Province. They have had all the prestige of power, and every external advantage, especially that of emigration. Various schemes, more or less despotic, have been attempted to absorb the original habitants in the race of the conquerors. And yet the French Canadians, as a people, stand now stronger, more united and more unconquerable than ever before. Not only is their front unbroken, but they are really conquering the English and driving them from Canada by the certain and unfailing advances of colonization. The English have no alternative left them but to beat a retreat before the French Canadian hosts. They will do it already now, although most unwillingly, and will have to do it more and more and more.

Not only the Eastern townships, but the whole of Lower Canada, is to be reoccupied by the French. It is the patrimony of their fathers, from which the British are to be peacefully, but surely, driven away in spite of all opposition or schemes of resistance. Furthermore, Upper Canada will in turn be overflowed by the tide of French colonization, and be torn away from the grasp of the British race. Such are the views of the sanguine Frenchman, and the Montreal Witness is constrained to admit that present appearances and the statistical results of colonization seem to corroborate them. English colonization, although based on a large and systematic plan, has failed to check and overmatch the expansion of the French population. The Witness, however, contends that the antagonism existing between the English and French of Canada is based much less on a difference of race and language than on one of religion. Were the religious faith the same, the English and French colonists would not drive each other away, but either amalgamate of be cordially tolerant of each other. The Witness looks to a conversion of the French to Protestantism to unify the two races, but this would seem to be a very improbable result.–Boston Journal.


MARCH 30, 1863

Maffitt, the Pirate
From the Knoxville Register

The vocabulary of our Northern contemporaries is not the most elegant in the English language in their allusions to Confederate naval officers, they invariably term them “pirates.” We have the pirate Semmes, the pirate Maffitt, the pirate Ingraham, and various others. The pirate who just now is acquiring the most terrible celebrity is Captain John Newland Maffitt of the rebel man-of-war Florida, formerly the Ovieto. No buccaneer of old on the Spanish Main ever inspired such terror as this pirate Maffitt. Who is he?

Some twenty-five or thirty years ago, a dapper little Methodist preacher, from across the ocean, landed in New York. His name was John Newland Maffitt. We have learned that his extraction was Irish. Be that as it may, there was no brogue on his tongue to betray it, as the editor of this paper, who has often listened to his wondrous eloquence, can testify. His genius and eloquence were at once felt and acknowledged, and he was quickly pronounced by the Northern press to be the greatest revivalist who ever trod the soil of the New World. In “reason and apprehension he is like a God.” No sanctuary in which he ministered was large enough to accommodate the eager crowds of men and women who thronged to listen to his impassioned words. Often and ever the confident sinner who went to scoff at his reputed coxcombry, of sneer at his effeminate mannerism, quitted his presence an abashed and tearful penitent.

We will not attempt to follow his career closely. His first wife died, leaving a son named after his father, John Newland Maffitt, who was placed in the United States Navy. He married again, a dashing belle of Brooklyn, N. Y., and soon thereafter whispers became rife of domestic unhappiness. From that period the northern press commenced against him the work of defamation; and, a few years later we saw the announcement of his death in the city of Mobile–of a broken heart!

The “pirate” Maffitt, who, in command of the Florida, recently sailed out of Mobile boldly through the blockaders, and has since been carrying death and destruction into the Yankee war-fleet and the Yankee commercial marine, is the son of John Newland Maffitt, the great Methodist revivalist, the broken-hearted victim of a slanderous Yankee press. For the rest of our sketch let a couple of brief extracts from Northern papers suffice. The Havana correspondent of Bennett’s Herald says:

“From reliable information, I am enabled to state, or rather, I am convinced, that this vessel will sail for the East Indies in a few days. Our government had better look out for her advent in those waters. Capt. Maffitt is no ordinary character. He is vigorous, energetic, bold, quick and dashing, and the sooner he is caught and hung, the better will it be for the interests of our commercial community.

“He is decidedly popular here, and you can scarcely imagine the [eagerness] evinced to get a glance at him. He was at the Dominico this morning in citizen’s clothes, and was the observed of every one. Nobody, unless informed, would have imagined the small, black-eyed gentleman, with his romantic appearance, to be a second Semmes, probably in time to be a more celebrated and more dangerous pirate.

He was alone, taking a cup of coffee, seemingly unconscious of having any more serious occupation on hand. As soon as he perceived that his presence attracted attention, he blushed like a girl, paid his bill and decamped.” ->

The World comments thus upon the subject of the Florida and her Captain:

“The exploits of the Confederate steamer Florida off the coast of Cuba created a profound excitement in shipping circles in this city yesterday. And well they might. As swift as the Alabama, stronger and with heavier guns, the Florida is commanded by an officer who believes in fighting. His dash at the Hatteras, right under the guns of a whole fleet of Union vessels, shows Mr. Maffitt is a very different person from Semmes. The career of the latter has been very destructive to our commercial marine, but he has never yet ventured upon a fight. The Captain of the Ovieto or Florida is a different sort of person, and evidently emulates the fame of a Paul Jones, rather than a Captain Kidd. The fact that his crew are southerners, while the men on board the Alabama are Englishmen, may account for the boldness of the one officer and the caution of the other.”


The long, lean, lanky individual, who reigns over the Yankee nation, would have made a most excellent clown in a circus, and in that capacity filled the country with laughter instead of drowning it in tears. He is a good joker, though, as the London Times says, his unseasonable displays of wit “all have a moral of unscrupulous morality.”

There was not only wit, however, in his reply to the paymaster, but we expect there was equally as much truth.

A Washington correspondent of a New England journal says that the President looks haggard and careworn, yet he preserves his good nature, and some new story or bon mot from him is always in circulation. The last was uttered on Saturday at the public reception, when a Western paymaster in full major’s attire was introduced, and said: “Being here, Mr. Lincoln, I thought I’d call and pay my respects.” “From the complaints of the soldiers,” responded the President,” I guess that’s about all any of you do pay.”


Our Special Dispatches.
Telegraphed from Beaumont.

Alexandria March 25.–The Appeal says our Government must resort to taxation, or the currency will continue to depreciate.

The Richmond Enquirer urges every man and every woman in the country to plant corn. Renounce cotton and tobacco, and plant every acre in corn and oats.

The New York Chamber of Commerce has urged Lincoln to issue Letters of Marque and Reprisal.

On the 10th, gold was selling in Richmond at 4 dollars premium, thereby requiring 500 Confederate Treasury notes in exchange of 100 dollars in gold.

Applicants for passports to leave the country have to swear that they have not been drafted or mustered into service, and also give bond of one thousand dollars.

Brigham Young has been arrested, under the Congressional polygamy act, and required to give $2000 bonds.


The Naval Fight at Port Hudson.

New York, March 30.–The New Orleans Picayune of the 22d says, the Monongahela, whose machinery was injured during the fight of last Saturday night, has repaired the damage done to her wood work and is in good order again. On Friday she steamed up near the lower batteries and threw several shell from her 200 pounder rifled Parrotts.

New Orleans advices state that on the approach of Banks’ forces the rebels retired to Port Hudson. Col. Clark of Gen. Banks’ staff was severely wounded in the leg while reconnoitering. The man who shot him was subsequently killed. Gen. Banks was at New Orleans on the 23d. On the return of the army to Baton Rouge, he issued a general order announcing the “entire object of the expedition was accomplished, and that it was a complete success.” The movement is understood to have been a mere diversion to enable Farragut’s fleet to pass the batteries, and not the reduction of Port Hudson. Another account says the army now extends from Baton Rouge a few miles outside. It is said information was received by Gen. Grover that the rebels were about to attack Baton Rouge, which rendered the retrograde movement advisable. Our fleet is now a few miles below Baton Rouge. The rebel force there is said to number 20,000.

Report says the Mississippi, before her destruction, had silenced two rebel batteries except one gun; and that the Richmond, which had passed Port Hudson, returned, and, mistaking her for a rebel gunboat coming out of one of the bayous, fired upon her so rapidly as to mostly sweep her decks. This was not discovered till she was aground and her destruction inevitable.

A semi-official account of the engagement says that, after the arrival of the army from Baton Rouge and the skirmishes of Saturday afternoon, Admiral Farragut’s fleet, which was at anchor 5 or 6 miles below Port Hudson, prepared to pass the batteries. The signal for advance was made at 9:30, a beautiful starlight night.

The Hartford, with the Albatross alongside, took the lead, and both successfully passed the batteries. The Richmond and Genesee followed. The Richmond, exposed to the fire of all the batteries and receiving a shot through her steam drum, was obliged to fall back out of range of the batteries. She lost 3 killed and 7 wounded.

The Monongahela and the Kineo went up next. Captain McKinstry, of the Monongahela, was seriously injured. The entire loss in this vessel was 7 killed and 21 wounded. The Kineo was exposed to a severe fire, and so badly damaged that she was compelled to fall back. The sidewheel gunboat Genesee was somewhat damaged, and also fell back. The Mississippi grounded nearly in the center of the entire range of shore batteries extending 3½ miles. She grounded at midnight, and stood fire 40 minutes before she was abandoned. Forty-five of her men are killed or missing. She was set on fire and destroyed. Many of the men escaped.

The engagement lasted from 10 o’clock till 1 a.m. The Confederate batteries at first fired badly, but after the Mississippi grounded, and they got the range, the firing was very effective.

While the gunboats were under the batteries, the six mortars and the iron-clad Essex fired across, keeping up a continuous shelling of the rebel batteries. Fires were built all along the opposite bank to show the enemy the exact position of the ships.1

Confederate loss unknown.

Slavery and the Constitution.

We are now passing through a crisis which is to affect materially the destiny of the race. Two antagonistic systems are joined in mortal combat. On the one side is liberty supported by the maxims of philosophy and the truths of religion; on the other, an enormous system of oppression that drags the only apologies for its existence from the rubbish of past ages and long-exploded theories. Wherever education and  moral truth elevate the popular mind, freedom must follow. Peter the Great found the Russians barbarians. In a century and a half they have become civilized, and now Alexander strikes the manacles from every serf. Perhaps the foresight of the Emperor precipitated the step. However that may be, the growth of correct ideas had already written an edict of emancipation which no despot could veto.

America is the home of freedom. Our Government is based upon an acknowledgement of the fundamental and absolute equality of man. Practically we have denied what theoretically we claimed to be self-evident truth. Had the supporters of human slavery observed the obligations of the Constitution, this strange anomaly might have continued for many years to come. But knowing that the sentiments of the whole civilized world pronounced the system a monstrous wrong, they determined to cut loose from the rest of mankind in the hope of establishing a new dynasty with slavery for its corner-stone. The movement was undertaken in frenzy. The first acts of the conspirators were gross outrages upon the Government. After multiplied offenses–wither of which was a just cause of war–they put themselves without the pale and protection of the Constitution by the wanton bombardment of a national fort. That crime sealed the death warrant of bondage in America. The President for many months tried to put down the revolt and save its cause. Federal generals and statesmen employed most dexterous efforts to crack the skulls of rebels without cutting the cords which bound the Negro. The Government clung to the old prejudices in favor of the “peculiar” rights of the South till its position became absurd. With equal propriety it might have decided to restore every Parrott gun captured in battle as to return “fugitives from labor.” Necessities growing out of the situation have forced the country to take its present position with reference to slavery. If emancipation imposes hardships and losses upon the Southern master, he can blame no one but himself.

All the talk about the violation of the Constitution and the subversion of Southern rights springs either from ignorance or dishonesty. In war it is right and necessary to disarm the enemy. If he fights with Minié rifles, we must take them if we can. If he makes use of an institution thoroughly hostile to the genius of our Government, the spirit of Christianity, and the civilization of the age, shall we not also improve the opportunity to wrest it from his control and hurl the stumbling block from the pathway of the nation? The present Administration was excessively scrupulous in its efforts to protect and thus to continue slavery. Had the enemy yielded in the early stages of the war, the institution would have remained to stir up another and more calamitous rebellion at some future time. But if we persevere now, if we fulfill the mission which Providence most obviously imposes upon us, we shall become a thoroughly homogeneous people, and acting in perfect harmony, shall work out the noble destiny before us.

APRIL 1, 1863


“Buffaloes” and “Copperheads.”—Men in the South who still adhere to the Union and the Constitution are called “Buffaloes,” and those in the North who occupy the same position are called “Copperheads.” True Union men and devoted friends of the Constitution are vilified in both sections by the dominant parties–which is not the only evidence we have of the truth of Mr. Seward’s declaration, endorsed by the President himself, that the radicals of both sections are “acting in concert together” for the destruction of the Union. And they will surely succeed unless they are overthrown by the “Buffaloes” and “Copperheads”–the Union men of the South and the Democracy or Union men of the North.


A good old Democrat writes to the Portland Argus as follows: “The abolitionists call us Copperheads. Copper is useful. It has prevented many a good ship, and it will protect the ship of State, under Democratic auspices. Democrats, let us ‘copper fasten’ the Constitution, and save the Republic.”


Running the Blockade.—The N. Y. Commercial Advertiser publishes a letter from Nassau which states that that port was crowded with blockade runners, consisting of small sized steamers, brigs, schooners and sloops; some unloading cotton, others putting on dry goods, salt, provisions, &c., ostensibly for Halifax or St. John, N. B. The town, with its hotels and boarding houses, was crowded to overflowing with the officers and crews of these vessels. They are wild over their success in the contraband trade, many having made fortunes. The arrivals from Dixie are numerous. They are mostly from Charleston. Some of the captains remark that they were fired at without effect; others that they saw no blockade vessels, and one stated that he passed two at a short distance, and they did not attempt to intercept or chase him. It is said that more than 10,000 bales of cotton have been landed at Nassau during the last two months. Seven steamers, one schooner and two sloops arrived from Charleston during the month of February, and a schooner and a sloop from Savannah. During the same period 19 vessels left with dry goods, provisions, &c., for Southern ports; among them a sloop loaded with gun-powder. Nine of the number were steamers. It seems from this account that the blockade of Charleston is very inefficient. Some people are so uncharitable as to insinuate that the blockade can be “run” by any vessel that will “pay toll,” and the above account seems to give plausibility to the “base insinuation.”


Washington a “Copperhead.”—George Washington was a “Copperhead” according to the Republican definition of that word. If the following extracts from his Farewell Address are not “Copperhead sentiments,” we know not what are. At any rate hey are Democratic sentiments:

“Indignantly frown upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our Country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.

“The Constitution which at any time exists, till changed an explicit and authentic act of the people, is sacredly obligatory upon all.

“Resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles however specious the pretexts

“The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism.

“Let there be no change by usurpation; for though this, in one instance, may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed."2

Old Abe and the Negro Soldiers.—The Washington correspondent of the Boston Herald says:

“The President informed a member of Congress yesterday that the sending of Negroes into the field was against his desire; that he only wished them to work on fortifications, and in some cases to garrison them, but that he was entirely overruled by outside pressure from military and civil quarters alike, and in heeding it, in deference to his own judgment, finds himself surrounded by one of the gravest issues of the war. The enemy has notified the Government that they will put to death all Negroes found in arms. The President has placed them in the field, and must take the responsibility of protecting them.”


Is This a Free Country?—In one of Mr. Seward’s letters to the British minister, published in the “Diplomatic correspondence” printed by order of Congress, occurs the following most remarkable and disgraceful sentence:

“I can touch a bell on my right hand and order the imprisonment of a citizen of Ohio; I can touch a bell again and order the arrest of a citizen of New York; and no power on earth, except the President, can release them. Can the Queen of England, in her dominions, do so much?”

If the object of Mr. Seward was to humiliate the people of this country and to disgrace and degrade them in the eyes of the whole civilized world, he could not have done it more effectually. He boasts of the arbitrary and unlimited power of the Government–boasts that it is a more perfect despotism than the English monarchy, and glories in the fact that it dares to override the Constitution and the laws and to ruthlessly trample upon the rights and liberties of the citizens whose servant it is! And in the wantonness of his arrogance, he tauntingly asks whether the Queen of England dares to thus outrage the laws and the rights of citizens in her dominions. No, she dare not! Conduct on her part like that pursued by our Government would cause her throne to be upset and herself and family driven into exile from their land. Yet we are called a free people, and our Government a free Government, while the English people are the subjects of a monarchy.


 “Depreciating the Currency.”—It appears that the business men of Boston, “loyal Boston,” are engaged in “the despicable work of depreciating the currency”–actually refusing to take the “greenbacks,” the “legal tender greenbacks,” in payment of debts contracted before the law was passed making them legal tender. The Boston Post states this. It says: “We understand that parties in Boston are refusing he United States paper currency in the payment of mortgages and dues to savings banks, and that they do this under legal advice, upon the grounds that Congress has no right to issue such bills and make them legal tender; and that, if the question is carried up to the Supreme Court of the United States, it will be so decided.” This is treason–flat burglary, according to Republican logic, and “something must be done about it,” and that speedily. This appealing to the Courts–this claiming the protection of the Constitution–must be stopped. Let Uncle Abe issue a proclamation upon the subject at once!  


Fun in Camp.–A rich story is told of the boys in the 2d Vermont regiment. It seems that the men of the 26th New Jersey regiment repeatedly stole the fresh meat from the Vermont boys in the night and appropriated it for their own use. Some of the Vermont boys killed the New Jersey Colonel’s Newfoundland dog, dressed it neatly, and hung up the quarters in the Quartermaster’s Department. The “Jerseys,” mistaking it for mutton, stole it as usual, and bore it off in triumph. The Vermonters were on the watch, and ascertained that it was served up the next day upon the table of the Jersey officers. The joke soon became public, and the “Jerseys” are greeted, when they visit the camps of the Vermonters, with a “bow-wow-wow” by way of friendly salutation.


A staff officer of the McClellan breed in the Union service, when asked why the rebel army of Virginia was allowed to recross the Potomac without loss after the battle of Antietam, with un conscious sincerity replied that it was “not the game” to win annihilating Union victories–that the plan was to have the war linger along without conclusive advantage to either side until the Democrats could get into power, when they would make a compromise. We believe the naïve candor of this response cost the green aide his commission; but Democrats all around us, who have no military appointments to lose, confidentially repeat his avowal, and the whole policy of their party is based on his idea. “Every month that accomplishes nothing,” they say, “weakens the Republicans and strengthens our party; we shall certainly carry the next Presidential election if the war goes on as it has done and the rebellion holds out; and then we can make a peace with our Democratic brethren who are making an irregular opposition in the South to Abolition rule.”–N. Y. Tribune.


A correspondent, writing before Vicksburg, says that the rebel officials in that city recently sent an invitation to Gen. Grant, Admiral Porter and other Union offices to attend a grand ball to be given in Vicksburg. Our officers were assured that they would be treated in the kindest and most generous manner, and that no effort would be spared to render the occasion pleasant and memorable. They would be introduced to the most fascinating belles of the Mississippi, and subjected to the dangerous fire of their bright eyes. Our officers declined the polite invitation, as they had but little heart for banqueting with those to-night when to-morrow they might meet as foes.


The New York World has a special dispatch from Washington that the first draft in the North will be of free Negroes. All the able bodied colored men between 20 and 25 years of age are to be taken to fill up the ranks of the various Negro brigades now under way. This has been decided upon, it is reported, at the instigation of Gov. Andrew, who is furious at the free Negroes for their backwardness in coming forward to fight for their race. There are not enough of Negroes to be had within our present army lines to garrison the sea coast, as Government designs, by this class of troops, and the impressment of the northern Negroes would immediately add about 40,000 effectives to the black army.

A Princely Wedding.–The Prince’s wedding in London was a more sanguinary affair that at first appeared. We learn now that seven women were crushed to death by the mob, and upwards of one hundred persons had their limbs broken. This in London alone. Probably in other cities of the islands, where the excitement seems to have been nearly as great, there were enough killed to make up a hundred, and the wounded doubtless count by thousands. This makes a respectable hecatomb for the occasion, but it was not enough. In Cork–and in how many other Irish cities we know not–riots were got up, and the streets had to be several times cleared at the point of the bayonet. In London the break-down of the Police is described as complete, and the “fierce-looking chargers” upon whom the Press love to descant, had hard work to prevent a general tumult. In England, and ocean of bad beer was drank, and in Scotland and Ireland, seas of usquebaugh, and the amount of drunkenness seems to have been frightful. Had it occurred on this side of the Atlantic, the English Press would have dilated upon the affair as an unparalleled scene of killing, maiming and fighting, of yelling, drunkenness and madness. It is well for the women of England and the peace of mind of the kingdom that there are no more Princes of Wales to wed.–N. Y. Times.


Worldly Vanity in Charleston.–The special correspondent of the London Times writes from Charleston, S. C., as follows:

“On the night of my arrival here, a large ball was given by the members of Gen. Beauregard’s staff, and it would have been difficult for a stranger suddenly introduced into the ball room to credit the assertion that the country which could exhibit its daughters is such rich and brilliant dresses had been for nearly two years shut out by blockade from Paris and Europe. It is scarcely an extravagant statement to assert that, even in their present so called destitute condition, such States as South Carolina and Georgia possess still the necessities and many of the luxuries of life, to an extent unsurpassed in the richest countries of the world.”


The Albany Argus, while it considers the Conscription bill “flagrantly indiscreet and unwise, independently of the question of its constitutionality,” says: “This bill has become law, and however odious its provisions, if they are in accordance with the Constitution, and thus endowed with vitality, they will command the obedience of a law-abiding people–and especially of that portion of the people who rally under the banner of ‘The Constitution, the Union and the Laws.’ They will not inaugurate revolution, but they will resort to all peaceful remedies for unconstitutional or unwise legislation.”

, 1863

The Battle-Field at Murfreesboro.

I have just returned from Murfreesboro, where I spent two days in riding through the vast encampments of our troops, and over the late battle ground. I traversed about five miles in extent of the battle ground, first in the fields, and then in the woods among the cedars and timbers where much of the hard fighting was done. No man at a distance, and only receiving the newspaper accounts, can form any idea of the number of dead horses and mules upon the ground. Their names are legion. They are often piled up, one upon another–some shot through the body, some through the neck, others with heads and legs shot off. But all are in a wonderful state of preservation, though lying on the field more than two months.

The trees were peppered with bullets for miles, the twigs are cut off and many trees are cut off at points ranging from five to thirty feet from the ground. Large trees of size sufficient to make sawlogs, where the cannon balls struck them fairly, they passed clear through, and daylight can be seen through as one rides along. Cannon balls are to be seen all along the line, and shells that failed to explode. In other instances, pieces of shell are upon the ground, and among the cedars I handled them.

The graves of the dead are to be seen everywhere, in untold numbers. The head-boards of single graves indicate who many of them are, giving names, regiments and residences. Among the rebel graves I found the name of a relative of my wife, a captain of artillery, from Alabama, killed in the fight on the 30th of December. In many instances ditches were dug, and from seventy-five to a hundred men packed in. The dirt upon many of these is only a few inches deep, and in some instances hands and feet are sticking out. The greatest sight to be seen is that in front of where Gen. Rosecrans massed his artillery, say one hundred and twenty guns. Dead horses and mules and an innumerable quantity of graves tell the effect of these guns! I could but feel sad as I passed over this terrible battle ground, and yet I felt that there thousands of Southern soldiers in rebellion against the government of the United States had villainously sought, and righteously found, their rights–not in the “territories,” but in the cotton fields and cedar thickets of a state they had forced out of the Union at the point of the bayonet, and in opposition to the known wishes of a majority of the real people.–Parson Brownlow.


The second Quaker monitor sent down to draw the fire of the Vicksburg batteries must have cost the rebels several thousand dollars in ammunition. Besides, offices observing the action with powerful glasses report that seven of the large guns burst, destroying many lives and wounding a large number of offices and men. This has since been confirmed by deserters from the rebel army at Vicksburg.


Among the deserters who were arrested in New York a day or two since was James Kippler, who had enlisted in nine regiments and received one thousand dollars in bounty.


Kansas has a dozen regiments of white men, five regiments of Indians, and two regiments of Negroes.

The Horrors of Richmond.

If we can believe the testimony of Union men who have been held as prisoners by the Rebels in Richmond, the state of things there grow more terrible every day. We feel assured that the truth is told, for we know how bad our prisoners were treated there more than a year ago when the Rebels had very much better supplies of provisions and clothing than they now have. The statements of returned prisoners are confirmed by Rebel prisoners, and also by our returned soldiers who have had some opportunity to witness the devastating effects of a two years’ war in Virginia.

When we read such accounts as the following we are ready to believe the reports that the Rebels are about evacuating Virginia entirely and going into the cotton and Gulf states. For how can they live much longer so far from the base of supplies, and with an immediate prospect of having the main channel through which those supplies come cut off by the Federal occupation of the entire Mississippi river? We care not much if the Rebels are not able to exist, but it makes us sad to read of such barbarities as the following. The Wheeling, (Va.,) Intelligencer publishes the statement of Isaac Bloss, a Unionist just returned from a six months captivity in Richmond:

“Mr. Bloss says that for four months he and his companions lived upon mule and horse meat, the most of which was rotten and stunk so badly that he could smell it a square distant. He has helped to put men in the coffins who died from actual starvation. Many of his companions were so badly afflicted with scurvy that their teeth could be easily pulled out with the fingers. Those who could not provide themselves with blankets were compelled to sleep upon the hard floor of the lousy, filthy prison. Mr. Bloss says the confederate army is now upon quarter rations, which statement is verified by the Richmond papers. It is common talk in Richmond that the people in various sections of the state are actually starving for the necessaries of life.”


Important from Vicksburg.

A Cairo special dispatch to Chicago says Wednesday evening, 28th ult., the rams Lancaster and Switzerland undertook to run the batteries at Vicksburg. As soon as they came within range the rebels opened a tremendous fire. The Lancaster was struck thirty times. Her entire bow was shot away, causing her to sink immediately, turning a complete somersault as she went down. All the crew except two escaped. The Switzerland was disabled by a 64-pounder penetrating her steam drum. She floated down, the batteries still firing and striking her repeatedly, until finally the Albatross ran alongside and towed her to the lower mouth of the canal. The loss of life in her is not ascertained.

APRIL 4, 1863


Removing the Obstructions in Charleston Harbor.–A letter from Port Royal says of Capt. Ericsson’s invention for removing torpedoes in Charleston harbor:

An iron frame, floated to the water’s edge by iron sponsons, is pushed ahead of the Monitor as she runs in.3 It’s length, from the bow of the Monitor is from 20 to 30 feet. An aperture is made next to the vessel of the shape of her bows, intended to receive it. The breadth of the “Obstruction Remover,” as it is called, is 12 feet. From each side of the extremity a strong bar runs or shaft runs down also 12 feet, the Monitor drawing but from eight to 10 feet of water, thus rendering it impossible for any torpedoes over which this “Obstruction remover” passes to injure the vessel.

A number of iron bars are used, not only to network, so as to either push forward or explode every torpedo less than twelve feet under water, but also to strengthen and steady the masts. At the bottom a heavy tie-bar unites these two vertical rods, upon which rests the percussion torpedo containing seven hundred pounds of powder. Above this is a hammer with catches in a spring so stiff as to require two men to set it, but constructed so that the lever which protrudes in front, forming the handle or other end of the hammer, will cause the spring to give with little pressure. This is to remove “piles.” The experiments made upon this machine in the North have demonstrated the fact that it is a complete success, and an amount of powder greater than has ever been proposed for a torpedo before, caused no injury to the vessel, and indeed did not disturb any of the ties of the “Obstruction remover.” It will be seen that under no circumstances can any strain be given to the Monitor, for supposing the apparatus to be destroyed, as it floats independently of the Monitor, supporting itself, the worst that can happen is its loss.


The officers and enlisted men of the army are hereafter to be distinguished by a badge that will show to what corps and division of corps they may belong. This regulation will have a tendency to prevent straggling and skulking.


Income of the Prince of Wales.–Ample provision has been made by the British Parliament for the establishment of the Prince of Wales. The House of Common, on the 19th ultimo, unanimously approved Lord Palmerston’s proposition to settle upon the Prince the sum of £40,000 a year, in addition to his annual income of £60,000 from the Duchy of Cornwall, with an additional sum of £10,000 a year for eh Princess–in all £110,000 a year, or five hundred and fifty thousand dollars, in addition to twenty years accumulation from the revenue from his Duchy. These accumulations were greatly increased by the personal care of the late Prince Albert.


In the interview recently with the Ute Chiefs whose tribe occupy a portion of Colorado Territory, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs informed them that if they created a disturbance with the whites, sufficient military force will be sent to put them down. Whereupon the head chief coolly expressed a doubt whether the government had the power to do so. These Indians, though of roving habits, claim ownership of large tracts of land.

A Slaughter of Indians.–Official information has been received of Col. Conner’s severe battle and splendid victory on Bear river, Washington Territory, after a forced march of 140 miles in mid-winter, and through deep snow, in which 76 of his men were disabled by frozen feet, and his gallant band of only 200 attacked 300 Indian warriors in their stronghold, and after a hard fought battle of four hours, destroyed the entire band, leaving 224 dead upon the field. Our loss was 14 killed and 49 wounded.

These Indians had murdered several miners during the winter, and were part of the same band that had been massacring emigrants on the overland mail route for the last fifteen years, and were the principle actors and leaders in the horrid crimes of the past summer.

During Col. Conner’s march, no assistance was rendered by the Mormons, who seemed indisposed, he says, to divulge any information regarding the Indians, and charged enormous prices for every article furnished his command.


The Pacific Mills, of Lawrence, are the most extensive in the world, giving employment to over 2,500 operatives, and furnishing exclusive support for nearly 10,000 people. The mill was built in 1854, two years after its incorporation, and with a capital of $2,430,000. The kind of goods manufactured are delaines, cashmeres, challis, calicoes, and print lawns. The power is obtained from five turbine water-wheels. In the manufacturing department, which is 800 feet in length, there are 62,000 spindles in operation, 1,600 looms, operated by 950 women, and the average amount of cotton consumed per week is about 4,200 lbs., and of wool 20,000 lbs., all of which when manufactured, makes 360,000 yards of goods. The printing department comprises sixteen machines and 25,000,000 yards of goods are printed yearly.


Alfred Smith, Esq.,  has sold twenty houses heretofore rented for summer villas, and to the 1st of April had rented over eighty houses, leaving but about twenty in his hands for rent the coming season. The indications are that by the 1st of May all of these will be taken and a want of this kind of accommodation will be felt by those who desire to pass the summer in our city.


The rebel privateers continue their depredations. The Alabama burned on February 21 the splendid ship Golden Eagle of New York, bound for Queenstown, Ireland, with guano, and destroyed on the same day the bark Olive Jane of Boston, bound from Bordeaux to New York, with a rich cargo of wines and fruits.


A lady, in speaking of a gathering of lawyers to dedicate a new court house, said she supposed they had gone to view the ground where they shortly must lie.  

1 The phrasing makes it sound like the Yankees built fires to silhouette their own ships, but what is meant is that the rebels did.

2 A number of online sites excerpt portions of this address and present them as the complete; the full text of Washington’s 1796 Farewell Address can be found at

3 This is not the Monitor, which had been lost at sea over a year earlier. That ship’s name was afterwards used to describe ironclad ships in general, and especially those designed with one or more of the turrets that had distinguished the Monitor.

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