, 1863

The Revolution in Poland.
Correspondence of the World.

Paris, Feb. 27.–The Polish insurrection has so absorbed the attention of the European public for the past fortnight that the American war, which until now has been treated of daily in the public prints, has subsided into an affair of secondary importance. Indeed, it seems almost to have been effaced from the minds of the people by the important and thrilling events which are now occurring in the heart of their own continent, and which bid fair to stir up all nationalities to become partisans in the great questions involved in the uprising of a cruelly oppressed nation. There has never before been a question upon which entire unanimity of opinion has been found in the press of both England and France; this accord is so remarkable as to give rise to the belief in an understanding between the governments of the two nations. The course taken by the English press, with very few exceptions, ever since the beginning of our war shows plainly that no abstract love of liberty can induce this nation to espouse a cause which they fancy to be opposed to their interests, and the Poles are indebted to them for their adhesion, not to any sympathy for their sufferings as victims of a fierce despotism, but to their desire to see Russia diminished and humbled. The Oriental question in which this great semi-barbaric power finds itself in an attitude hostile to the designs of England, although masked at this time by a skillful diplomacy , is rapidly attaining formidable proportions, and anything which will divert Russia from the furtherance of her designs in the East upon territory which England claims as her own by right of first occupation, and which she retains by a series of despotic acts little known because the seat of them is so far removed from the centers of civilization–will be regarded with favor by the English government. In France all parties the most opposed on other points are united in a cry for aid for Poland. The Liberals, or republicans, consistently maintain the cause of freedom, the Orleanists but take up the policy maintained by them during the term of their power, while the clerical party unite with Catholic Poland against heretical Russia.

Subscriptions for aid to the wounded Poles pour in at the offices of the several journals, where persons are authorized to receive them. Cries of “Vive la Pologne” are to be heard at the theaters and cafes, and in the Quartier Latin (the students’ quarter) the enthusiasm is unbounded. Bands of young Poles leave Paris daily to join their countrymen in their struggle for life and for independence.

A touching instance of heroic patriotism is related of a young man of twenty-two, who presented himself to be inscribed on the list of those who were about to leave to devote themselves to their country. This young man had been sent here to be put under the charge of a surgeon for a cure of a lameness brought about by a serious infection. When he presented himself as a candidate, his friends endeavored to dissuade him from going, telling him he was unfit for military service, and particularly for the sort of service needed in Poland at present. He replied: “I know all that, but you see while they are losing their time in killing me, there will be a good man spared.” So he took his departure. The well authenticated accounts of the fearful atrocities committed by the Russian soldiers make the blood curdle with horror. Unarmed men, women and children are massacred with a barbarous cruelty only known among savage nations–some tossed alive into the fire, others bayonetted while ill in bed and unable to move. A letter published this morning says that several Sisters of Charity who had left Warsaw to attend the wounded were mercilessly put to death to prevent them from fulfilling their mission of mercy. The hordes of Attila were not more terrible than the Russian soldiers of the nineteenth century. ->

To these savage Cossacks are opposed the Polish Kozsyniers or Reapers, which are to Poland what the Zouave is to France, the Hosned to Hungary, the Bersagliere to Italy. They are the national soldiers–half soldier, half peasant; their arms are characteristic–their scythes converted into a most formidable weapon. These bodies of men, it is said, were first brought together for the defence of their country by Kosciusko, and the consecration of their implement of peaceful agriculture to the sacred uses of the defence of national rights is a solemn ceremony–a crowd of traditions aiding in giving it an important character. As soon as the news of a national rising reaches a Polish village, the principal proprietor calls the men together and asks who will arm himself for the noble and holy cause. All who respond go immediately to the blacksmith of the village, who by a simple process converts each man’s scythe into his arms of war. The volunteers distribute all the arms that they can collect, and all go together to the church or cross of the village, which is usually situated upon an eminence. Here the priest blesses the scythes, which are stacked in front of the cross, after which each man takes his weapon and goes in the direction in which he is ordered, while the women and children remain gathered around the cross in prayer for those who have gone to fight for country and liberty. In the present insurrection it is not only the peasants, but the greater part of the insurgents, citizens, artisans, landowners and students [who] are armed with this as their sole weapon.

Prussia receives no small share of execration for the part taken by it in delivering refugees up to Russia. There is a flying rumor current in Paris, which I give with all reserve, that the king, finding himself unable to contend with the flood of European public opinion, and true to his traditionary faith in Divine right, consequently unable to yield in his own person, intends to abdicate in favor of his son, the husband of the Princess Royal of England.


Bibles for the South.–The American Bible Society have recently made made a grant of 7000 Bibles and Testaments for circulation in the rebel States, and these are now on their way to Richmond, our government having permitted them to be forwarded. The secretary of war, on application of Rev. D. Hall, of the Episcopal Church, Washington, gave prompt permission recently that Bibles and Testaments might go South in any number.–N. Y. Times.

APRIL 6, 1863

On the Blockade Running.
From the Chattanooga Rebel.

The abundance of Confederate currency is not the only cause of its cheapness. The constant demand for gold contributes a very material part of the depreciation. If this demand were absent, the value of Confederate notes would be regulated by the ordinary standard of commercial exchanges, and the prices of the necessaries of life would approximate the rules of demand and supply. The trade in coin is an excrescence on the monetary affairs of the country, and its disturbing influence is quite as great and much more injurious to the financial interests of the Government and people than any other one of the causes which are so rapidly tending towards bankrupting both.

Whence, then, this demand for gold? Undoubtedly it springs chiefly from the spirit of speculation which has overspread the Confederacy. Ninety nine hundredths of the gold that changes hands now is immediately transferred to foreign hands and pockets, in the prosecution of an illicit and contraband trade. The articles which it purchases are brought back to us and sold for such sums as not only to refund to the adventurer the premium originally paid and expenses, but per cents are also added to cover the risks incident to the trade, pay bribes, and to meet the next advance premium to be paid.

When gold reaches the point of four to one, the profits of the illicit trader may be put down at from five hundred to five thousand per cent. Every succeeding adventure with the necessarily accompanying purchase of gold, depletes the stock of coin, and enhances its market value. The same thing occurs with the notes of State Banks, which stand higher with our foreign factions than those of the Confederacy. Thus the enhancement keeps pace with the demand, and the demand continues, æquo pede, with the spirit and fruits of speculation.1 There can, therefore, be no end to it till the stock of coin and State Bank paper is exhausted. The value of gold will continue to rise and that of Confederate notes to fall, until the former is exhausted, or until the business which stimulates the speculation is ended. It is clear that this process is every day weakening the Confederacy. It is taking away from us the basis of credit, and is building up and strengthening our enemies, for a great proportion of it goes to the United States.

Is this necessary? Not at all. It does not relieve the needful wants of the people, but only contributes to extravagant and luxurious indulgences. It answers the tastes and habits of fashion and display, which were better laid aside for the present. It neither sustains the body nor stimulates the spirit and ardor of patriotism–it enervates bodily. The people of the South would be a better, and stronger, and braver, and more independent people today, if they had not received a farthing’s worth of merchandise from the North since eh war began. If the government wished, and had it in its power, to obtain medicines and war munitions from the enemy in this way, let the Government do it. Otherwise, let there be absolute non-intercourse.

Ought it to be tolerated? Not a day longer. It has already debauched us as a people. We have entered into corrupt bargains with the enemy, and there is no doubt that one of the secrets of the constant and successful running of the blockade, both by land and water, is to be ascribed to the regular and constant payment of bribes to Yankee functionaries. ->

Now that our credit is at least partially established in Europe, we can afford to dispense with this shameful commerce with those who are endeavoring at once to hold our purse strings and turn aside our bayonets. We have no use for gold in our home exchanges. Confederate notes will answer all these purposes. If we will keep our coin at home, and live within ourselves as we can and ought to do, we will gain a point of the greatest importance over our enemy, and we may add, achieve a wholesome conquest over ourselves.

While Congress is maturing its schemes of finance, let it prohibit, under the severest penalties, trade of all sorts with the enemy. Let it also prohibit the sale of gold above a given premium, on pain of forfeitures, of the whole amount or some other rigorous penalty.


Explosion of the Magazine.–During the shelling of Fort Pemberton last week, one of the enemy’s shells penetrated one of the magazines and exploded it. Two men were killed outright, and twelve mortally and dangerously wounded. The wounded men were brought down here to the hospital. We have witnessed sickening sights before, but none to equal this. Two have each a leg amputated, the rest are horridly burnt–rather, roasted. The hair is singed from all their heads. Several have their faces so burned as to be unable to open their eyes. On has his hands cooked–another his body blistered, and the skin off, besides an ugly gash on his back. They bear this terrible lot like men, and no word of grumbling or complaint is heard. Some will die; some will recover. Such a sight as this, could the authors of this war behold it, would teach them to study peace, and cease to entail such miseries on humanity.–Yazoo City Banner.


Burning of the Bath Paper Mill.–The loss of this paper mill at this time is a great public calamity. A large amount of work was done there for the Confederate Government, besides supplying a large number of newspapers with paper for their regular issues. The extent of the loss is not easy to estimate at this time. The mill was entirely destroyed, with paper and stock in process of being worked up. The stock houses adjoining were saved by great exertions, as also the boarding houses. It is not yet ascertained what portion of the machinery, if any, can be saved from the fire; but there are many things which it will be difficult to replace at present. About fifty hands were employed in the mill.

The fire originated from a spark upon the roof. The high wind prevailing, and the length of time elapsing before the fire was discovered, made it wholly impossible to save the building.

It is hoped that, from the importance of the mill–being the largest in the Confederacy–measures will be taken at once to rebuild it.–Chronicle and Sentinel.


All Hail, Connecticut!

We have met the enemy and they are ours. We have elected the Union State Ticket, three out of four Members of Congress, fifteen out of twenty-one of the Senators, and a very large majority of the House of Representatives. The triumph of the Union cause is complete and overwhelming. Connecticut sends greetings to her loyal sisters of the North and assures them that she will be in the future as she has been in the past, foremost in her devotion to the Union and the Constitution.

The canvass just closed has been a peculiar one. It has been conducted with a desperate energy on both sides, for both were hopeful of success. When the contest began, the advantage was clearly with the Copperheads. But they nominated their most obnoxious candidate for Governor, upon a platform equally distasteful, and undertook to force the people of Connecticut to indorse traitors and treason. They have met at the hands of the people they doom they merited.

We cannot express in words our own joy at this result. But we know that to the Union soldiers on the banks of the Rappahannock and far down in South Carolina and Louisiana, the news of a Union victory will bring even greater joy than to us at home. Our glorious old State has been saved from disgrace and we can only say, we thank God and take courage.


The Nashville Union says that rag pickers are now following the army in great numbers, picking up every stray rag that is seen, which they bring in baskets to Nashville and send North to make paper.


The Messrs. Douglas, at their factory in Middletown, have posted this notice: “No person will be allowed to remain on these premises who is engaged in circulating secession papers or documents, or who is heard to disclaim against the government of the United States, or who in any way expresses sympathy with the rebels in arms against us, or who advocates here the claims of any man for office who proposed to resist any law or order of the government of the United States.”


Fortress Monroe, Sunday, April 5, 1863.–Twelve rebel cavalrymen with their horses and equipments arrived here to-day on the Yorktown boat. They had deserted from Wise’s Legion, and came within our lines at Williamsburg yesterday. They report that their whole company is coming in as soon as an opportunity is presented, and that destitution of food is the cause of their desertion–that their troops cannot endure the want of food and clothing much longer, and for that reason, Richmond is soon to be evacuated.


The Altoona (Pa.) Register tells of a female just returned to that city, after a service of eighteen months in the army, without her sex discovered. She took part in three battles and was wounded twice, first above the eye and then in the arm, the latter wound compelling her to disclose her sex.


Three-fifths of the adult white population of California are men without wives. Four out of every five white men are bachelors, and from necessity, for, while there are one hundred and eighty-three thousand eight hundred and fifty-six white men in the State, there are only forty-eight thousand one hundred and forty-nine white women.


A stranger who has never lived in a tobacco region can form no idea of the trade carried on in that great staple. Take, for instance, the house of Crane, Brown & Co., in Evansville, Ind. They expect to handle 40,000 hogsheads of tobacco this season. These will average 1,800 pounds to the hogshead, equal to 72,000,000, which, at 20 cents a pound, would give the neat little sum of $14,000,000. The form of Fatman & Co. will probably do an equal or perhaps greater amount of business in tobacco this season.–Louisville Journal.


The following scientific description of a lady’s dress was furnished by an unsuccessful applicant for a position as civil engineer: “Conical base equal to seven-tenths the axis; four vaulted zones equidistant on the planes of the sides; cone truncated one nodule from the theoretical apex, with a warped surface placed diagonally upon the parabola of truncation, intersected by the quadrant of a sphere, and it again by irregular polygonal planes, of half the diameter of the sphere, sloping downwards in the angle of the cosine of the longitude of figure.

Jno. Morgan’s Guerrillas Whipped.

Washington, Tuesday April 9.

The following has been received at the headquarters of the army here:

Murfreesboro, Monday, April 2.

To Major General H. W. Halleck, General-in-Chief: Gen. Stanley has returned from his scout, bringing in some forty or fifty prisoners and three hundred serviceable horses and mules. He drove Morgan’s cavalry from the peninsula, whipping them from their stronghold, Snow’s Hill, north of Smithville, and but for their precipitate retreat and the difficult nature of the country, would have had a force in their rear and captured their artillery and animals. The enemy left quite a number of dead and fled toward McMinnville, losing many horses, saddles and guns.

W. S. Rosecrans,
Major General Commanding.


I lately dined in company with one of those inane young gentlemen who, as Theodore Winthrop says in “Cecil Dreeme,” praise slavery and think they are aristocratic. The young gentleman went on for some time, when Mrs. –- said to him, politely,

“If you sympathize with the rebels, why don’t you go and join them?”

“I, Madame? I assure you I am perfectly loyal.”


“Why, certainly, only I stand by the Government, not the Administration.”

“So Vallandigham says.”

“I mean I am no Abolitionist.”

“So Brooke says.”

“That is, I am afraid we are alienating the South.”

“So Tom Seymour says.”

“In other words, I am a Union man, but I don’t think war can restore it.”

“So Toucey says.”

“But, my dear Madame, the war is unconstitutionally carried on.”

“So George Ticknor Curtis says.”

“I mean that our liberties are in danger.”

“So Fernando Wood says.”

“Well, but isn’t the war fratricidal?”

“So Ben Wood says.”

“Come, then, isn’t it hopeless?”

“So the London Times says.”

“Yes, my dear Madame, but what on earth do you say?”

“I say that whoever stands against the Administration in this war stands against the Government. I say that whoever says he is no Abolitionist means that he intends to embarrass the war. I say that whoever is afraid of alienating the South is afraid of irritating a snake that has already stung him. I say that whoever thinks that force can not restore the Union does not know that Union is the most irresistible instinct of the American people. I say that whoever says the war is unconstitutionally carried on is in danger of being split by the tempest in which he is trying to split hairs. I say that whoever says our liberties are imperiled by the Government and not by the rebellion, works and prays for the success of the rebellion and the annihilation of all civil liberty and order. I say that whoever calls the war fratricidal has no more conception of national honor than lottery-dealers are said to have of honesty. I say that whoever considers the cause of the United States hopeless hates that cause in his heart, and is utterly ignorant of the character of the people and of the facts of the situation. That is what I say, and that is what every truly American man and woman says and believes.”

The young gentleman made no reply. But the next day, at the Club, he said to a friend, “I dined yesterday at Mrs. –-‘s. What an awful Abolitionist she is!”

APRIL 8, 1863


From Richmond.
Immense Bread Riot by 3000 Women.

Baltimore, April 7.–Col. Stewart, of the 2nd Ind. Regt, of the 14 U.S. officers just released of the rebels, and who has just arrived here, makes the following statement: On Thursday last he saw from his prison window in Richmond a great bread riot, composed of about 3000 women, who were armed with clubs, guns and stones. They broke open the Government and private stores, and took bread, clothing, and whatever else they wanted. The militia were ordered out to check the riot, but failed to do so. Jeff. Davis and other high officials made speeches to the infuriated women, and told them they should have whatever they needed. They then became calm, and order was restored. All the other released Union soldiers confirm this statement.


The Doctors and Their Libels.–The Boston Post thinks that doctors are queer people, observing how they behave in respect to anæsthetics. We quote:

“Edinburg discovered chloroform, and so Edinburg believes in chloroform and despises ether. Boston discovered ether, and so believes in ether and discards chloroform. New York, having discovered no substitute for the one or the other of them, makes a tertium quid by mixing the two.2 Philadelphia, disdaining to borrow from Boston or Edinburg, and scorning to imitate New York, rejects both ether and chloroform, simple or mixed, and pretends that they are noxious, and, indeed, superfluous! Of course, we are talking of medical cliques. There are sensible physicians in all the above cities who have opinions of their own, and avail themselves of every valuable discovery to medicine, but the above general statement is ‘as true as truth has been of late.’ ”


Burnside in the West.–The Cincinnati correspondent of the New York World, writing on the 2d of Aprils, says:

“Major General Burnside monopolizes the public mind of this quarter. Every eye is on him; crowds attend him, and all await impatiently the perfecting of his plans. There is the animation of preparation about this department, and something, I know, will be done and something undone to the south of us ere long. The Major General commanding is collecting a larger force than I anticipated. His troops are passing over the river as I write. They are men of sober brow and weather-beaten countenance. They have seen the face of the foe, and are not likely to be abashed at his appearance in another field. They carry tattered flags inscribed with the honorable name of Newbern and many another well won contest. No man can look upon the serious and resolute demeanor of these veteran troops without reading in their very step signs of good hope and large promise. The expedition of Gen. Burnside has hatched a thousand rumors of invasion, raid, and devastation from the enemy. As that expedition passes away, or rather passes to its allotted place of toil, defense, and aggression, the terrifying rumors will evaporate.”

All Sorts of Paragraphs.

Henry P. Shed, late Cashier of the Bank of Mutual Redemption, Boston, is discovered to be a defaulter to the amount of $10,000. It is thought, however, that the bank will lose nothing. Living beyond his means was Mr. Shed’s weakness.

During the last three years the average annual arrests in Boston for drunkenness has been 17,000.

Maretzek, the opera manager of New York, pays monthly to Madame Medori, $3,000; to Mdlle. Sulzer, $1,000; to Mdlle. Ortolani Baignoll, $1,000; to Signor Mazzoleni, $2,000; to Signor Bellini, $1,000; and Signor Biachi, $1,000.

Yellow Chief, Chief of the Iowa tribe of Indians, and an eloquent Indian orator, has died at Washington of pneumonia, and was buried in the Congressional Cemetery. His last moments were spent in advising his companions to live in peace with the whites.

The Louisville Journal, noting the fact that the rebels lately made another irruption into the interior of Kentucky, but escaped without even taking time to issue a proclamation, says “they have stolen some horses, but if the poor quadrupeds had only known what starvation was in store for them, they would have kicked out the brains of every rebel that approached them with a bridle or halter.”

The horses that draw our artillery and baggage trains and ambulances are dropping their hoofs off an eating one another’s tails off for want of proper food.–Richmond Enquirer.

The immigration from Europe promises to be unusually great this Spring. The low price of labor abroad and the high price of it here is the cause.

A paper was read at a recent meeting of the Geographical and Statistical Society, in which it was prophesied that great changes will gradually take place in this hemisphere; that new land will arise out of the sea, and such variations occur in climate that Maine and Canada will become as warm as Southern France, and Labrador itself be fertile.

A Washington correspondent of the New York Post says that during the interview between the president and the Committee on the Conduct of the War, some members urged the recall of Mr. Adams and the dismissal of Lord Lyons, in case the British government shall not put an immediate stop to the rebel operations under the shelter of her flag.


Is it Monarchy They Want?–Colonel Fourney’s paper, the Philadelphia Press, says,

“Another principle must certainly be embodied in our re-organized form of government. The men who shape the legislation of this country when the war is past must remember that what we want is power and strength. The problem will be to combine the forms of republican government with the powers of a monarchical government.”

In the same strain the North American remarks:

“This war has already shown the absurdity of a government with limited powers; it has shown that the power of every government ought to be and must be unlimited.”


Farming Hints for April.

Fences.–One of the earliest tasks that can claim the farmer’s attention is the repairing of fences. Systematic managers, whose farms are divided by common rail structures, after having determined about how long they will continue, say six years, divide their whole farm into six parts, and repair a sixth each year–this keeps all in good order without further trouble, and without having too much to attend to one season, and but little another. Board fences should be annually examined throughout their whole length, and loose boards nailed tight. New board fences should never be battened on the face or joints over the posts, as the practice tends to cause decay; but in the course of fifteen or twenty years, when the ends begin to rot and become loosened, battens will secure and make them strong for several years longer. If farmers are able to replace their old worm fences with post and rail, board or stone fences, they should begin on one side and construct a certain amount each year, keeping a register of the same. Then, in future years, when repairs are needed, they can go through in the same way and in the same number of years.

The importance of good fences is well understood by those who have observed the difference between crops safe from all intruders, and those occasionally trodden down and ruined; between moving on with the work without interruption, and the frequent annoyance of stopping important operations to run after intruding cattle, colts and pigs.

Teams.–Every good manager has already taken care to have his teams in excellent order for the heavy work of spring–but as they have not been much accustomed to hard and steady work, it would be advisable to plow only half a day at a time with them at first until they become well accustomed to it, using them the other half days for job work, light teaming, &c. A little care in this respect will often prevent sore shoulders and reduced condition. The harness should be examined frequently to see if it fits well and to prevent chafing. It will be observed that when horses are plowing, the traces draw downward, and when attached to a wagon, horizontally; the back straps should therefore be lengthened a little when they are removed from the wagon to the plow.


The 5th and 12th are now the only regiments from this State with the Army of the Potomac. The second is at home; the third on Pinckney Island; the 4th at Port Royal; the 6th, 9th and 11th are reported to be on the way to Kentucky to join Burnside with the 9th army corps; the 7th is at St. Augustine, Fla.; the 8th and 15th at New Orleans, have left their old camps and joined the forces moving against Port Hudson; the 14th is at Poolesville, Md.; and the 16th is still at Camp Parapet near New Orleans, not taking part in the expedition up the river. The 10th and 13th, at last accounts, were at Suffolk, but as the 9th corps to which they belong have gone to Kentucky, it is probable that they have started also.

What volumes of history are contained in the personal incidents of the war, but few of which will ever be written. At the battle of Antietam, as one of the regiments was for the second time going into the conflict, a soldier staggered. It was from no wound, but in the group of dying and dead through which they were passing, he saw his father, of another regiment, lying dead. There, too, was a wounded man who knew them both, who pointed to the father’s corpse, and then upwards, saying only, “It is all right with him.” Onward went the son, by his father’s corpse, to do his duty in the line which with bayonets fixed advanced upon the enemy. When the battle was over, he came back, and with other help, buried his father. From his person he took the only thing he had, a Bible, given to the father years before, when he was an apprentice.


Masonic.–The day after the battle of Antietam the 5th New Hampshire formed the picket line along the edge of the corn field where Richardson’s Division fought. The reserve was in one edge of the corn, and pickets about middle way of the field concealed in the corn, as the sharpshooters of the enemy field on all who undertook to walk around on the battle field at that locality. Early in the morning one of the wounded rebels who laid just outside the pickets called one of the New Hampshire men and handed him a slip of paper, on which he had, evidently with great difficulty, succeeded in making some mystic signs in a circle with a bit of stick wet in blood. The soldier was begged to hand the paper to some Free Mason as soon as possible, and he took it to Col. E. E. Cross of his regiment. The Colonel was a Master Mason, but could not read the mystic token, it belonging to a higher degree. He therefore sent for Capt. J. B. Perry of the 5th, who was a member of the 32d degree of Free Masonry, and showed him the letter. Capt. Perry at once said there was a brother Mason in great peril, and must be rescued. Col. Cross instantly sent for several brother Masons in the regiment, told the story, and in a few moments four “brothers of the mystic eye” were crawling stealthily through the corn to find the brother in distress. He was found, placed on a blanket, and at great risk drawn out of the rebel rifles, and then carried to the 5th New Hampshire hospital. He proved to be First Lieutenant Edon of the Alabama volunteers, badly wounded in the thigh and breast. A few hours and he would have perished. Lieut. Edon informed his brethren of another wounded Mason, who when brought out proved to be a Lieutenant Colonel of [a] Georgia regiment. These two wounded officers received the same attention as the wounded officers of the 5th, and a warm friendship was established between men who a few hours before were in mortal combat. This is one of the thousand instances in which the Masonic bond has proved a blessing to mankind.

, 1863

The First South Carolina Regiment.

Hilton Head, March 24, 1863.

To the Editor of the Boston Journal:

The steamer Boston arrived this morning from Jacksonville, Florida. The First South Carolina had been reinforced. Several skirmishes had taken place between Col. Higginson’s troops and the rebels, with a loss of one killed and one wounded on the Federal side. The naval officers who witnessed the deportment of the regiment gave it high praise. When the citizens of the town found that a regiment of Negroes had taken possession of the place, they were highly indignant. They denounced it as an outrage. They would not have cared if white troops had surprised them, but to wake up in the morning and find their old servants, their former riches, one million dollars of fugacious property, up in arms, with knapsack, cartridge box and musket, was galling to human nature.3 The citizens, some of them, talked profanely; the women went in to hysterics. They were, without doubt, terribly frightened. Fear had them in possession. They had a horrid nightmare; they thought of St. Domingo; they imagined blood, outrage and death in most appalling shape. Perhaps remembrances of former days came back; perhaps the ghosts of the dead returned–they who had died at the whipping tree, hung up by the thumbs, with backs gory, who had been hunted down by hounds in the swamp, torn in pieces by bull-dogs. You may sear conscience, bury it alive, smother it, stab it through and through, you may think it dead, or make believe it is forever hushed, but when fear cometh like a whirlwind, we are apt to recall past deeds of evil. No wonder there was consternation, wringing of hands, and hysterics among the women of Jacksonville when they found themselves at the mercy of runaway slaves, with power to cut their throats, to commit all imaginable outrages on property and person.

Mark how that power has been exercised! Notice the terrible vindictiveness of the runaway slaves! Not a hair of a woman’s head was harmed. The deportment of the soldiers is as correct as that of the white regiments. There is no St. Domingo for this continent. Last Saturday I heard a Negro pray in public. It was in a large church. There were Colonels, Majors, Captains, Lieutenants, ladies refined, intelligent, from the North, civilians, and a great crowd of colored people. Thanks were given for freedom, heartfelt and earnest. God’s blessings were invoked upon President Lincoln for making the Negroes free. Then came the following supplication: “I pray Thee, O Lord Jesus, that Thou will not forget my old master. I pray Thee, O Lord God, for Jesus’ sake, that Thou will bless him. O Lord, make him give his heart to Thee. Make him also throw down his gun, and come out for the Union! O Lord, make him see that he has done wrong.”

I give it verbatim, but the pen cannot record the earnestness of the suppliant. Such is the revenge of the freedmen. Not a single instance can be found when, having power to harm, it has been exercised by them!

But to return to Jacksonville. The fear of the women was so great that they petitioned Col. Higginson to be sent beyond his lines. He complied with their request; told them that all who desired to go might have twenty hours to remove. They wanted several days, but he thought twenty hours a reasonable time. Finding that they were not harmed, they began to breathe more freely. Some decided to stay; less than a hundred concluded to go. ->

On Sunday last, the old Episcopal Church was used for services. The First South Carolina and the Sixth Connecticut Regiments, and a crowd of Negroes of Jacksonville, the officers of the Navy, and a few of the white residents were there, completely filling the church. The Sixth Connecticut furnished an organist and a choir. Rev. Mr. French, Chaplain of a New York regiment, officiated. The Sixth Connecticut has shown a hearty good will for the First South Carolina. The officers and soldiers treat the colored soldiers fairly and courteously. The Eighth Maine, Col. Rust, has been sent there. They have been encamped at Beaufort, near Col., Higginson, and have also treated the colored soldiers respectfully. Col. Rust being senior officer will command the post. The First South Carolina will suffer no indignity or disparagement from him or those in his command. He is a true soldier, a courteous gentleman, and has a high opinion of the capabilities of the freed men in the field.

I think that if a force of six or eight thousand men had been sent to Jacksonville, we might have penetrated the State–crossed to Tallahassee, and entered Southern Georgia without much opposition. The result would have been fifteen or twenty thousand freed men flocking to our lines. But the opportunity was not improved. The rebels now have a respectable force to oppose any advance.


At a meeting of white and colored citizens on Philadelphia on the evening of the 31st ult., Rev. Stephen Smith presiding, resolutions were adopted highly complimentary to Massachusetts as the State representative of Puritan freedom, ever true and foremost in maintaining liberty, first to free slaves, first to award citizenship to black men, first to give them schools, first to save Kansas for freemen, first to defend the Capital in the present war, first to send teachers to the Port Royal slaves, and first to give black men a chance to fight for liberty. The meeting resolved to assist with all their power in filling up the Massachusetts 54th (colored) regiment.4


Strike of Caulkers Against a Negro at the Navy Yard.–The Navy Yard is a great institution for strikes among the workmen, and if they don’t have something for excitement at least once a month, it is set down as a remarkable event. A very respectable colored man, from Baltimore, a day or two since, applied for a situation as a caulker and graver, being recommended by parties who knew him as a good workman. He was hired, and went to work. There are about two hundred and fifty men in the caulkers’ department, and yesterday, without taking any preliminary steps in the matter, such as a meeting or a consultation among the members of the whole gang, about one hundred and sixty of the workmen came to the conclusion that they would not work if eh colored man was allowed to remain in the yard, and refused to answer to their names at the roll call. The Captain of the Yard, Mr. Taylor, who is acting Commodore in consequence of the death of Commodore Montgomery’s daughter, upon learning the facts of the case, ordered the discharge of these men who refused to answer to the roll call.

There are now about 100 caulkers left, and most of these did not know the intentions of their brother workmen until they learned of the discharge. A few strong minded ones led on the rest, and the result was, instead of compelling Uncle Sam to accede to their demand, they all lost good situations.–Traveller of Tuesday.

APRIL 11, 1863


Our Omnibus Budget.

The publishers of Prayer Books in England will reap a rich harvest from the marriage of the Prince of Wales, as all books are to have inserted in the “the Prince of Wales” in the prayers for members of the Royal Family.

Prices are not very low in Mobile. Horse keeping is $45 per month, $2 per day, and $1 for single feed; carriages to funerals $7 and $8; use of horse and buggy $6 on week days and $7 on Sunday. Milkmen charge $1.20 per gallon for the lacteal fluid.

The New York Sunday Atlas tells of a church that wished to procure a clergyman who would not preach politics, and in reply to the question as to the kind of preacher wanted, the spokesman said they desired a pastor who was “rather religiously inclined.”

The city of Jeddo in Japan is the largest city in the world. It contains 1,000,000 dwellings and 5,000,000 inhabitants. Some of the streets are upwards of twenty miles in length. The houses of Jeddo, however, are not on the same scale of those on the Commonwealth lands.

Myriads of pigeons making their flight in the West, so the papers of that region say. Those who have never seen a flight of pigeons have reserved as grand and curious a sight as they ever saw. Like a cloud, extending for miles, the birds darken the sun by their numbers.5

We take new hope as we read among the items from Fortress Monroe that twelve New York schooners are filling up with oysters near the mouth of Elizabeth river. We indulge in liquescent fancy, and the palate tickles with anticipated delights. One thing wonders us, how Elizabeth river, having these luxuries so near its mouth, cam refrain from gulping them down. We couldn’t.

The swallows have made their appearance, and yesterday was the first day that bore any resemblance to the ideal spring.


The arrest of four Knights of the Golden Circle in Reading, Pa., resulted in showing, on examination at Philadelphia, that there was a conspiracy existing for the abduction of President Lincoln and the recognition of the Northwestern Confederacy. The leader of the four, Philip Huber, was required to give bail . . . for their future appearance. The examination settles the fact, if the evidence be reliable, of the existence of this pestilent organization.

Intercepted Correspondence.–A rebel lady writing from Richmond, April 4, had the misfortune to have her letters intercepted at Murfreesboro, on their way to Nashville. They are racy. She thus tells:

“My boy is named ‘Malvern.” His papa called him after the battle-ground of Malvern Hill, where our braves fought so nobly. He begins to play, and tries to talk. He spits at the Yankee pictures, and makes wry faces at old Abe’s pictures. He is a great boy, and the best and prettiest baby I ever saw. He is much petted by the members of Congress who know him. . . We are boarding at Mrs. Johnson’s on Governor street, just opposite Governor Letcher’s mansion. It is a large boarding house, high prices and starvation within. Such living never was known before on earth. Tell grandma the poorest hut in the Western District of Tennessee is a palace compared to this, so far as fare goes. We have to cook almost everything we eat in our own room. In our ‘larder’ is a boiled bacon ham, which we gave eleven dollars for, three pounds of pure Rio coffee we gave four dollars for, and one pound of green tea at seventeen dollars a pound, two pounds of brown sugar at two dollars and seventy-five cents a pound, one bushel of fine apples, about the size of a good common marble, which were presented to me by a member of Congress from Missouri, one pound of butter about six months old, at two dollars per pound, and six sweet potatoes at fifty cents. We have to give a dollar for a very small slice of pound cake at the confectioners. I forgot to say I had a present of a fine jar of pickles and a piece of cheese from a member, also. Well, so much for the way we live. You see the board is three dollars, each, per day for Mr. F. and I, and half price for the servant, and then we get nothing on earth to eat. Yesterday for dinner, we had nothing on the table but two eggs and a slice of cold baker’s bread and a glass of water. Well, then, such as we gave one dollar for at home, when I left, sells here at six dollars, and the commonest domestic two dollars, calico two or three dollars per yard of the most indifferent kind. You may well believe I get but little. Richmond is strictly a Jewish city–all making fortunes out of the war, and having less sympathy for our dear old Tennessee, and Nashville in particular, than some Yankees have, for they have learned to respect us, whereas these Virginians are the most horribly envious creatures that ever called themselves men.”

More properly, æquo pede propera, meaning literally “to hasten with equal foot” or more colloquially “to make progress steadily.”

2 tertium quid is Latin, literally “third something,” and means “an unknown or indefinite thing related in some way to two known or definite things, but distinct from both.”

3 fugacious means “passing quickly away; transitory; fleeting.”

4 While all of these initiatives were good, it should be pointed out that Massachusetts profitted immensely from the slave trade before it was made illegal. 

5 “The Passenger Pigeon, once probably the most numerous bird on the planet, made its home in the billion or so acres of primary forest that once covered North America east of the Rocky Mountains. Their flocks, a mile wide and up to 300 miles long, were so dense that they darkened the sky for hours and days as the flock passed overhead. Population estimates from the 19th century ranged from 1 billion to close to 4 billion individuals. Total populations may have reached 5 billion individuals and comprised up to 40% of the total number of birds in North America (Schorger 1995). This may be the only species for which the exact time of extinction is known.” See

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