, 1863

The Confederate Navy.

About two years ago a small steamer suddenly appeared upon the main, flying a strange flag which the nations had never seen before. She was ‘long, low, black and rakish,” and had, we believe, all those peculiarities requisite for the hero ship of a nautical romance. Presently, mysterious fires begin to gleam out through the darkness of night upon the waste of waters, and anon the winds bore to Yankeedom strange tales of freebooters afloat upon the high seas; of a pirate craft that appeared and vanished as mysteriously as a Will-‘o-the-Wisp; of burnt and plundered ships, and of a handsome buccaneer who was more gentlemanly in his rapine, and who cut throats with the artistic grace of a Captain Kidd. At once the Land of Nutmegs was in a ferment, and a navy was improvised to go in pursuit of this audacious craft. But they sought for her in vain; neither were they able to check her depredations. She always managed to be just in the right place when there was a goodly merchantman to be plundered, and when they thought they had her in their clutch, like the Frenchman’s flea “she wasn’t there.” A year elapsed and during that period this single ship had exclusive privilege among the fat pickings of the Federal commercial marine. At the beginning of each month the Yankee papers made up their statements of marine disasters, and through all the lists the inevitable “b” (“burned by the pirate Sumter,”) bore a conspicuous place. At length the vessel passed from the arena, and made a berth in the Strait of Gibraltar. The Sumter had fulfilled her mission, and Yankeedom for a while breathed freer.

Not long. That vessel was the nucleus of the Confederate Navy--and soon another craft, swifter and more formidable, made her appearance, whose exploits far outrivaled those of her predecessor. She counted her list of prizes by the score, and tallied her achievements by the chronometers taken from captured vessels, just as the wild Indian counts his victims by the number of scalps at his belt. His boldness had no limit. She ran in under the lad, and snatched her prizes from beneath the very noses of the Yankee convoys. She showed herself freely at all times to the Federal cruisers, provoking them to a chase, and then easily skipped away from them, at the moment when they thought they had her caught. She coaled, ad libitum, at neutral ports, and landed her captured crews without hesitation where opportunity offered. Officers of Yankee war steamers retired at night in solitary possession of some secluded harbor, and awoke in the morning to find a long black hull moored quietly alongside, with the hated Confederate flag flying defiantly from her main. She seemed to turn up at a dozen different points at the same time–off the coast of Brazil, in the Mediterranean, in the Caribbean sea, in the Gulf of Mexico, on the track of the California treasure ships, and off the coast of New England. And wherever she went, the glare of burning ships lighted her path, and charred wrecks of vessels strewed the sea. The marine police of the Yankees was doubled in vain. In vain they sent their swiftest and most formidable vessels after the Alabama; and in vain they breathed out threats and proclamations. The rates of insurance went up to five per cent, and the “stars and stripes” rapidly disappeared from sea-going craft.

The Confederacy was elated, Europe looked on in amazement, and Jonathan swore in impotent rage. He was “a heap mad.”

Meanwhile, nondescript monsters, whose existence had not been dreamed of, stole out betimes from blockaded ports and shallow rivers, and wreaked swift vengeance upon the vessels of the Federal navy. We have evidence of their prowess in the Chesapeake Bay, and in the harbors of Charleston, New Orleans and Galveston, and upon the Mississippi river. But of these we did not propose to speak. They belong to the coast guard, rather than to the Confederate navy proper. Neither can we claim much credit for their actual achievements, nor for the manner in which this department has been generally managed. We return with pride and satisfaction to our ocean steamers.->

While public attention has been so completely engrossed with the important movements of our armies, hardly a thought has been bestowed upon our naval operations. Recently, however, a fresh cry of alarm from the North has awakened us to a sense of their magnitude and importance, and we doubt not that the people of the Confederacy have been as much surprised as the Yankees themselves, to see what proportions our navy has suddenly assumed, to witness the boldness of our cruisers, and to learn the extent of their depredations. Through this branch of the service we have been enabled to assail the enemy at his only really vulnerable point, and our success thus far has been truly marvellous, considering the paucity of our vessels. But for the difficulties that have everywhere attended our efforts to create a navy, much greater progress would have been made in sweeping Yankee commerce from the ocean.

We have been compelled to build all our vessels abroad and to manage in such a way as to evade the provisions of the neutrality laws, and not compromise our friends who are assisting us in the good work. They have been built at one place, armed and manned in another, and coaled at another. The lack of available funds has been a drawback, too, upon our enterprise, and the vigilance and espionage of the Lincoln representatives, consular and diplomatic, have placed every possible obstacle in our way. Nevertheless, we are satisfied, perfectly satisfied–for the present. Our two gallant craft, the Sumter and the Alabama, have multiplied into a numerous fleet. Already the Northern press parade the names of the Alabama, Florida, Virginia, Georgia, Southerner, Clarence, Falconer, Tacony, &c. Occasionally, from the dockyards of Hartlepool, Liverpool, the Clyde and the Thames, a swift clipper slips out to sea–a beautiful but harmless merchant craft designed for the Emperor of China, (bless his Celestial Highness!) She undergoes a speedy metamorphosis, and the Wang Chang, Kwang Tung, Tion Tisin, or whatever her name may be, at once assumes a more euphonious name and an armament of bristling guns. A few weeks elapse, and some ill-starred vessel bears to Yankeedom the story of another strange pirate afloat, and the crews of sundry captured vessels who have been mercifully put aboard, en route for home. The ship Mary Garland, recently arrived at New York, brought representatives of the crews of seventeen vessels that had fallen before our cruisers. Moreover, these new steamers are no longer insignificant prototypes of the Sumter, but strong, formidable craft of two thousand tons and many guns.

Another mode recently adopted for recruiting our naval lists is the conversion of prizes into cruisers. This is well. It involves less delay and expense than building abroad. To obtain crews for them is the chief difficulty. We observe that one of these converted vessels took no less than six prizes in a single day off the Chesapeake Bay, and she it was that called out the whole available Yankee navy in pursuit.

Our navy is already formidable, sufficiently so at least to engage the attention of the entire naval force of our enemy. Soon it will be far more so, and then we can’t imagine what Yankee Doodle will do. He will have to treble his navy, or his entire commerce will be swept from the ocean. It is a remarkable fact that, with all his boasted resources, his long list of war vessels which he has paraded before the world, and the employment of so many of them against us, not a single one of our war steamers has yet been captured, Meanwhile hundreds of his merchant vessels, and hundreds of millions of dollars find an ignoble end in smoke.

JUNE 29, 1863

General Hooker Relieved of his Command.
His Successor General Meade.

New York, June 28, 8 a.m.–The Herald’s Washington dispatch is as follows:

Washington, June 28, 2 p.m.–The following is from the Herald’s special correspondent at Frederick to-day:

Gen. Hooker, this morning, was relieved of his command. Gen. Meade succeeds him. Gen. Hooker was relieved at his own request, and leaves this afternoon for Baltimore. Everything is working well.

The Herald’s Headquarters Army of the Potomac dispatch, dated 28th, says this morning Col. Hardie arrived by special train from Washington, as bearer of dispatches relieving Gen. Hooker from the command and appointing Major Gen. Meade his successor. Soon after Gen. Hooker issued the following farewell address:

“In conformity with order from the War Department, dated June 27th, I relinquish the command of the Army of the Potomac. It is transferred to Major Gen. Geo. G. Meade, a brave and accomplished officer, who has nobly earned the confidence and esteem of the army in many fought fields.

“Impressed with the belief that my usefulness as commander of the army of the Potomac is impaired, I part from it, not without the deepest emotion of sorrow at parting with comrades of so many battles; I am relieved by the conviction that the courage and devotion of this army will never cease or fail; that it will yield to my successor, as it has done to me, a hearty and willing support. With earnest prayer that the triumph of its arms may bring successes worthy of it and the nation, I bid it farewell.”

Joseph Hooker,
Major General.

This was followed by an address from Gen. Meade, dated

Headquarters, Army of the Potomac,
June 28, 1863.

“By direction of the President of the United States, I hereby assume command of the Army of the Potomac; as a soldier in obeying this order, an order totally unexpected and unsolicited, I have no promises or pledges to make. The country looks to this army to relieve it from devastation and disgrace of a hostile invasion. Whatever fatigues and sacrifices we may be called upon to undergo, let us have in view constantly the magnitude of interests involved and let each man determine to do his duty, leaving to an all controlling providence the decision of the contest.

“It is with just diffidence that I relieve in command of this army an eminent and accomplished soldier, whose name must ever appear conspicuous in the history of its achievements; but I rely upon the hearty support of my companions in arms to assist me in the discharge of the duties of the important trust which has been confided in me.”

Geo. G. Meade,
Major General Commanding.

The report of the change soon extended to the several corps, and the officers bade farewell to Gen. Hooker. He leaves for Baltimore, where he has been ordered to report.

The appointment of Gen. Meade gives universal satisfaction, and all express their determination to extend to him the heartiest co-operation.

The Whole Rebel Army Moving into Pennsylvania.

New York, June 29.–The Herald’s Headquarters Army of the Potomac dispatch, dated 28th, says affairs on the Upper Potomac are quiet. The rebels have a small force south of Hagerstown and our forces remain in possession of South Mountain.

Rebel cavalry are reported to have crossed the Potomac below Edward’s Ferry and captured a train of 150 wagons.

Pleasanton has been appointed a Major General and commands the cavalry forces. Gen. Stahl has been ordered to report for duty with another command in Pennsylvania.

The Herald’s Harrisburg dispatch of the 28th says we want men on our fortifications. We only need good, able and experienced soldiers. Will they come forward?

Pennsylvania is now responding largely. Citizens generally are recruiting. Gen. Smith is in command west of the Susquehanna. Gen. Knipe will aid him.

The rebel Gen. Johnson’s division followed Rhodes into Chambersburg on Wednesday, and moved on Shippensburg Friday. Their numbers are estimated at from 8000 to 10,000 men each.

The rebels near Gettysburg say they are going to Baltimore and Harrisburg.


The Line of Gen. Lee’s March.

From Fredericksburg to Harrisburg is not less than 150 miles. The route by which Gen. Lee marched, exposed his flank at a dozen different points, yet he has reached the upper valley, not only without serious loss, which he could not reasonably have expected, but even without an effort at interruption by Gen. Hooker. The most perilous of military movements has been so successfully made it seems not to have been suspected until it was nearly completed.

Whether Gen. Lee is aiming at one point or another, it is evident enough that he means to strike somewhere quickly, and that his columns are now so far advanced, that their direction and object must speedily be disclosed. He occupies a line which enables him to threaten many points simultaneously. Whichever he selects, it will need all the military resources of the Government and the country to repel his attack.–N. Y. Tribune.


The Pirate Tacony.–This vessel was spoke on the 25th inst., in the bay of Fundy, by the British schooner Arabella, Capt. Llechure. Capt. L. dined aboard the barque, and from what he could learn, he thinks the Tacony is the only pirate which has been seen among our fishermen. It will be seen that the Tacony was burned the next day, and that the Archer, in which her crew took up their quarters, was captured near Portland. We are also inclined to believe that the stories about a fleet of rebels on our coast is incorrect; yet it is well to be prepared for such an event, because it is probable.


Steamers Purchased at Montreal.–A Montreal business man writes to his correspondent in this city, under date of June 19th, as follows: “There is a man her buying steamers, as he says for the United States Government; but I should not be surprised if the vessels were designed for the service of the Confederate States. He has purchased three. He appears to be plentifully supplied with funds.”

JUNE 30,

Affairs at Carlisle.

Harrisburg, Monday, June 29.

A citizen of Carlisle, who left that place at eleven o’clock last night, arrived here to-day. He states that the barracks are occupied by seven thousand men; besides a brigade is encamped at the east end of the town. He left there on Saturday for Gettysburg, where Longstreet’s headquarters are now established. Hill’s corps was between Carlisle and Chambersburg, while Anderson’s corps division was at Chambersburg on Friday. This is the latest information received here in regard to the position of the main body of Lee’s army.

The city was considerably excited late this afternoon by artillery firing in front. When the truth was ascertained it was found that our men were shelling the woods where a rebel picket had been established. The enemy have shown no disposition to advance to-day.

General Couch to-day received the following information from York, from a source which he considers perfectly reliable. The rebel forces at York are 15,000 strong, under General Early, who has issued an order levying a contribution of $150,000, one hundred and fifty barrels of flour, 40,000 pounds of beef, fifty bags of coffee, and a large quantity of sugar and groceries. He has given them twenty-four hours to comply with his wishes.

The rebel troops which were at Wrightsville opposite Columbia fell back to York to-day. Imboden with 6,000 troops of all arms is believed to be twelve miles from Bloody Run, and advancing.


The Rebel Forces.
General Lee and Staff at Chambersburg .

Harrisburg, Monday, June 29.

Information was received by the authorities this morning that they consider perfectly reliable that 37,000 rebel troops had passed through Chambersburg up to Saturday, together with 104 pieces of artillery.

Gen. Lee was at Chambersburg with his staff on Saturday.

The indications are that a strong effort will be made to obtain a foothold on this side of the river. The rebels have remained apparently inactive on our front up to the present time.


A Dispatch from Columbia, Pa.

Columbia, Pa., Monday, June 29.–two o’clock p.m.

Seven citizens who went out under a flag of truce have just returned across the river from Wrightsville. The rebels evacuated Wrightsville at ten o’clock this morning, and commenced moving towards York. The rebels respected all private property and did not interfere with the canal.1

The rebel troops arrived at the bridge yesterday, with artillery, a few minutes after our troops crossed over.

Lieutenant Colonel Sykes and twenty of the 20th Pennsylvania regiment were captured in the town.

The rebels say they fired forty rounds with artillery and moved one column above and one below the town.

The rebels stated that they had buried two Union soldiers yesterday.

The rebels poured into town from all directions. They belonged to General Gordon’s division, which is attached to the army corps of General Early.

The Latest Pennsylvania Dispatches.

Philadelphia, Monday, June 29.

A special dispatch to the Press is as follows:

Columbia, Pa., June 29.–The enemy has retreated to the line of the Northern Central Railroad. The bridge over the Susquehanna at this point was totally destroyed; it was valued at over one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. All is quiet now and the excitement is subsiding. There is no enemy opposite Peach Bottom, a place below here on the river.

Harrisburg, June 29.–midnight.

On the Northern Central Railroad, six bridges have been burned between Goldsboro and York, a distance of sixteen miles. Great anxiety is felt for the safety of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The enemy’s movements show that they are endeavoring to reach it some thirty or forty miles west of here. Everything is quiet. Troops are rapidly arriving for the defence of the capital.


Great numbers of Pennsylvanians are flocking into New York. The Railroad trains and Steamboats come into the city crowded with them. A New York paper sharply asks what they are there for? If they have come to take the places of the New York men who have gone to defend Pennsylvania? The Keystone State is gaining no glory from the conduct of its people in this emergency.


Indiana Enrollment Troubles.

Indianapolis, Monday, June 29, 1863.

Over one thousand troops are in Sullivan and Green counties, enforcing the enrollment and arresting deserters.


The Richmond correspondent of the London Times, under date of May 17, predicts that the Northerners will be astonished and confounded at the movements of Gen. Lee’s army during the summer. He says Lee’s army is in fine condition, has been reinforced, and 10,000 added to the cavalry and artillery, the horses for them having been wintered in South Carolina and Georgia. Hooker’s army has been much depressed by the defeat at Chancellorsville, where they lost many by desertion. The spoils taken from that field he represents as very great, no less than 50,000 muskets, among other things, being picked up on the field. The writer says President Davis expresses himself thoroughly confident about the issue of the struggle in his own State.


Probable Escape of a Pirate vessel from Boston.–It is reported by the Boston papers that a fast sailing schooner which was sold at auction at East Boston, three weeks ago, took on board last week a lot of groceries and liquors, and cleared at the Custom House for an Eastern port, was intended for a privateer, and was armed when she sailed with two brass swivel six-pounders. She carried a crew of twenty men. She is about 80 tons burthen, and was built at Essex five years ago. She sailed under British colors, and the officers and men were from Maine and the British Provinces.

JULY 1, 1863


The Rebel Invasion.
Lee at Carlisle.

Philadelphia, June 30, 2 p.m.–Intelligence has been received here that Gen. Lee and staff were at Carlisle last night. A rebel infantry force was seen this morning about 15 miles from Harrisburg, marching towards that city. They may come up to our forts sometime this afternoon. An engagement is expected to then take place, although it may be postponed until morning. The telegraph wires were all uninterrupted along the whole line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The trains are running, also, but slowly and cautiously, so as to avoid surprise.

Hurried Rebel Retreat from York.

Columbia, Pa., June 30.–S. S. Blair, train master on the Northern Central Railroad, left York at 8 a.m., when the rebels had all left except their rear guard, which was beginning to move off when he left. They are supposed to be moving towards Harrisburg. They left unexpectedly, and in a hurry. It was reported that Gen. Pleasanton’s outer pickets had been seen within four miles of York. The total demand on York by the rebels amounted to $300,000. The citizens raised $30,000 in cash and subsistence, and the rebels allowed them twenty days to raise the balance. The citizens were all treated with respect. The railroad property was but little disturbed. The rebel force at York was not over 8000, with 18 pieces of artillery. The rebel force at Wrightsville was 3000, with 4 pieces of artillery.

The Danger Imminent–A Terrific Battle Expected.

Harrisburg, June 30.–A citizen of Carlisle, who left there at 11 o’clock to-day, arrived this afternoon. He states that all the rebels, 9000 strong, left there this forenoon for Gettysburg. On his way he met nothing but cavalry pickets. The citizens of Carlisle were compelled to furnish rations to the rebels so far as their means would admit.

Yesterday there arrived at Carlisle 100 prisoners, which the rebels captured at Gettysburg. They were robbed of their boots, shoes, and all valuables.

The rebel officers say they would not burn the barracks, as they expected to return, but at 3 o’clock this p.m., a loud explosion was heard in that direction, and it is supposed they were burned up. Private property was respected, but the shoe and drug stores were cleaned out; some paid for goods in greenbacks, and some in gold and silver. It is believed the main body of the rebels is in the neighborhood of Shippensburg.

The rebels stated their destination was Harrisburg, but thought it probable they might be compelled to fight the Army of the Potomac before accomplishing their object. The danger to Pennsylvania and the North is imminent, everything depending on the encounter between Lee and Meade. If our army should be defeated, we have no hope, except in large armies to be raised in the North. No effort should be spared to forward large military organizations everywhere.

Skirmish Near Mechanicsburg.

Harrisburg, June 30.–A skirmish took place at 6 this afternoon, near Mechanicsburg, between our advance and some rebel cavalry who had two pieces of artillery. We had four guns. The firing was kept up quite briskly for some time, when the rebels were forced to retreat. The rebels had 10 killed. Our loss was a Lieut. and one man wounded. The new troops behaved well. Troops are pouring in by the thousands. Every thing is quiet.->

New York, June 30.–A Harrisburg dispatch to the Herald says a portion of Lee’s army advanced down the valley towards Shippensburg.

Gen. Ewen has moved to Troy, and is on the flank of the rebel advance before Harrisburg. The enemy have been driven back 9 miles from Mechanicsburg.

It is reported that Gen. Pleasanton and our forces are in the vicinity of Gettysburg, and have captured a rebel train four miles long.

Six rebel spies were taken at Spottsville and sent in irons to Philadelphia.

A train of contrabands from Harrisonburg, Va., had arrived at Reading.

A man from Chambersburg, who passed through the rebel forces says Longstreet’s and Ewell’s corps are retreating.

Gen. Ewen is advancing west to ascertain the enemy’s whereabouts.

The Rebels within 30 Miles of Baltimore and Washington.

Baltimore, June 30.–The American says: “We are not at liberty to give the precise position of the Army of the Potomac. Suffice it to say, both railroad and telegraph communication was resumed with the Frederick and Harper’s Ferry this a.m., and that the rebel raiders who occupied Montgomery Co. yesterday and Sunday found it necessary to make a rapid retreat from these localities. They also disappeared from Marriottsville and Sykesville, on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad yesterday p.m., and there was no enemy last night between Frederick road and the Potomac. Gen. Meade, as soon as he took command of the army, issued orders for a general movement, and in a few hours relieved both Baltimore and Washington of all present fear of rebel invasion.

“We apprehend there is not a rebel in arms within thirty miles of Baltimore, and none on this side of the Potomac within a similar distance of Washington.”


From Vicksburg.
Brilliant Success of Gen. Logan.

Chicago, June 30.–A special Memphis dispatch of the 29th, says the steamer New Kentucky brings news from Gen. Logan’s division at Vicksburg, which had taken an important fort from the enemy. He mined and blew up one corner on Saturday. This produced a breach in the walls, through which our troops entered. The rebels fought with reckless courage, but were forced to yield. Gen. Logan has already mounted two heavy guns.

Gen. Grant continues to contract his lines, and is daily making near approaches to the enemy’s works.


Arming of Merchant Vessels.–In consequence of the state of affairs on our coast, and in accordance with the vote of the Board of Trade, the steamers of the International Line and those of the Portland Steam Packet Company, are now armed sufficiently to repel any of the marauding privateers that may attack them. We hope that this example may be followed by all our steamers.



The Crisis of the War.–At no time since the war began has work been put in more vigorously by both sides than during the  past two weeks. Everywhere the utmost activity prevails, the greatest enterprises are planned, and the most determined efforts to achieve grand results are making. Grant is pounding Vicksburg into submission. Banks is doing a like work for Port Hudson. Bragg is feeling his week to the flanks of Rosecrans. And Lee is bursting his way into Maryland and Pennsylvania. Gen. Carter is spreading terror among rebels by another highly successful raid in East Tennessee. The rebels return the compliment by sending Morgan towards Kentucky, and pushing 1,000 rebels into Indiana. Gens. Marmaduke and Price are drawing their forces closely around Helena. And our icon-clads are shutting up, effectually at last, the harbors of Charleston and Savannah. Wherever we look on all the fields of war there are visible signs that each side is straining every nerve for decisive action. We can hardly resist the conclusion that the next two weeks will prove the most thrilling [and] eventful of the whole war, and go far towards furnishing the solution of a strife, the most gigantic that ever shook the world.–N. Y. Tribune.


News.–From reports that come to us as we are about going to press, it seems probable that a battle has commenced between Gen. Meade and the rebel Lee, somewhere in the southern part of Pennsylvania; and in the course of a day or two we shall have important intelligence from the scene of action. Our cavalry under Gens. Gregg and Kilpatrick have already had successful encounters with the cavalry of the enemy at and near Hanover, Penn. Our army are reported to be in good condition and spirits, and now is the time for them to win a victory.


Death of Admiral Foote.–The country loses heavily by the death of Rear Admiral Foote, which occurred in New York Friday evening. He was wounded by a fragment of a 64 pound shot at the capture of Fort Donelson. He was brave, active, efficient; a good hater of the rebels and of their rebellion; a christian man of devout feelings and purposes; and would, if his life had been spared, have rendered still more good service to the country, in the position to which he had been assigned, that of commander of the squadron on our southern coast. He was a native of New Haven, Conn., and was 56 years old.


Is it Strategy?–George Brinsmaid of Burlington, who is now in the regulars before Vicksburg, tells the following incident of the siege:

“We played the rebels a good game night before last. During the day we placed a small battery of three small guns near their works and then placed about one hundred guns of artillery bearing on the first. About midnight we opened fire on the rebel works from the small guns, when they sent out two regiments to take the battery. They came on in gallant style, and charged clear up to the breastwork, when we opened fire upon them, and not more than one-third of the ever reached their works again. Most all were killed. We make progress nearer and nearer every day. Spies and deserters are taken almost every day.”

A Remarkable Party of Grandmothers.–The following is in the Dubuque (Iowa) Times of the 24th inst.:

“On Wednesday last there were assembled at the house of a gentleman in this city ten grandmothers and three great grandmothers. The oldest lady present was eighty-three years of age, and the youngest sixty-three. The party was in honor of the seventy-third anniversary who gave it. The gathering was a very interesting one. The ladies were all in the enjoyment of excellent health, though with some of them the eyesight was dim, and the sense of hearing impaired; but, as one of them remarked, there was not one present who could not do more hard work in a day than any of her daughters or granddaughters. They all retained a vivid remembrance of the last war with England. Some of them had brothers killed in that struggle, and every one still cherishes the feeling of hatred towards Great Britain which was so universal in the United States in the early days of the government. All of them were loyal, too; and southern traitors and northern copperheads received blessings during the conversations of these old ladies, which ‘will hang them if they ever jet their just deserts.’ ”


Sleeping in Rifle Pits.–A letter from Vicksburg says that many men stay in the rifle pits day and night. There is one that extends nearly half a mile, which is only three feet wide and about ten feet deep. In the side of this they have cut bunks like those upon a ship. A man measures himself and cuts a recess about his size, spreads his India rubber blanket in it, and sleeps as quietly as at home. In the forts where the artillerists are at work, I have seen men sleep beside the guns that fairly shook the hills, and sleep as soundly and sweetly as though peace still spread her kindly mantle over us and silence reigned supreme.


Lessons from the Rebellion.–The present irruption of the rebels into Pennsylvania ought to teach us a lesson. That State has nearly as many inhabitants as the whole number of rebel states east of the Mississippi, and with a proper military organization ought, by her own efforts, to prevent the rebels from entering her borders. But as it is, she seems to stand in almost helpless consternation and sees her cities and fields wasted by the invader. Under the long sway of corruptive political ideas, she has not only beaten her swords into pruning hooks, but she has wholly substituted the ballot for the bullet. There are not a few of her citizens to-day, who have become so utterly prostrate in reason by their indulgence in politics that they fancy that they can vote the muskets out of the hands of their invaders.


Inauguration of the Governor of Western Virginia.–A dispatch, dated Wheeling, Va., June 20, says: “The State of Western Virginia is now a fixed fact. Hon. A. G. Bowman was to-day inaugurated as the first Governor of the State. Business was universally suspended, and the citizens turned out en masse to usher in the new State. Business houses and private residences were decorated with flags. The day closed with a brilliant display of fireworks.

, 1863

Severe Fighting on Wednesday for Six Hours with Indecisive Results.
Anticipated Renewal of Hostilities on Thursday.
The Whole Army of the Potomac on the Field.

Baltimore, Thursday, July 2.

The Baltimore American has the following in regard to the battle of Gettysburg:

We learn from the officers of Major-General Reynolds’ staff that our forces passing through Gettysburg at 10 o’clock yesterday morning, when a quarter of a mile west of the town, encountered Generals Longstreet and Hill, who attacked the corps of Gen. Reynolds, which was in the advance. This corps stood the force of the attack until it was relieved by the Third corps and a commanding position secured. The rebels made a strong attempt to flank the position we had gained but were repulsed in the attempt. Gen. Reynolds and Gen. Paul fell under a volley from the rebel infantry. Both officers were wounded and at the head of their troops. In the course of the conflict we fell back before superior numbers to a stronger position, and the fight ceased for the day at 4 o’clock. At the close of the evening the whole army of the Potomac had reached the field and Major-General Meade had all the corps strongly posted for a renewal of the battle this morning. The loss of the enemy was considered fully equal to ours. The Army of the Potomac is in fine condition and very enthusiastic. Our loss of officers is severe. Colonels Wistar and Stone were wounded when they fell into the hands of the rebels. Our army is regarded as better concentrated than that of the rebels for the events of to-day.


Baltimore, Thursday, July 2–11 p.m.

Shall soon send you an account from the battle-field near Gettysburg, of yesterday’s battle, which is very favorable. Meanwhile the cheering announcement has been made of the capture of a large number of prisoners, some of whom have arrived here and others are on the way. The number is stated at 6,000, but this may be an exaggeration. Gen. Schenck has just announced at Eutaw House that 2,400 of them have already arrived.

Second Dispatch.

Baltimore, Thursday, July 2.

Over 800 rebel prisoners have just passed down Pratt street under guard. More are expected to-night.

Third Dispatch.

Baltimore, Friday, July 3–1 a.m.

The American learns from parties who left Gettysburg at noon to-day, that everything was progressing favorably for the ultimate success of our arms.

Up to that time they assert that 6,000 prisoners had been captured and sent  to the railroad terminus at Union Bridge for transportation to Baltimore. The 7th regiment have just gone to the Boston depot to take charge of 800 already arrived and Gen. Schenck has just announced from Eutaw House that he had then in Baltimore and at the Relay House 2,400 in his possession. We learn that nearly 1,000 of these prisoners were captured on Wednesday by the 11th corps in their gallant charge on Longstreet’s corps.

They are said to have at first faltered, but when Gen. Howard cried to them to remember Chancellorsville, they rushed into the fight like infuriated demons, and the whole line of the enemy gave way before them. During the early part of the day up to noon, when our informant left, there had been no general battle, though heavy skirmishing had been going on all the morning, resulting in heavy loss to the enemy and capture of 5,000 more prisoners.

In all these skirmishes which were conducted under the direction of Gen. Meade, our arms were entirely successful, but the enemy studiously avoided any general engagement, and it was thought there would be none before to-day, when it was said to be the intention of General Meade to press the enemy along the whole line. The prudence and skill displayed by General Meade in the management of his army and the strategy evinced by him in coping with Lee, had already won the confidence of his troops, and his presence drew forth the strongest demonstration of attachment.

The army evinced determination to win at all hazards and had been strongly impressed by officers with dreadful consequences that would ensue to them and the country if disaster should occur to our arms in the coming conflict.

The enemy was rapidly concentrating troops yesterday, and General Meade’s whole army had reached the field of battle.

General Couch was expected to pass down through Cumberland Valley on the enemy.

Particulars of the Battle.

Baltimore, Friday, July 3.–2 a.m.

The American has also the following account from Gettysburg:

Major Bumgarten and another officer of the staff of Maj.-Gen. Reynolds arrived here yesterday from Gettysburg with the body of Maj.-Gen. Reynolds. From Major Bumgarten we learn some interesting particulars of the battle, and are happy to be able to say it closed for the day with the army of General Meade in the most advantageous position, either for attack of defence. Nearly all the remaining divisions of our army reached the field shortly after the firing ceased for the day. At 9 o’clock on Wednesday morning the first and eleventh army corps reached Gettysburg, entering from the east side of the town, and marching directly through to the west side. The cavalry force of the enemy in the town galloped back as we advanced. On passing out of the west end of the town, the Eleventh army corps under General Howard was also soon in position. For a time, quite a heavy battle raged. Several charges were made by the enemy to dislodge our forces, which were unsuccessful. At 3 o’clock the enemy massed their entire force, and endeavored to turn our right wing. General Reynolds advanced to meet them when a heavy infantry fight ensued, in which both suffered severely, volley after volley of musketry being poured into the opposing column. In this charge Maj.-Gen. Reynolds was killed at the head of his corps.

The enemy was observed advancing rapidly from the Chambersburg turnpike in line of battle towards the town, evidently endeavoring to hold an advantageous position commanding the town.

The first corps under Gen. Reynolds which was in the advance, pushed forward at [the] double quick to secure an advantageous position. The enemy under Longstreet and Hill advanced steadily, and in a few minutes a heavy battle of artillery and musketry was opened along the whole federal and rebel lines.

The field between the contending armies was strewn with dead, wounded and it is said the enemy suffered hardly as severely though it is not known what was their loss in officers. The effort to flank our right wing entirely failed and we held the prominent and commanding position for which the struggle was made at the close of the fight which ceased for the day about four o’clock in the afternoon. At this time, two more corps of General Meade’s army reached the field and during the night the main body of our army was in position to meet any demonstration that the enemy might make in the morning or to advance on him as the Commanding General might decide. The first army corps nobly maintained its position against the effort to flank its right, scarcely faltered for a moment when its gallant commander fell under a murderous fire of the army. A great and decisive battle was considered imminent, notwithstanding our severe loss in officers; the advantages of the day were regarded as decidedly with our forces.

General Meade had also, it was thought, concentrated his forces to a greater extent than the enemy, and a large portion of whose army was still scattered up through the Cumberland Valley.

Early in the afternoon, Howard’s 11th army corps repulsed with great slaughter the united forces of Longstreet and Hill.

Gen. Meade arrived Thursday morning, and the main body of his army is in position to push the enemy, who are endeavoring to retreat.

New York, Thursday, July 2.

The Herald’s special from Harrisburg says:

“The battle at Gettysburg to-day was fierce and bloody. The rebellion has received a terrible blow. There are immense trophies.”

Another Herald dispatch says 25,000 rebels passed Dillsburg yesterday in the direction of Gettysburg.

JULY 4, 1863


A Counter-Invasion.
The Movement Towards Richmond.

A fugitive who left Richmond on the 25th repeats the previous report that one division of Bragg’s army is there, and that all the government employees were under arms. They are barricading the streets, and building additional fortifications on all the principal roads leading into the city. The panic is intense there.

Some of Gen. Dix’s forces went up the Pamunkey river and landed at White House on the 25th. Col. Spear with his regiment (the 11th Pennsylvania cavalry) and other mounted troops placed in his command was the first to appear at that place. Here he found two companies of rebel cavalry doing picket duty, and very soon dispersed them. Two of the number were made prisoners. The railroad bridge over the Pamunkey river was saved, and also a schooner left by the rebels, which is now in the hands of the quartermaster. Gen. Dix and staff have gone to White House. A fleet of gunboats is patrolling the Pamunkey river to keep the water communication open. Commander Pierce Crosby, fleet captain of the North Atlantic blockading squadron, is in command of the fleet, and besides the regular naval gunboats, the army gunboats General Jesup and Smith Briggs have been placed under his command by Gen. Dix. Gen. Keyes with the 4th army corps had also marched up to White House from the peninsula.


The Pirates of the Tacony Captured.
A Revenue Cutter Seized and Destroyed by them at Portland.

The crew of the rebel pirate craft Tacony have been captured, and are held as prisoners in Fort Preble, Portland harbor. Learning that they were pursued, they removed their armament to the captured schooner Archer on the 24th, and entered Portland harbor, where they secretly took possession of the revenue cutter Caleb Cushing, and were taking her down the harbor Friday night when the steamers Forest City and Chesapeake pursued her. Her crew took to the boats and were pursued and captured.


Tobacco and Laborers in the Valley.–Everywhere through the Connecticut valley, in Massachusetts, has the land devoted to tobacco largely increased this year. The farmers are few who have escaped the infection of its profits. The transplanting of the young plants is now finished, and has been, on the whole, very successful; though, through lack of rain, much watering by hand and covering with grass has been necessary, and, in some cases also, replanting. The culture of tobacco is teaching our farmers new lessons in patience, care and intelligence. It is more like farming in Europe than anything we have before been accustomed to in America. There is a great scarcity of labor in some towns; in Amherst, for instance, good tobacco and haying hands are receiving $2 and even $2.50 a day and board; in Shutesbury, from 1.25 to 1.75 is the reported rate of wages for day laborers; and in Deerfield, owing to a recent large emigration of laborers from Vermont, the supply was abundant at from $1.50 to $1.75. These we presume may be taken as the range of prices throughout the valley.

Another Repulse at Port Hudson.
Hard Fighting and Terrible Losses.

Later and fuller accounts show that in the assault on Port Hudson on the 14th, although something was gained in position, the affair was on the whole a disastrous repulse, in which we lost about a thousand men. The loss of field officers was very large in killed and wounded, amounting to no less than five colonels. Our troops, though repulsed, fought bravely. It seems evident that Gen. Banks has not force enough to accomplish what he so daringly attempts. It was expected that another assault would be made on the 19th. Col. Dudley had volunteered, and was to lead a “forlorn hope: or storming column of four thousand men, all picked volunteers.


“Stop Your Nonsense.”–A joke is a joke, but in times like these some people are not in a mood for joking about public affairs. If the gatherers of news to be telegraphed to the papers would just bear this in mind, they might greatly abridge their dispatches, and much to the satisfaction of the public. Of course they cannot avoid sending a great many false and absurd rumors, because they have no time or opportunity to verify what they hear; but they might at least spare us the nonsense of hopeful predictions and assurances of future success. Nobody is so weak as to be in the slightest degree encourage by such stuff, and that we presume is its object. A Philadelphia dispatch of Tuesday gave us this piece of news: “It is hoped that the rebels will either be captured or made to beat an inglorious retreat.” Of course it is, but there is no occasion to to burthen the wires with the fact. Nor does any body care to hear that no alarm is felt in Washington, that it is not believed the rebels will be able to destroy the railroad between the capital and Baltimore, that Secretary Stanton is calm, that Gen. Halleck is glum, or that the president is in good spirits and has told another little anecdote in his best vein. Let the news reporters give us the facts, as near as they can get at them, and such rumors as are not too preposterous, and let them forbear comment; above all, let them not attempt prophecy, for they have no gift, and they make melancholy work of it.



The provost marshal of Alexandria, Va., has issued an order granting all persons in that city until Tuesday next to prove their loyalty, or provide themselves with a certain quantity of baggage in order to be sent to City Point.

Since the rebellion broke out, nearly 140 vessels have been constructed expressly as men-of-war, and of these nearly fifty are iron clads. There are, all told, about 530 vessels now registered on the books of the department.

The Boston Commonwealth finds that the Negro forces in the service have been exaggerated, and cannot make out more than eleven regiments, if all were full. Gen. Rosecrans employs 5,000 Negroes, but in digging and other work, not in fighting.

This is the Susquehanna and Tidewater Canal, and not doing it as much damage as possible was a blunder on the part of the rebel army, as much of the coal for the Union fleet travelled along it. Its destruction would have required coal barges to be towed on the Susquehanna itself, which was a difficult passage.

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