, 1863

From Virginia.
First Dispatch.

Richmond, July 3.—Various reports from below Richmond are circulating to-day. In the morning several militia regiments and battalions were called together by the appointed signal, and promptly responded. Nothing having occurred rendering it necessary for them to remain under arms, they were dismissed.

The latest report deemed reliable is to the effect that the yankees have fallen back from the vicinity of Bolton’s bridge.

Letters post marked Carlisle, Pa., June 28, were received here to-day. Another flag boat is expected to-morrow.

No news from the seat of war on the Potomac to-day.

Second Dispatch.

Richmond, July 3.—A dispatch last night to the War Department says that a portion of gen. Hill’s corps attacked the enemy four miles below Bolton’s bridge yesterday p.m., and drove them within five miles of White House. Several prisoners state the force of the enemy at twenty thousand.

A large number of yankees are in King William county, who are reported to be moving in the direction of Hanover Court House. There is no excitement here. Nearly every citizen and resident has joined some organization for the present. By general consent business is practically suspended. The enthusiasm at the commencement of the war was not more ardent nor general than is the spirit now animating all classes of the community.

Weather hot and cloudy.

Third Dispatch.

Richmond, July 3.—The city is very quiet to-day. The State troops under Governor Letcher, several thousand strong, have repaired to a place selected for temporary encampment. The men are in fine spirits. The militia of the adjoining counties are organized and aroused. Public opinion is still divided, in regard to the demonstrations of the yankees near Richmond. Some think Dix is fool hardy enough to attempt to take the city, others that the movement is a mere diversion, and a marching expedition on a large scale. A large force of the enemy have gone in the direction of the junction of the Central and Fredericksburg Rail Roads, with the object to destroy the bridge over South Anna on the latter road. The bridge is well guarded.

No news to-day from the army. The Winchester mail is not yet opened.

Fourth Dispatch.

Richmond, July 3, 9 o’clock p.m.—The 9 o’clock train has just arrived from the Junction, and reports the enemy advancing in three columns. Nothing further from below, up to seven o’clock.

The flag of truce boat expected at City Point has not arrived.


Would it not be fair now, to make all the non-combatants in Pennsylvania swear to support the Southern Confederacy? They make our defenseless old men and boys do the same thing in our captured cities. It is a poor rule that will not work both ways.

Cheering from Vicksburg.–We have intelligence brought by a distinguished gentleman recently from Johnston’s headquarters, that Gen. Johnston has organized a large and admirably disciplined army, and is in condition to make an effective demonstration. His cavalry horses, of which he was very deficient at first, have been supplied by the people of Mississippi, who have very generally sent up their carriage horses, and they are the finest horses in our whole army. He reports the feeling both among the army and people as buoyant and confident. He had reason to believe that the fate of Vicksburg would be decided within a few days. –Augusta Constitutionalist.


Suppose we go over the border–shall we pillage and burn as the yankees do? The query is serious and should arouse reflection. Beyond a doubt the law of retaliation would justify us in any act we might commit in response to the outrages of a savage foe, no matter how atrocious; but would the laws of God do so? Is incendiarism ever right? And can the principles of humanity and christian warfare be violated without risking the wrath of that Divinity to whose protection we look with ceaseless hope, and whose aid we constantly invoke with prayer and fasting? Again, is it prudent in a temporal sense?


A glimpse of the face of the Confederate States at the present moment discloses a singular expression of countenance;1 in the East, advancing legions seem to meet nothing but victory along the march of glory across the border; in the West, the Department of the Mississippi appears to be confined by a cramp of some sort; Richmond, invested by a large force, is proclaimed in no danger; and Gen. Bragg, who with a few thousand of reinforcement could drive Rosecrans to the wall, is put to the necessity of choosing his own ground instead of riding rough shod over the road to Nashville and the Ohio river; truly a jumbled mass of features, full of anxiety, vague and indefinite.


China is aid to be a country where the roses have no fragrance and the women no petticoats. Not so in Georgia. There they have both in plenty. And as for pretty feet clad in Paris gaiters, and ankles–! There is not a woman in Tennessee but would cry her eyes out, if she were to see them. We lately met a young person, down whose cheek the tears fairly trinkled when we told her of them; and four old women near Knoxville would go into hysterics if they heard of it! But these things cost prodigious! “Would you believe it?” exclaimed an Augusta belle, as she put one of her exquisite No. 1½s out of a dainty petticoat, with the prettiest edging imaginable, “would you believe it? These cost pa-pa sixty dollars!” “Odds life!” muttered an old croaker hard by, “what a mercy your father did not happen to be your husband, when the bill came in!” Nevertheless the foot was marvelous handsome. It was worth the price of the shoe to see it. Another young lady assured an Augusta paper that her wardrobe for the last six months only cost five thousand dollars. It was purchased in Nassau. Original price in gold about fifteen hundred ditto. Poor girl! She said she was in a bad way for–for–a new set of–pearls! She should be assure that she is a pearl without price herself, and should rather be hung round the neck of some one of the Augusta heroes, as she will doubtless be one of these days.

JULY 6, 1863

The Great Struggle in Pennsylvania.
A Substantial Victory on Friday.

The various dispatches from the seat of war in Pennsylvania agree in representing the final results of the three days fighting–Wednesday, Thursday and Friday–as decidedly in our favor. They generally claim a sweeping and glorious victory in the battle of Friday, which was clearly one of the most hardly contested and bloody battles of the whole war. Whether it can be pronounced a decisive victory or not will be made clear by subsequent events. The rebels were driven back from Gettysburg some two or three miles, but were still in position on Saturday morning, and the fight was not renewed on that day. Our army was of course exhausted by the fighting of the three days, but if Gen. Meade had considered the defeat of the enemy as overwhelming as some of the accounts represent, he would not have allowed the enemy to rest a single day, but would have followed them up to the complete destruction of Lee’s army.

In the battle of Wednesday afternoon the enemy had the advantage. In the fight of Thursday afternoon, which was severe for the short time it lasted, we gained in position somewhat, but the armies seem to have suffered about equally. The enemy commenced the attack on Friday, as they had done on the previous two days, and through the forenoon the battled raged fearfully with alternate advantage to either side. The rebel forces were hurled with fearful impetuosity against our lines, but were repulsed with tremendous slaughter. Shortly after noon the enemy began to falter, and were pressed with irresistible energy by our troops. They were driven back through the whole afternoon, retreating some two or three miles, but disputed the ground won from them with the most desperate obstinacy.

We took many prisoners, variously stated at from 3,000 to 8,000, and even a much larger number, and many cannon and flags and a pontoon train. Among the prisoners are the distinguished generals, Longstreet and A. P. Hill.2 Among our wounded are Generals Hancock and Gibbons.

The present situation seems to be this: Gen. Meade holds Gettysburg and the woods east and south. Lee’s army is northwest of Gettysburg, and maintains its connections with Hagerstown and the Potomac; but Gens. Kelly and French are marching to cut off the retreat, and the Potomac is rising. The militia under Gen. Couch are somewhere north of Gettysburg, awaiting the signal to join in the conflict. Some dispatches on Saturday represented the rebels as then retreating rapidly towards the Potomac, but Sunday’s accounts locate them on the ground they occupied at the close of Friday’s great battle. It would seem that there is to be more hard fighting to complete the work so well begun, and there is no doubt that Gen. Meade will be promptly reinforced with all the available troops the government has at command. If this is done we may confidently expect that the rebellion will receive its death blow in the utter defeat of Lee’s army on this side of the Potomac.

An official dispatch from Gen. Meade, received at half past three this morning, after the above was written, says Lee’s army is in full retreat, having left in the rain and darkness. Our cavalry is in pursuit. Follow up smart and don’t let the rebels get away.

Bold Movement of the Indians.
A Train on the Platte River Attacked.

The New York Sunday Mercury has a dispatch dated Des Moines, Iowa, July 4, which says the Indians on the border are aroused to terrible action, and the excitement is momentarily increasing. I have direct and reliable intelligence from the border that no less than three thousand Indians, principally Sioux, have just attacked the Pawnee agency on the Platte river. They are said to have fought like devils. I am unable to give the result, although I understand that many of our men who defended the place were killed, and a number wounded. Lieut. Col. Pollock of the 6th Iowa cavalry, with the 2d battalion of that regiment, started from Fort Randolph a few days since for Devil’s Lake, where the Indians are said to be congregated in considerable numbers. A fight is also anticipated there, and warm times are expected. The Indians are bent on rapine and are thoroughly organized.


A Great Telegraphic Feat.–To the Editor of the Republican.–Two messages, one from the president of the Overland telegraphic company, and the other from the director of the Columbia telegraph, dated respectively San Francisco, June 2d, 12:15 p.m., and 9:20 p.m., addressed to Cyrus W. Field, on board the steamship China, were carried to Queenstown by that vessel, arriving at that port on the evening of the 12th, and the substance of these messages was dispatched to St. Petersburg on the morning of the 13th. Thus they were transmitted from San Francisco, on the Pacific, to St. Petersburg, on the Neva, in 10½ days, 9½ of which were consumed in traversing the Atlantic. This remarkable telegraphic feat demonstrates that when an Atlantic cable is successfully laid, St. Petersburg and the great telegraphic system of Russia, reaching almost to the frontier of China, will be able to communicate with San Francisco and the adjacent country on the Pacific within 24 hours.

–G. B. Prescott.
Telegraph Office, Springfield, July 4.


The validity of the pending draft is questioned on the ground that the enrollment was not completed before the 1st of July, as the law requires. Section 11 provides “that all persons thus enrolled shall be subject for two years, after the first day of July succeeding the enrollment, to be called into the military service of the United States,” &c. Strictly interpreted, this postpones the draft till after the first of July next year, but the government will find some way to evade a difficulty created by its own slowness.


Important, if True!

Washington, July 6.–[Special to the New York Herald.] News of a most important character reaches us from sources beyond all question as to the truth of the statement.

The Vice President of the rebel government, Alexander H. Stephens, and Mr. Commissioner Ould, came down the James river on board the rebel gunboat Dragon on Saturday with a flag of truce and requested permission from Admiral Lee to proceed to Washington in order to present in person an important communication from Jeff Davis to President Lincoln. Admiral Lee at once dispatched to Washington for instructions. A cabinet meeting was accordingly held yesterday morning and it was decided that permission should not be granted to these gentlemen to fulfill their mission, whatever it was, to Washington.

Admiral Lee was instructed to inform them that the ordinary channels of communication would suffice for the transmission of any message they might have to send to Mr. Lincoln. Meanwhile the rebel gunboat had steamed up the James river while awaiting the reply from Washington.

New York, July 7.–The Tribune’s post-script, dated five o’clock this morning, contains the following:

“Retreat of the Rebels–Attacks upon the Rear Guard–The Storm Impeding their Progress–The Cannon and Wagons Stuck in the Mud–Large Captures of Prisoners–Strong Hopes of Destroying the Whole Rebel Army–There was a battle near Mercersburg this (Monday) afternoon, between the rebels under Fitzhugh Lee and Gen. Pierce’s forces. Firing continued up to nine o’clock to-night. Our forces still maintain their ground, and Pleasanton will be up to-morrow and head the battle.”

The following dispatch was received at the Merchants’ Exchange News Room, Boston:

Philadelphia, July 7.–Gen. Ewell died yesterday of his wounds.3

The Potomac is six feet above the fording mark.

The enemy are abandoning all their wounded in their retreat. Every house and barn on the route is full of them.

The rebel Maj. Gen. Trimble is wounded and a prisoner.

Everything looks now as if the enemy would have to turn and give battle again.


The Conscription.–The call on the state is for 15,519 men, and thee quota in this (7th) district, is 1775. The number to be drafted is twice the number required, and is based on the idea that half those drafted will be exempted for various causes. The drawing in Boston will probably commence to-morrow.


When our Union generals went into Virginia, they placed guards round the property of the rebels, gave them permits to pass through our lines, and sent soldiers to return fugitive slaves to their owners. This was called conciliating our brethren of the South. When Gen. Early took possession of York, he demanded contributions from the people to the amount of $150,000, saying that if they refused they would be taken. This is called supporting an army upon an enemy’s country. The rebels do not make war sentimentalism.


The military commandant at Philadelphia rejoices in the name of General Napoleon Johnson Tecumseh Dana. Verily, the people of that city ought to feel perfectly safe.

The Late Contest, in magnitude, can hardly be overrated. The history of the present century furnishes few struggles where more men on each side were brought into action: alas, the long lists of dead and wounded tell a tale of the thousands engaged which figures poorly express, and of friends who will mourn by myriads. In importance, both socially and politically, it cannot be over-estimated. It is the greatest success of the war; a complete triumph of northern valor, being a fair and square stand-up fight without entrenchments on either side, and no gunboats to aid in the issue. The rebels boasted they had everything they wanted–men, arms, provisions, ammunition and artillery in abundance. They seemed to stake everything on the issue and lost all, the prospect being that they suffered a complete rout and that hardly a corporal’s guard will ever get back to Virginia. As to going to Richmond, if private advices may be relied on, that city is as good as captured now. It’s “contraband” to say more on that point.

The people of the North have cause for hearty rejoicing. Amid all the doubt and anxiety of the past, they have kept up good courage and never relaxed any effort, firmly believing that it was darkest before day; and, now that the full brightness has broken, they may be glad with lightened hearts. The coil of the anaconda seems to have done its work.

In a military point of view the late battle will give rise to one painful reflection, and that is that the present result ought to have taken place nearly a year ago. Then the rebel army recrossed the Potomac at their leisure almost, and hardly left an old shoe in their retreat. And the reason given was that the federal army had nothing but old shoes to follow with.

But let the dead past bury its dead. On this the eighty-eighth year of its existence, the republic enters upon a new life with renewed vigor, and, if we, as a people, are true to the great trust of humanity committed to our care, by the time another year has rolled its round, we shall be as much in advance of our present position as we are now ahead of one year ago, in all respects.


From Richmond.–Twenty-four hundred prisoners have arrived here, who will be paroled, save the officers, and sent north. The Enquirer, in a fierce editorial, says:

“The valley of Pennsylvania ought to become a sea of flame, like the prairies of the western world. Nothing should be left that man could eat, or sleep on, or shelter himself, or procure food with. The whole city of Philadelphia, if burnt to the ground, would not pay for the Negroes they have carried off.”


New Hampshire and Massachusetts have both sent surgeons and assistants to look after the wounded in the late conflicts. Great numbers of the latter are already, or will be sent to Philadelphia.


The Massachusetts Second Regiment.–Capt. James Francis reports himself safe, but that twenty-three men of his command, Co. A, are among the killed and wounded. This is fifty per cent of its members, and the whole regiment lost in that proportion; one hundred and forty-four being killed, wounded or missing.

JULY 8, 1863


The Late Great Battle.

The echoes from the late field of slaughter near Gettysburg daily become fainter and less hopeful. That a tremendous holocaust of human lives was offered up to the Moloch of war, we all know. That on that terrible, heated field of battle, the wounded can hardly be saved, we cannot but allow. But the slow days, pain-laden, drag themselves along without bringing us any certainty of a decisive victory. That Gen. Meade deserves all credit for his great effort, we all should gratefully allow; that he won a field ensanguined and terrible beyond what we read of in past history is equally true. But that the results open a road to Richmond we do not see. We have no idea that Lee is so cut off by the rear but he can throw a heavy force into the strong defences of Richmond; nay, we are more inclined to think he will hold the passes and strategic positions that separate our brave army from Richmond.

One thing any reader of the papers cannot fail to have noticed–­that is, that when news is bad we get it only through correspondents; but when there is a ray of success, it is multiplied in all ways, by repetition, and amplified by detail. So it has been for the past several days. We hope that before this goes to print, we may chronicle better news by telegraph than that of the night before last; at least, unless the blow can be quick and decisive in our favor, that an amnesty will relieve the soldiers from a summer campaign, which if continued, will be more horrible an destructive of life than that of the first Napoleon, who pushed his army into the frozen heart of Russia only to bring it out in shreds and patches.

We had rumors yesterday of the surrender of Vicksburg; and of the desire of the rebel government to be represented by Alex H. Stevens in person before our President and Cabinet. These rumors have not taken definite shape at present writing; but if the latter rumor be true, we have the idea that it means only a temporary arrangement for a suspension of fighting on account of the terrible suffering of the soldiers. If this is the object, it is only an act of humanity. If later news worthy of comment comes before going to press, the reader can interpret it for himself.


The Surrender of Vicksburg.

From the South-West we have the more cheering news of the capitulation of Vicksburg. This will probably open a communication between the able and persistent Gen. Grant and that other accomplished commander, Gen. Banks. This success, so patiently, ably and withal so much loss, will probably secure the department of the South-West in such a way that they will be able to attend to the sanitary necessities of the summer, even if Port Hudson is not captured. But we cannot expect much more in that quarter this summer.


Rebels Deserting.

Philadelphia, July 6.–The Washington Star says it is estimated that at Gettysburg, Lee had lost up to yesterday morning by desertion since crossing the Potomac an aggregate of 6000 men, while it was confidently expected he would lose as many more from the same cause on his retreat. He is clearly cut off from taking either of the three lower short routes leading to Virginia, and must be endeavoring to make for the Potomac at Hancock, where at ordinary stages of low water, he might find a practicable ford.

Lee Preparing to Cross the Potomac–A Battle Expected.

Harrisburg, July 7.–6 p.m.–Information received here proves beyond a doubt, the continued retreat of the rebels towards Hagerstown and Williamsport, with the intention of crossing the Potomac. Their wagon trains are all in front, and are being ferried across slowly in two flat boats. The Potomac is very high, and they cannot cross, their only bridge having been destroyed.

A large force of infantry prevented the capture of Williamsport by Gen. Buford with his cavalry. Our army is fast following them up, and a great battle will be fought before they succeed in getting away. This fight, it is hoped, will result in the capture of the whole of Lee’s army.


Gen. Sedgwick in Pursuit of the Rebels.

New York, July 6th.–A Tribune letter gives he total loss of the 11th corps at nearly 5000; of the 12th corps, killed and wounded, 997; missing 242. Seventeen officers killed and forty-three wounded.

Philadelphia, 7th.–The Inquirer has the following special dispatch:

Carlisle, Pa., 6 p.m.–Reliable accounts from the front state that the rebels are in full retreat towards Hagerstown. They were at Williamsport at 6 p.m., Sunday. General Sedgwick is close to their rear with 2,500 fresh men.

The rebel loss is estimated at 50,000. The battle-field is strewn with dead and wounded for miles around.

Chambersburg, 6 p.m.–Heavy firing was heard in the direction of Cedar Spring and Williamsport. It is supposed that Mulligan has come up from Hancock.

It was Gen. Longworthy, and not Longstreet, that was killed.

The enemy appear to be retreating in all directions. Gregg is in full pursuit.


An Immense Oil Well.–The Harrisburg Union of the 8th inst., says: “One of the most valuable veins of petroleum yet discovered was lately struck on the Ferrell farm, Oil Creek, Venango County, Pennsylvania. The well commenced flowing on Saturday last, the oil spouting up to a height of fifty feet, with a roar like a hurricane, and escaping at the rate of two thousand barrels per day. A stop-cock was got on after much trouble, and the flow can now be regulated to suit the demand. Another flowing well in the vicinity was o affected by the opening of the new well that its yield decreased over three hundred barrels per day. The Farrell well, which is four hundred and fifty feet, was, at last account, flowing steadily at the rate of twelve hundred barrels a day. This, even at the moderate prices now ruling at the wells, would yield the owners $3600 a day.”


Vicksburg.–A high state of excitement ensued on the receipt of the news that Vicksburg was captured. This, after news from Gen. Meade, was sufficient to bring the public feeling up to concert pitch, and flags were displayed from every staff and across the streets; the bells rung, and one hundred guns fired in honor of the event.


Lee’s Efforts to Save His Army.
A Battle Imminent.

Baltimore, July 8.–The American’s special correspondence from Frederick, dated this morning, says:

“It is no longer a question whether the Potomac is fordable, but whether any bridge the rebels may have would stand before such a flood.”

It speaks of active army operations. Our cavalry are continually picking up prisoners and send them in by hundreds. They are also capturing or burning rebel trains. The rebels are abandoning their wounded whom they place in wagons taken from farmers along the road. If Lee is detained at the river, his case will be most desperate, if not hopeless.

Washington, July 8.–No information has been received from Williamsport up to 2 o’clock today, and it is not believed that there was a fight there yesterday, although it is probable that Gen. Sedgwick has done the enemy’s rear much damage.

Baltimore, July 8.–The American’s special dispatch, dated Frederick, noon today, says:

“The position of the rebels and their condition has been difficult to ascertain. Their infantry line is drawn across from Huntstown, Md., to Falling Waters, and behind this line they are using almost superhuman exertions to get their trains, such as they have saved, and their artillery and ammunition across the river. The best military authority doubts, I might almost say is convinced, that they have no pontoon train besides that destroyed at Falling Waters, and that with such canal boats as they had not previously burned, and with timber felled in the vicinity of and at Martinsburg, they are endeavoring to supply the deficiencies of their engineer corps. It is known that two days ago they had troops felling timber. They also attempted to cross some wagons on flat boats, but the impetuous current of the river rendered the attempt futile.

“They are now crossing there on boats, and leaving their wagons on this side, probably intending to take them to pieces and thus transport them on the canal boats.

“I have heard the opinion expressed in a very high military quarter, that the rebels will probably secure the most defensible line in front of Williamsport, entrench themselves and endeavor to hold our army at bay while they secure the means of crossing.

“The position of the rebels is much more desperate than I had allowed myself to think heretofore. Of course, they may get away, but it looks much less probable now than it did twenty-four hours ago.

“Lee’s headquarters are definitely ascertained to be at Hagerstown today, and his troops are mainly on the road between there and Williamsport, which is only seven miles distant.

“Gen. Early’s rebel command is today reported to be cut off in the mountains near Greencastle by our cavalry. This is of course at present only a rumor, but it is entitled to credit to some extent in view of the knowledge of the purposes of Gen. Pleasanton’s present movement.

“The cavalry of Gen. Pleasanton have been operating with magnificent success during the last 3 days. It is a positive fact, that while the rebels were retreating, we had cavalry in their rear, front and on both flanks. Its presence and bold dashes greatly aided and increased the demoralization of the rebels, and their discipline has been greatly relaxed. It is the opinion at headquarters that our cavalry have taken not less than 6000 prisoners, including wounded rebels who have been picked up everywhere along the road and in farm houses when they had been abandoned by their friends.”

Washington, July 8.–Messages to the Associated Press received from Frederick, Md., tonight, say: ->

“The damage done to the rebel trains by the dash of our cavalry is almost incredible. Everywhere they were captured, cut off, and burned. Gen. Kilpatrick dashed into the middle of Gen. Ewell’s trains, and burnt between two and three hundred wagons and ran off the horses.

“Today he captured 60 more wagons and 300 horses and mules. Our cavalry . . . had a fight yesterday at Hagerstown with a rebel infantry division. Their position was most dangerous, but they got off without serious loss.

“Our forces are gradually concentrating in that direction. The hopes and prospects if annihilating the whole Army of Virginia are bright.

“At last advices, Lee was concentrating his forces by every available route. Fearing an attack, he yesterday morning planted his batteries on every road by which we were likely to approach.”


The Surrender of Vicksburg.

New York, July 8—The Tribune has the following special dispatch, dated Chickasaw Bayou, Friday, July 3d, via Cairo, July 7th.

“Vicksburg is ours. Firing from our front ceased this morning, pending negotiations for a surrender, which have occupied the greater part of the day.

“The only contested point touching the surrender has been in reference to what shall be done with Gen. Pemberton’s army. He asks and demands that while the surrender is unconditional in other respects, the garrison which has so long and so heroically resisted our army shall be spared unnecessary humiliation and shall be paroled in Vicksburg. This will probably be conceded from motives of expediency alone, and not as a condition, as it will save an immense expenditure for transportation and subsistence.

“Generals Grant and Pemberton had a long private interview, at the latter’s request, in relation to the surrender before it was determined.

“Officers accompanying the flag of truce indicate by their conversation that all that has been written and published in the North concerning the suffering of the rebels in Vicksburg, has been but half the truth. There are about 23,000 people in Vicksburg, 10,000 of whom are efficient soldiers. Our army will take possession tomorrow morning.

“The surrender is just in time to save both armies from the loss and destruction of life which would have attended an attempt to carry the works of the enemy by storm, as such an attempt had been determined on for tomorrow morning.

“Not having been allowed an inside view before the dispatch boat, I cannot give such interesting details as may be desired. Colonel Markland of the Special Post-office Department will on the 6th establish a post-office in Vicksburg.”


Unchivalric.–General Grant’s discourteous habits seem to cling to him very closely. It will be remembered that last year at the capture of Fort Donelson he refused an armistice and capitulation, requiring an immediate and unconditional surrender. For offering such “ungenerous and unchivalrous terms,” he was rebuked by Buckner, who nevertheless found it prudent to succumb, notwithstanding what he called the “brilliant success of the Confederate arms.” It is now reported that Grant was equally unfeeling towards Pemberton at Vicksburg, apparently being unable to see how a garrison which has been made captive practically should be in a position to claim terms of any sort.

, 1863

Reported Destruction of Rebel Wagon Trains.
Fighting on Wednesday Near Antietam Creek.

New York, July 9.–The Time’s Middletown (Md.) dispatch of the 9th says the number of wagons destroyed by our cavalry is over 500. Buford destroyed 200 on Monday, and Dahlgren destroyed 170 in the same day, and on Saturday and Monday Kilpatrick burned and destroyed 200 or 300. Fully one-third of the transportation of the rebel army has been destroyed. Yesterday the enemy pressed our cavalry back upon Boonsboro’. Pleasanton then dismounted his men and fought the enemy two hours, finally driving them clear back to Antietam creek. The rebels have run the greater part of their train of artillery into the valley near Williamsport, and covered them by artillery posted on the south side of the river.

Frederick, Md., July 8.–On the 1st inst., accompanied by the dashing Capt. Dahlgren and twenty men, Capt.  Cline went to Greencastle and captured Lee’s private orderly and his entire escort, who had very important dispatches from Jeff Davis to Gen. Lee. The following are some of the points contained in the letters captured:

Richmond, June 29.–Davis feared his raid into Pennsylvania was a great mistake. It was an error to suppose that the army of the Potomac had been so reduced as to make victory an easy matter. It was utterly impossible to organize a reserve army at Culpepper, as Lee had suggested, owing to the fact that D. H. Hill’s command had been largely reduced by reinforcing other points, and it was equally impossible to spare a single man from Beauregard’s command.

Horses were needed. Johnston could not succeed against Grant without them, and Davis had fears for the fate of Vicksburg. Davis was sorry he could not reinforce Lee. The Quartermaster General tells Lee that he can’t send him supplies and ordnance without horses, and the campaign must be abandoned unless animals are had immediately. Lee must also keep open communication and a line of retreat. Other matters of interest are contained in the dispatches.

Thos. Paulding of Greencastle is spoken of in the highest terms by Capt. Cline as rendering him invaluable assistance as a guide. On the 4th inst., Captains Cline and Dahlgren were reinforced by 100 of the 6th Pennsylvania cavalry, and returned again to the rear of Lee’s army at Greencastle, where they took thirty-one prisoners.

Forty-eight of the rebel cavalry came into the town and called for the Burgess in order to levy a contribution. Captains Cline and Dahlgren were posted in the square, and a citizen told the rebels they would find the Burgess there. A part of our men made a detour of a square and at a given signal, the rebels were assaulted in front and rear, and the whole party captured without the loss of a man.

Capts. Cline and Dahlgren hovered around the enemy’s rout, and on the 5th discovered the advance of the retreating rebel trains, making in the direction of the Potomac. The train consisted of 500 or 600 wagons belonging to Ewell and Hill. The vanguard was composed of 600 cavalry, a regiment of infantry, and a battery of artillery.

Waiting until the train had nearly passed, and taking advantage of a defile, our officers dashed upon the train, dividing their force. They cut down 130 wagons, ran the horses into the woods and captured two guns and 300 prisoners.

Before completing all they desired to accomplish, the rebel cavalry and infantry were upon them. The guns and all the prisoners were recaptured, excepting twelve, when our party took to the woods, closely pursued by the rebels. They escaped, however, and made their way to Waynesboro’.

On the morning of the 6th they found Gen. Buford at Boonesboro’, having lost only 4 men, who were taken prisoners. It was impossible to bring off the captured horses and these were turned over to the farmers, who had lost their own by Lee’s army.

From North Carolina.
General Foster’s Expedition.

Newbern, N. C., July 5.–The expedition for the interior is composed of a picked force of infantry, artillery and cavalry. Gen. Foster is confident of accomplishing all he undertakes. If the enemy attempt to obstruct his advance, an important engagement will probably take place to-day or to-morrow. The 23d Massachusetts regiment accompanied the expedition, under Lieut. Col. John G. Chambers. The North Carolina Union cavalry rendezvoused here with the 3d and 12th New York cavalry prior to the advance. Gen. Wilde, of the African brigade, is left behind in command here during Gen. Foster’s absence. The National Guards, Col. Wright, received their arms on the 3d, and are now doing garrison duty.

The First North Carolina Volunteers have returned from an expedition up the Pungo river, where the regiment captured two large schooners heavily laden with rebel supplies, large numbers of prisoners, horses, cattle, Negroes, and several thousand bushels of corn. The regiment landed near Wade’s Point, taking the enemy everywhere by surprise, who was pursued forty miles. Several thousand dollars’ worth of rebel supplies were destroyed.

Four companies of the First North Carolina Artillery are already enrolled. North Carolina will soon have a grand Union army in the field.


From Vicksburg.
Terms of Capitulation.

Cairo, Ill., July 9.–The rebels have retired from Helena. Gen. Oglesby has just arrived from Memphis, and says the terms of capitulation of Vicksburg were that enlisted men be paroled, while the commission officers be retained as prisoners. Pemberton gives the number of men fit for duty 12,000, and 6000 in the hospital.


Campaign Against the Minnesota Indians.

The Chicago Tribune says:

The news from Minnesota is highly important. One feature we are not quite ready to endorse. The twenty-five dollar bounty on Indian scalps would look better offered by the red skins themselves whose warfare it little becomes us to imitate. White men in Minnesota stringing dead Indian scalps for a tally at the Adjutant General’s office, is not well or wisely inaugurated. Shoot the miscreants, hunt them to their holes. Let every squaw’s son of them be bored through with a Minié, but scalping knives and tomahawks should pass away with the red man.


Jokes of the Rebel Garrison at Vicksburg.–A few days before the surrender of Vicksburg, the rebels threw over to our men a small biscuit made of corn meal and peas. To this was attached a small piece of meat and a note stating that it was one day’s rations. For our information the further statements were made that “we are pretty hungry and dreadful dry; old Pemberton has taken all the whisky for the hospitals, and our Southern Confederacy is so small just now, that we are not in the manufacturing business. Give our compliments to Gen. Grant, and say to him that grub would be acceptable, but we will feel under particular obligation to him if he will send us a few bottles of good whisky.”

JULY 11, 1863


News from Rebel Sources.

New York, July 10.—The Richmond Dispatch says, (speaking editorially of the movements around Richmond): “The only information we have of the enemy’s movements north of this city is brought by the trains over the Fredericksburg road, which arrived last night for the first time for a week past. They report that they could hear nothing of the Yankees, either at Hanover Junction or at the South Anna bridge, and the roads of the Central and Fredericksburg are now unobstructed.

“A citizen of King William County, who has been exiled from his home since its occupation by a band of marauders under Gen. Dix, went on a scout of that country on Monday last and obtained some interesting particulars of the whereabouts and movements of the Yankee army of plunderers. His statement is that their headquarters are at Mangolick Church and that their squads of thieves are scattered throughout the country, taking whatever they can find and destroying whatever is not convenient to carry away. They are also endeavoring to incite the Negroes to insurrection, promising to make them officers in company organizations as a temptation to them to quit their masters. The gentleman, to whom we allude, learned that one of his own Negro men had been tendered the command of a company as an inducement to quit his house. The Negroes under these influences are said to be very insubordinate and some are even boasting of their freedom and ability to maintain it.

Baltimore, July 10.—The Richmond Enquirer of the 5th says: “Our loss is estimated at 10,000 at the battle of Gettysburg. Between 3000 and 4000 of the wounded arrived at Winchester on the 7th. Generals Armistead, Barksdale, Garnet and Kemper are killed. Generals Scales, Pender, Jones, Heath, Anderson, Hampton and Hood are wounded. The Yankee army is estimated at 175,000 men. The fighting lasted four days, and is regarded as the severest of the war and the slaughter unprecedented. The enemy are said to have fought well. We captured 40,000 prisoners."4


The late accounts from Europe indicate that a war with Russia on the part of England and France is not very improbable. The British public at least, appear to be apprehensive that they are drifting towards some such event, they hardly know how or why. This state of things is a new proof of the astuteness of the French Emperor, who, despite his famous assertion of good auspices to his people, “The Empire is Peace,” shows by his public acts that he loves war, regarding it as a means of securing respect both at home and abroad. The Emperor, however, is too wise to go to war with England–that is, with England objectively. It is much better fun for him to go to war with England on the same side. This distresses England and benefits France, more surely and cheaply, by checking the commercial prosperity of the former, and aggrandizing the political strength of the latter.

The legal doctrines lately enunciated by Chief Baron Pollock as directions for the jury in the case of the Alexandra will receive a terrible significance in the event of England becoming engaged in a war [with] Russia. If the law in such cases be affirmed by the superior tribunals in accordance with the Chief Baron’s instructions, there will be no hindrance to the fitting out of any number of Alabamas in the ports of the United States at the instance of the Russian government to prey on British commerce and to sweep it from the seas. That loyal deference to the obligations of neutrals, which tied the hands of our ship-builders ->

in the Crimean war, will cease to be required at our hands, and while in the interest of civilization, we must regret that so decided a step backward has been taken in the interpretation of the rules of war, we shall at least have the satisfaction of knowing that history will absolve the American people from the authorship of this retrograde movement, and that it is that great power, the boasted “mistress of the seas,” which has insisted upon relapse towards barbarism which will feel in the largest measure the baleful consequences of its abominable behavior in giving judicial sanction to a species of thinly-veiled private piracy.

It will not very greatly serve to mitigate our want of sympathy for Great Britain in the war against Russia into which the cunning of the French Emperor may reluctantly lead her, that the ostensible cause of the interference of the allies is respect for the rights of the unhappy people of Poland in their attempt to assert their independence. For the people of Poland we entertain a lively and genuine sympathy, and if we could serve them consistently with the firmly fixed principles which have always regulated the proceedings of our government with reference to the affairs of Europe, we should be very glad of the opportunity. But the experience of the world is daily making it more and more obvious that, “Who would be free, must himself strike the blow.”

We do not forget the important service rendered to our nation in its infancy by the generous assistance of France; but in our present gigantic struggle to maintain the free popular nationality which our fathers founded, we have been forced to rely upon ourselves alone, without even that moral support and sympathy from the other civilized nations of the world which we had a right to expect in our behalf. The Italians, in achieving their unity and independence by the aid of France have manifestly put themselves under obligations to the French Emperor, annoying and embarrassing. Harsh though the sentiment may seem, it is nevertheless true that the best help that be given to the Poles is to let them alone. The victories that they may win unaided (and they have thus far shown themselves well able to maintain their cause) will be genuine and substantial. Those that they may win by the aid of French or British battalions will cost them dear; it is in point of fact only changing masters. That the British government really cares a straw about the sufferings of the people of Poland, nobody of course imagines.

From such a war the other powers of Europe can scarcely keep aloof, and if, as is perhaps not very improbable, the complication of affairs leads to war between Great Britain and the United States, upon the verge of which we have been so long standing, the amazing spectacle will be presented in the middle of the Nineteenth Century of all Christendom in both Hemispheres arrayed in arms against each other. Such a state of things of course is too awful to be contemplated for a moment with any complacency; yet we may find some consolation in the reflection that the history of the world has shown that it is only after these storms of violence that the calms occur which mark the most conspicuous stages of progress. A very great amelioration in the condition of the people will be the inevitable result of the next general war in Europe; while on our own side of the Atlantic, we already see bright promise of the restoration of the power and integrity of the Union, with our free popular institutions purified so that the blessings of liberty may work out their full fruit of beneficence in public and individual prosperity.5

1 A lesser-used sense of the word, meaning “a calm facial expression; composure.” The article ends, however, with a different sense.

2 A “fact” that would have surprised (and probably amused) both generals, as neither was captured. Meade’s army also did not push Lee back “two or three miles” following the failure of Pickett’s Charge.

3 Just as Longstreet and Hill were not captured, Ewell was also not dead. In fact, he lived until 1872.

4 The accepted numbers for the battle are 3,155 killed, 14,530 wounded and 5,365 missing/captured for the Union (26% of the army), and 2600-4500 killed, 12,800 wounded and 5,250 missing/captured for the rebels (30-34% of the army). (Reference.) The size of the armies was 93,540 (Union) and 69,915 (rebel), so both the 40,000 prisoners and 175,000-man numbers are wildly inaccurate. (Reference.) 

5 This lengthy article is included because it shows the beginnings of what will come very close to being a shooting war in the months to come–between Russia and the North on one side, and France, Britain and the South on the other. The world war that began in 1914 could easily have begun in 1863.

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