, 1864

The Rebels in Possession of Brownsville.

Information is brought up from the Rio Grande frontier to the effect that Gen. Ford took possession of Brownsville two days after its evacuation by our forces. Gen. Ford has a small force, and is evidently prepared to make a rapid retrograde movement should circumstances render it necessary.

Some little skirmishing has occurred between our pickets at Point Isabel and the rebels, resulting in the loss of a horse killed on our side, and a number of rebs picked off by our rifles. Several stragglers from our camp have been picked up by the rebels.

Ford has proceeded to rent out the property of Unionists in Brownsville. Miller’s Hotel is occupied by Peter Sharkey, formerly Miller’s clerk, the proprietor not daring to show his face on the American side of the river on account of his well-known Union sentiments.

Mayor Dye is still in the exercise of his functions as mayor of the city.

Several rebel families that remained in Matamoras during the occupation of the city by our troops have returned, and others who have applied to the rebel commander for permission to come back have been refused, the reply having been returned, it is said, that there were as many in the city already as could be ferried across the river at one trip of the boat, and it would not be safe to allow more to come over, for if the Yankees should come upon them, all that could not get across the river in the first boat would be gobbled up.


Profits of Blockade Running.

An English paper gives some curious information respecting the profits of blockade running. A single trip, it shows by a copy of a bona fide account, cost $80,265. Of this amount, $5000 went to the captain for one month’s service, $3000 for pilotage out and in, and other sums equally large to officers, engineers and others, all of whom, in view of the risks incurred, were paid the most liberal wages, even the coal heavers receiving $200 a month. Against this heavy expenditure, the following is given on the credit side of earnings:

800 bales cotton for Government: $44,000
800 bales cotton for owners: 40,000
Return freights for Government: 46,000
Return freights for owners: 40,000
Passengers: 12,000

Thus, in case of a successful trip, the operators make a monthly profit of $91,735. It is to be remembered, however, that very often the vessels engaged in this business are captured at their first venture, entailing a heavy loss. Several foreign houses have been almost if not entirely ruined by their mishaps in this business.


French and English Alliance.A Boston paper says: The Paris Opinion Nationale has the following news, which we do not find in any other quarter abroad:

An intimate alliance between England and France is regarded at London as more and more probable. Here is what is written on this subject to the general agency of correspondence:

“The programme which the Palmerston ministry seems to have decided to follow, since its victory, cannot fail to be important; at home, measures of reform; abroad, a revival of the Anglo-French alliance, in terms of the greatest cordiality, with the formal intention of endeavoring, in conjunction with France, to put an end to the dreadful carnage of which America is the scene and the victim. If Lord Russell does not frankly adopt this programme, he will give place to Earl Clarendon.

It is not without reason, and very special reason, too, that we italicize the lines underscored above.

Smugglers, Ahoy!

Washington, Aug. 12.–Commissioner of Customs Sargent will leave Washington next week for the frontier to carry into effect the law and regulations to prevent smuggling. These, he says in his circular, have been made necessary by the extent to which the revenue laws have been evaded, and the very lax manner in which they have, by some of the officers of customs, been enforced.

The examination of travelers’ baggage will under any circumstances be a very unpleasant and annoying duty. The American people are not accustomed to being stopped and having their trunks or travelling sacks opened and examined, and many exhibit some impatience under the operation, but it is expected that no officer who may have this duty to perform will suffer himself to exhibit the least irritation, but at all times maintain entire self-possession, and a placid demeanor, in examining trunks, sacks, &c. They will be careful not to disturb their contents more than is necessary to ascertain whether they contain any goods liable to duty. The examination must, however, be sufficiently thorough to ascertain whether they contain such goods–including laces and jewelry.

Baggage passing from the United States through Canada into the United States, should be put in some place where it can be sealed up and go through without being disturbed. Where this is done, baggage need not be inspected when delivered. The regulations, among other things, require that in closing and sealing trunks, boxes, barrels, bales, or other envelopes or packages of any kind, the proper officers, in order to guard against false bottoms, moveable hinges, and other fraudulent contrivances, will take care that the same are so secured by cords or wires and additional seals that they cannot be opened nor any part of their contents taken from them without breaking, removing or cutting such cords, wires or seals.

Seals are to be used for sailing vessels, steamers, boats, cars and other vehicles engaged in trade between the United States and other countries. Trunks, travelling bags, boxes and everything containing articles of wearing apparel or other personal effects, or purporting to do so, must be opened and their contents thoroughly inspected by the proper officers of the customs, who shall remove the seals from the car containing such baggage, and no trunk, travelling bag, valise, or other envelope is to be delivered or taken away until thus inspected, and all baggage among which may be found secreted any articles liable to duty, upon which duties have not been paid, must be seized and retained.

AUGUST 22, 1864

The Raid on Macon.

The following article will give the reader a good idea of the late raid on Macon, which resulted in the capture of Gen. Stoneman and a large number of his army:

From a reliable source, says the Macon Telegraph, we gather some facts concerning the late raid on the Central railroad. The raiding party consisted of 13 regiments of Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois cavalry, and numbered between six and seven thousand men. They were divided into two brigades, the whole under the command of Major General Stoneman, a Yankee who figured somewhat conspicuously in Virginia for his repeated failures on expeditions of a similar nature to the one he now commands. The forces left Sherman’s army on the 26th of last month, and marched rapidly through the counties of Newton, Jasper and Jones. In their march they destroyed no property, although they robbed the people of their horses and jewelry, and supplied themselves with everything necessary for the expedition.

On arriving about ten miles from Gordon, they halted and detached 100 men belonging to an Illinois regiment, and placing them under the command of one Major Davidson, ordered them to destroy all the stations and water tanks from Gordon to the Oconee river, and on their arrival there to burn the bridge.  On arriving in sight of Gordon, they discovered that a train full of militia was on the way to Milledgeville, followed by a passenger train, and deeming it imprudent to attempt their capture, the raiders concealed themselves on the left of the railroad and allowed both trains to pass unmolested.  As soon as they were out of sight, they dashed into the town and proceeded in their work of destruction.  The warehouse at Gordon was filled with bacon, meal and flour, as also a large amount of furniture, belonging to refugees from Charleston, Savannah, and other points.  It was, however, promptly set on fire, by order of Major Davidson, and the whole consumed.

There was at Gordon from 115 to 200 cars and engines.  These were set on fire by the vandals, as well as the car shed and several buildings, belonging to and contiguous with the railroad.  One train of cars contained a large and valuable lot of machinery, the property of the Western and Atlantic railroad; and another train was laden with a considerable amount of furniture and other household goods belonging to refugees.  The raiders of them left, supposing their work to be complete and a squad of proceeded in the direction of Griswoldville, tearing up the track occasionally as they went, while the main body went on to Oconee River.  They took along with them as a guide Mr. Walker, the postmaster at Gordon, after robbing him of $11,000 in Confederate money and his gold watch.  His going with them was a compulsory act, the raiders having threatened him with death if he refused to accompany them and died in the body to Griswoldville.  He was afterwards released and returned to Gordon.

As soon as the raiders had left of the town, the citizens had turned out en masse–both women and men–and set energetically to work to put out the fire.  They succeeded admirably.  Of the large number of cars at that point only forty were destroyed, while but three engines have been seriously injured; four have been slightly damaged and the remainder untouched.  The car should was saved as well as the building set on fire, and the valuable machinery belonging to the Western and Atlantic railroad was saved to the State.  Too much praise cannot be bestowed upon the citizens of Gordon, for the prompt and patriotic manner in which they exerted to themselves to put out the fire, and the success which resulted from their united efforts deserves and secures commendation.  We regret they were not armed, as our informant says that if they had been, the Yankee raiders could never have succeeded in doing even the small damage they did.

On leaving Gordon, the squad that marched in the direction of Griswoldville, on arriving in front of that place discovered our skirmishers and promptly attacked them, but finding we had a strong force posted at that point, they withdrew and marched round the road, striking it about one and a half miles the other side.  When the firing commenced a train of twenty-seven cars was very imprudently backed out of Griswoldville and was standing on the track when the squad of men struck the road.  The train was of course captured.  The engine was unhitched and the cars set on fire.  The men then pushed [it] off in the direction of Griswoldville, and the track being what is termed a "down grade," it entered the town and was entirely consumed, but fortunately, the fire did not ignite the other cars at the station.  If we forgot to mention that the Yankees permitted the Negroes and railroad employees on the cars to remove all their private property before they set them on fire.

As soon as the cars were disposed of the raiders took out nearly all the water from the boiler of the engine and, filling the surface with pinewood, soon got up a small supply of steam.  They then compelled a boy to get upon the throttle valve and set it going.  The boy did so, jumping off immediately after, and the engine started at full speed for Griswoldville.  It entered there under a full headway of steam and struck the rear car of a passenger train, splitting it into, and throwing the two portions on both sides of the track.  Continuing, the engine threw off two more cars from the track.  These two last were filled with women and children, but none were injured.  By this time all the steam was exhausted, and the engine ceased moving.  The only damage it is reported to have received, is the burning out of the flues.  Their work having been completed, the squad of started to regain their companies.

From [the] Macon Confederacy, July 31st:

The Raid on Macon.–We make up the following account of the raid from the statements of an officer who participated in the defense of this city:

Never perhaps was a people more surprised than were the citizens of this place on Friday evening, to hear rumors of a Yankee raid with eight miles of the place. ->

The story seemed to sell improbable that but few believed it, and it was not until Saturday morning that the conviction was forced upon the minds of the people by the march of armed men through the streets, and the sound of cannon across the river.

How they manage to advance such a distance into the country, without the knowledge of the movement coming to the ears of the people is a mystery which the future must dissolve.

The raiders were commanded by General Stoneman, who has for a long time then, perhaps, the most notorious raider in the Yankee army.  He advanced on this city by way of Monticello and Clinton.

We doubt not this is the same raiding party which were operating against the Georgia Road a week ago.  We were informed some days since that the rumor was current that they had left the line of the Georgia Road and were moving in the direction of the Macon & Western Road.

The object of the raid was, in all probability, two release the Yankee officers who were prisoners of Camp Oglethorpe, near this city.  Had they even taken the city, they would not have succeeded in releasing their caged birds, for they were sent off to Charleston some time since.

The fighting was pretty hot yesterday, principally on our right, commanded by Col. G. W. Lee, A. D. C., commanding Camp Rescue, near this city. The left was commanded by Col. Cumming, of the reserve forces, but were only slightly engaged.

The right wing, under Col. Lee, was composed of five regiments, mostly militia, who, with very few exceptions, behaved well.

The Yankee loss is said to have been 18 killed and 28 wounded.  Ours in some 40 killed and wounded.  Among the latter, we regret to say, was Capt. W. H. Paxton, Provost Marshal in the Georgia Militia, who was severely wounded in the leg.  We have not been able to get the names of the other killed and wounded, with the exception of Mr. Hogan of this city, who was killed.

The raiders have been driven back, and at the present writing (6 a.m.) all is quietude.  The little alarm that was felt on Friday evening and Saturday morning has given place two confidence in our ability to hold the place.

They told a citizen, whom our informant met, that they intended taking Griswoldville on their return

The supposition is that they will go back the way they came.

We have as yet no means of learning what damage was done on the other side of the river.  There were large smokes seen in that direction in the afternoon yesterday.  We have been informed that the bridge on the Central Road over Walnut creek has been burned, and also the cross-ties on that road, as far as could be seen.

The shell passed through the house of Mr. Holt, in East Macon.  Some few others fell in that part of the city without doing any damage.

The number of pieces of their artillery there was two, instead of 21, as the types made us say in our yesterday evening's edition.

If the enemy did not touch Griswoldville in their advance on the city, the loss there will not be so material, even if they should strike it on their return; for there was a large amount of rolling stock and machinery at that point, and about 15 engines, the whole of which could have been removed on one hour's notice.  We continue to hope then that all was safe.

The excitement in the city was as little as could be expected.  A few of the ladies became demoralized, and showed a lively to zeal in getting their children home.  But the men, and to their credit be it said, rushed to arms almost unanimously; those who had guns took them with them and those who had not either borrowed or went without.

We hope to get further particulars, also a full list of killed and wounded for to-morrow's issue.

From the Macon Telegraph, Aug. 1st:

Fight at Newnan.–A party who conversed with one of the conductors of the trains bearing Roddy's men to Atlanta on the West Point & Atlanta Railroad, gives this the account of the affair: The two trains arrived at Newnan about midnight on Friday, and stopped there a little while for rest and refreshment.  At two o'clock, Saturday morning, the raiders entered the town, and seeing the trains, set up a shout. Roddy, roused by the clamor, drew up his men in line of battle and gave the enemy a warm and unexpected welcome.  They, however, got into line and opened upon him with musketry and two pieces of artillery, and a sharp fight ensued, during which a body of Wheeler's cavalry hove in sight, and the enemy began to scatter.  Seven or eight hundred of them were captured and the remainder of the command was disorganized.  Four or five hundred Confederates and Negroes, whom the Yankees had captured from a Confederate wagon train they had destroyed, or picked up as stragglers, were also recaptured.  The whole command, some fifteen hundred or two thousand, was dispersed.  The dispatch in reference to this affair says that Col. Brownlow was killed.  We understand, however, that he was shot through the neck and that the wound and is not likely to prove fatal.  He is reported to be in Macon.  Brownlow is the second a son of the ferocious parson of that name, and is represented to be a young man of talents.

AUGUST 23, 1864

Unproductiveness of Slavery.

Slavery is hardly less unprofitable in an economical point of view, than it is morally indefensible and unjust. The bondman labors languidly and inefficiently because utterly deprived of the stimulus of hope. For himself and his posterity he sees only continued oppression and degradation. His present wretchedness is in most instances only limited by the pecuniary interests of the master. So long as the African slave trade was permitted, and able-bodied Negroes could be imported at small cost, it is notorious that they were rapidly worked to death in the various servile colonies planted on the islands and continent of the New World. When the traffic was stopped, owners directed their attention to the rearing of the young, and to economizing the strength of those who were old enough to labor in the field. From lack of foreign supply, self-interest dictated a mitigation of the horrors of the institution, and the voice of interest was heeded where that of humanity had been disgraced.

The mildest type of modern slavery is to be found in the condition of the serf, who belongs to the land and derives support from his allotment, working a certain proportion of the time for the lord of the soil. Yet observers are unanimous with regard to the extreme inefficiency of serf labor. German writers who have closely investigated the facts state that two Middlesex farmers will mow as much grass in a day as six Russian serfs, and notwithstanding the high price of provisions in England when compared with their cheapness in Russia, it costs the Russian proprietor six or eight times as much to secure a given quantity of hay as it does the English husbandman. In Prussia and Austria it is asserted on the highest authority that serf labor is only one-third as productive as free hired labor. The choicest fruit of the Hungarian revolution was the abolition of the remnants of serf-bondage. In Russia, emancipation, though very recent, is already working salutary and marvelous changes.

In the Southern States slavery seemed profitable before the rebellion. As fertile lands were abundant, the country underpeopled, and the products of the soil in great demand, the master was able to derive a broad margin of gain from the toil of the Negro. But there was nothing approximating to animated industry among the blacks. They dragged through their tasks listlessly and inefficiently, working mechanically. Despair brutified their intellects. Intelligence was repressed as much as possible for fear of the dangers to which it might lead. The methods of husbandry were rude, and the physical strength of the Negro not more than one-third exerted.

Had the Southern slaves been peacefully emancipated after suitable preparation, in a short time the productiveness of that country would unquestionably have been trebled. The former owner could have paid remunerative wages to his liberated slaves, and still from the superior effectiveness of their industry, have been a gainer by the change. Similar results will follow from a forcible emancipation. So soon as the return of tranquility permits society to settle down into quiet routine, the blacks will find abundant employment, and will command such wages as will stimulate all their faculties of body and mind to constantly increasing activity. The labor hitherto performed without spirit and mechanically, will; hereafter be performed with a will. The effect in increasing the aggregate products of the country will go far toward compensating for the losses of the war.

Plots in Indiana.
seizure of arms and ammunition.

Indianapolis, Aug. 22.—Some days ago Gov. Morton received a letter from the east stating that a large quantity of arms were shipped to disloyal persons in Indiana. On the 17th, four boxes were received, addressed to J. J. Parsons, from H. H. Dodd & Co., printers. Last night 22 boxes to the same address were received and drayed to H. H. Dodd & Co.’s establishment.

A Military guard was immediately placed around Dodd’s building, and upon taking possession of the boxes they were found to contain a number of revolvers of the best description, and a quantity of fixed ammunition.

J. J. Parsons and Charles B. Hutchins, partners of Dodd, and Wm. H. Harrison, grand secretary of the order of the Sons of Liberty, have been arrested and placed under guard at the Soldiers’ Home. The two former were released on taking the oath. Harrison still remains in custody.

This evening a book was found containing a list of the members of the Sons of Liberty in a safe of Dodd & Co. The list includes the names of the  secretary of state, the auditor, state attorney general, and the editor of the Indianapolis Sentinel, also the names of 400 rebel prisoners who are third-degree members. H. H. Dodd is grand commander of the order.


Refugee Statements.

Baltimore, August 22nd.—The Point Lookout correspondent of the American send the following:

Large numbers of refugees from Richmond continue to arrive. They report a large force of infantry and cavalry under Lee in person, having gone up the Shenandoah valley to reinforce Early. They assert that this body numbers forty thousand, the purpose being to secure the plunder captured by Early in Maryland, which they fear will be taken by the advance of Sheridan, and also to attack Washington or invade the North.

German mechanics who have been employed over two years by the Confederate navy department in the construction of iron clads, say that there are two vessels at Wilmington, N. C., ready to run the blockade. They carry twenty-four pounders and are covered with 4-inch iron. Each carries four guns.

There are also two vessels at Kingston, N. C., one named Moose carries twenty-four pounders and is commanded by T. F. Lloyd. Also two vessels in Pedee river, North Georgetown, both of which will be ready for duty in a month, one perhaps sooner. One is called Pedee, Lt. Morgan, the other the Marion, to which no officer has been appointed. Both vessels are clad four inches thick, and each carries 24-pounders. One iron clad building at Plymouth, N. C., has an armor twelve inches in thickness and is to be ready for sea in two months. She is to carry 12-pounder guns and be named Albemarle. Also a new boat is getting ready in Richmond, a 4-inch iron clad.

AUGUST 24, 1864

Our Forces Falling Back to the Potomac.

Washington, Aug. 23.

Advices from the Upper Potomac bring news of an engagement between Gen. Sheridan and Gen. Early. The fighting commenced at Summit Point, two miles beyond Charlestown, at 9 o’clock Sunday morning, and continued at intervals throughout the day. The enemy made a heavy attack on our extreme advance, which was ultimately compelled to fall back, and simultaneously engaged our extreme right. The fighting on the left was very sharp, and the losses on both sides were heavy. On the right the enemy was driven for more than a mile, and the day closed with our lines unchanged, which position we continued to hold until 10 o’clock at night, when Gen. Sheridan fell back to Halltown, and at noon yesterday our right rested on the Potomac and our left on the Shenandoah, about three miles beyond Harper’s Ferry.

There was some skirmishing at the extreme front yesterday morning, and when it had entirely ceased it was found that the main body of the enemy was moving towards the Potomac by way of Martinsburg.

Our cavalry were skirmishing in the direction of Martinsburg yesterday. Scouts from Gen. Averill reported the enemy making a demonstration on the Potomac fords at Williamsport and Shepardstown, but up to noon they had not effected a crossing.

It is not known here that any general engagement has occurred to-day.


Louis Napoleon’s Ultimatum to Slidell.–The London correspondent of the New York Herald has received information, from an entirely reliable source, that the Emperor of the French ash informed Slidell, the rebel agent in Europe, that he never will recognize the rebel States, (even should they achieve their independence, de facto), unless they determine to abolish slavery and engage that all the children born of slave parents shall be free, and that “slavery shall be totally abolished and cease within ten years from the date of recognition.” The correspondent, after announcing this ultimatum of Napoleon’s, says:

“I am told that Mr. Slidell went away from the interview with the Emperor looking more dejected than he has through all the reverses of the rebels, and all the rebuffs he has received since coming on his ill-starred mission. The fact is, Louis Napoleon is a man of the world, as well as an adroit politician. He knows that one strong friend is worth a dozen weak ones. He has sent for ten thousand (one half) of the French troops now in Mexico, and next spring the rest come away, and he knows that the friendship of the United States is a reality, and that any attempt at an alliance with red-handed pirates and slaveholders will pull him down rather than give him additional strength.”


Treatment of Emigrants by Substitute Brokers: Trouble with Great Britain.–A Washington dispatch says Lord Lyons is in receipt of complaints from the British Consuls at New York, Boston, and other ports, to the effect that English emigrants, upon their arrival in this country, are met by substitute brokers, drugged surreptitiously, enlisted, and taken to army or naval rendezvous while in a state of stupor. Specific cases of these outrages are said to have been laid before Lord Lyons to await diplomatic action. It is alleged, moreover, that in New York, Mr. Archibald, having been informed of certain outrages of this character, and hearing that the victims were on board the North Carolina, made application to Admiral Paulding to be allowed the privilege of investigating the matter on that vessel, but was peremptorily refused. It is stated here that the English Government will take a very decided tone with regard to the treatment of newly arrived emigrants, and will insist that justice be done to British subjects. The drugging of emigrants and enlisting them while in that state is said to be reduced to a perfect science.

The Rebel Plans in Virginia.–The Baltimore correspondent of the N. Y. World, who claims to speak with accuracy in regard to the rebel plans for the fall campaign, says:

An invasion of Pennsylvania, and a second attack on Washington, form a part of the rebel programme for the fall campaign, and will certainly be undertaken.  But my information had led me to believe that it would be delayed until a decisive battle had been fought at Atlanta.  I have some news from Georgia, now, however, which indicates that Gen. Lee's contemplated operations on the line of the Potomac will not be delayed on that account, but may be commenced at any time.  There is this fact to be borne in mind, also, in relation to this movement.  It is no longer considered desirable at Richmond, that Gen. Grant's army, or rather those corps of that army which remain on the James river shall be withdrawn therefrom.  A feeling of absolute safety prevails at Richmond, so far as Gen. Grant's army is concerned.  They believed there that it has been demonstrated to an absolute certainty that Grant can effect nothing, either as regards Petersburg or Richmond.  They believe that those cities can be held and successfully defended by a comparatively small proportion of their army; and they are acting on that belief.  But they are quite willing that Grant's army shall remain on the James river for the present, because that disposition of troops will be so many the less that their army will have to oppose them, if they advance to the Potomac River.


Captured Negro Soldiers to be Treated as Prisoners of War by the Rebels.–The Richmond Whig announces an order from the Confederate War Department recognizing captured Negro soldiers as entitled to the rights of white prisoners of war, as follows:

Negro soldiers, outside of the Confederacy, employed to do the work of pillage and slaughter of the Yankee "ape" who sits in the usurped seat at Washington, are henceforth not to be considered fit subjects for the bullet, bayonet and knife after surrender, but are to be treated as prisoners of war.  Yesterday and order from the Provost Marshal's office, sanctioned by the Secretary of War, was received at Castle Thunder.  The purport was that the Negro prisoners taken in Yankee uniform, whether freed or bond, if they hailed from Maryland or Delaware, where not to be claimed as property in case they were slaves; but they were to be treated as Negroes usually are in case they declared in their freedom.  A citizen of Maryland or Delaware cannot claim his stolen or impressed property--stolen or impressed by "Abe, the Emperor," from the fact that Maryland and Delaware are within the limits of the "kingdom of the ape," and not within the limits of the Confederate States.  This decision is taken as irrevocable, and as it emanates from the Provost Marshal's office, with the sanction of the War Department, we take it as final.  Every Negro who comes here as a prisoner of war proclaims himself as a free man.  Consequently the order alluded to will save a great deal of litigation.  But, be it remembered that the slaves of Maryland and Delaware in the army of Grant are freedmen. That's enough to make them freedmen forever.



The Bombardment of Atlanta.–Advices per mail have been received to the 11th instant. A correspondent of the Tribune describes the proceedings on the 10th as follows:

“Gen. Sherman issued orders to-day for all the batteries of the various corps that had range upon Atlanta, to open upon the city with solid shot and shell, expending fifty rounds to each gun during the day. While this artillery demonstration was making, Gen. Schofield was ordered to fully develop the strength and position of the enemy on the right. Lively skirmishing was also to be kept up along our lines to attract the enemy’s attention. At 10 o’clock the roar of artillery was terrific, beginning miles away to our left, from the 4th Corps (Gen. Stanley), the echoes of which reverberated like rapid peal of distant thunder, and ere the dull, heavy sound had died away among the hills, the batteries in the centre belched forth hissing shots and clouds of smoke. Oftentimes our pieces were fired by battery, that is, by discharging all the guns at one signal or order. It was appalling to hear these fearful iron messengers as they literally tore through the air. Not less than thirty heavy guns have maintained a constant bombardment upon the doomed city, whose shattered walls and chimneys attest the accuracy of our artillery firing.

“Up to the present hour of writing–midnight–no report has been received from Gen. Schofield concerning his progress to-day. This fact is looked upon as good evidence that every thing thus far has progress favorably.”


Popularity of Maximilian in Mexico.–A correspondent of the New York Commercial writes from the City of Mexico, as follows:

“It is not to be denied that Maximilian has been received here with wild enthusiasm, and this by the native permanent population, and not at all under the leadership of the French. I have seen a good many ‘welcomes’ in my time, and know well how easy it is to get up a mere whirlwind of excitement that means nothing more than an  effervescent sense of relief from one trouble before another comes.

“But there is more than this in the feeling which Maximilian has excited. It shows itself in all classes, the highest as well as the lowest; and the demeanor of the Emperor and his Empress daily feeds it. The Empress is the most charming woman in the world, clever, brilliant, unassuming, with all the graces of a princess, and all the virtues of a Christian woman. To see such a vision in the ‘Palace of the Nation’ is like a dream.

“Much, very much of the emotion here displayed in speeches, in the bearing of the public, in the talk of private circles, is the honest, legitimate expression of this feeling: Here we have a prince of the house of Hapsburg, the descendant of sixty-three sovereigns; a man born to command and bred to honor; a gentleman, a soldier, a prince of Christendom, lodged where so many cut throats and villains have so often been installed as ‘Presidents.’

“The sense of permanence in power for the first time creeps over the public sense, long worn and made weary by the ceaseless alterations of faction with faction and party with party.

“An honest, hard-working monarch, Maximilian is. He rises at 5 a.m., and makes all his suite do as much; attends to everything personally; gives audience, reads and makes reports; walks about entirely alone, and inspects things generally.”


John Taylor Wood, the commander of the rebel pirate Tallahassee, is a grandson of President Taylor, and was formerly a Lieutenant in the U. S. Navy, from which he was dismissed in April, 1861. At the breaking out of the rebellion he was on duty at the Naval Academy at Annapolis as an assistant professor of gunnery. Immediately outside of Annapolis he owned a small farm, which he left very suddenly and mysteriously, and with his wife and children escaped to Dixie by crossing the Potomac, since which time has figured very largely as a pirate upon the water of the Chesapeake.

Mass Peace Meeting.–The mass peace meeting at Syracuse, N. Y., was attended by about 3000 persons. Vallandigham, Fernando Wood, and ex-Gov. Weller, of California, were the principal speakers. The former said he expected the Chicago candidate for the Presidency would be committed to a suspension of hostilities and a Convention of all the States.


Mr. J. R. Gilmore, (Edmund Kirk of the Atlantic Monthly,) has given in an article in that magazine the result and details of his recent peace raid upon Richmond, in company with Col. Jaquess.  Those who think the time has come for a peaceful solution of our national difficulties, may learn therefrom on what terms such a settlement cane be secured. Here is Jeff Davis’s ultimatum:

“The War must go on till the last man of this generation falls in his tracks, and his children seize his musket and fight his battles, unless you acknowledge our right to self government. We are not fighting for slavery. We are fighting for independence–and that or extermination we will have.

“Say to Mr. Lincoln from me that I shall at any time be pleased to receive proposals for peace on the basis of our independence. It will be useless to approach me with any other.”

The uniform testimony of the rebel leaders and the rebel organs of opinion is that, so far as they are concerned, peace is only attainable by an acknowledgement of their independence. So said Commissioner Ould to Mr. Gilmore and Colonel Jaquess. So repeated Secretary Benjamin, and so emphatically reiterated Jeff Davis. Here is the expressed opinion of the Richmond Enquirer. If this is not sufficiently emphatic to convince any Northern man who hopes for peace by compromise, then he would not be convinced by one risen from the dead:

“Save on our own terms, we can accept no peace whatever, and we must fight till doomsday rather than yield an iota of them. Our terms are:

“Recognition by the enemy of the independence of the Confederate States.

“Withdrawal of the Yankee forces from every foot of Confederate ground, including Kentucky and Missouri.

“Withdrawal of the Yankee soldiers from Maryland until that State shall decide by a free vote whether she shall remain in the old Union of ask admission into the Confederacy.

“Consent on the part of the Federal government to give up to the Confederacy its proportion of the navy as it stood at the time of secession, or to pay for the same.

“Yielding up all pretension on the part of the Federal Government to that portion of the old Territories which lies west of the Confederate States.

“An equitable settlement on the basis of our absolute independence and equal rights of all accounts of the public debts and public lands, and the advantages accruing from foreign treaties.”

The sooner our people fully realize that this is a life and death struggle, the quicker will this rebellion be ended. But woe to the country if we heed the siren call of an armistice and peace.

AUGUST 26, 1864

The Emancipated Negroes in Surinam.

Our readers will remember that last year, by a decree of the Government of Holland, slavery was forever abolished in the Dutch colony of Surinam, in South America.  There were many Pro-slavery papers in the United States which at that time took the utmost pains to represent this emancipation movement as detrimental both to the interests of the colony into the moral condition of the Negro.  Correspondents of some of them asserted that the day of emancipation had been generally spent by the Negroes in drunkenness, and they confidently predicted that a general demoralization of that class would be the next consequence.  Whether any of these letters really proceeded from any competent authority is very doubtful, as the accounts which had been rendered to the Government of Holland by the officers of the colony are highly favorable to the Negroes.  The reports furnished by the Moravian missionaries of Surinam agree with the Government reports, and the testimony of these people is the more valuable as they have known the Negroes while slaves better than any other class of men, and have converted most of them to Christianity.  One of these missionaries, the Rev. T. Van Calker, the superintendent of the mission-work in Surinam, makes the following highly interesting statements on the present condition of the Negroes

"The emancipation of the Negro slaves," he writes, " has now been carried out according to the law of August 8, 1862, and all has gone off better than we had expected. The first of October, too, the time appointed for concluding all contracts between the masters and Negroes, has passed without bringing any trouble.  Up to the end of September there were many estates, particularly on the Commewyne, where no contracts had been made, but previous to the fixed period all was in order there, as had been the case for some time on the Surinam.  As soon as the authorities set about acting up to the published decree, on the expiration of the fixed time, viz: removing the Negroes to the crown plantations in cases where no contracts had been made, there was such a haste manifested to comply with the demands of Government that the Commissioners of the district could hardly get through the work.  Now, in the midst of October, there are few Negroes who have to be employed by the authorities, though there may possibly still be some wondering about without any employment.

"The Negroes have not all remained on the same plantations where they had lived as slaves.  Many have returned to plantations where they had been located before, or have taken service elsewhere.  Many, too, have left the sugar plantations, preferring the lighter work in coffee or cotton grounds, so that the production of sugar appears to have decreased.  But, in general, no noticeable change has taken place in the colony with regard to its marketable productions.  The Negroes have remained at their old work, and the cultivation of the plantations continues as before.

"Of course, this state of things has not been so attained to without some difficulties, but they were less formidable than had been anticipated.  If the law of Aug. 8, 1862 had allowed but one month instead of three for concluding all contracts, and to the planters had taken advantage immediately of the good spirit shown by the Negroes–and if the law of April 16, 1863, relating to the duties and privileges of those emancipated in Negroes who were to be placed under direct Government control, had been published in the Negro-English language, all would have gone off smoothly.  The Negroes appear satisfied with the contracts. All are concluded for the space of one year only, so that the question arises in our minds as to how matters will stand next year.  ->

All must depend on this year's experience on the part of employer and employed; but we have reason to believe that all will go well.  Our hopes have not been put to shame thus far.  We will therefore leave the future, with trust will hearts, in His hands who has wrought wonders in Surinam."

We have not yet met a single trustworthy statement which would in the least impair the weight of this testimony.--N. Y. Tribune.


Copperheads are a sentimental race, for they say they are "loyal to the Union as it was." That is, they are faithful to a memory. "The Union as it was" is dead and buried, and could no more be restored to the existence and then Stonewall Jackson.  It's ghost haunts some people, but it can never live again in the flesh.  If there be anything material about it, it is only as a skeleton is material.  An Englishman who should say that he is loyal to the Stuarts would be as reasonable as the American who proclaims his loyalty to "the Union as it was." A Union will exist showed our armies smash those of the rebels, but neither our success nor the unconditional surrender of the rebels or restore the Union that was destroyed by the Confederates in 1861.  Such restoration will take place on the same day that we shall see Dido in Carthage and Zenobia in Palmyra.–Traveller.


Another Falsehood Exploded.–The holy horror expressed by the sending North of four hundred women and girls who were making clothing for the rebel army in a factory in Georgia has been misplaced.  It now seems that the exodus was voluntary, and arranged by Gen. Sherman at the request of the emigrants themselves.  They were anxious to go where they could escape starvation and earned a livelihood.


The pirate Tallahassee, after destroying a score or two of vessels along the coast of Maine, put in to Halifax to procure a supply of coal.  After she had received three or four hundred tons on board, sufficient for a week or two, Admiral Hope sent several boats crews to her, and ordered the coaling to be stopped.  She sailed at two o'clock on Saturday morning, bound east. The U. S. gunboat Pontoosuc arrived at six o'clock, having been detained by the fog, and was to sail immediately in pursuit.  Another steamer was signalled west.


The Copperheads know full well that a reinforcement of 100,000 men to Sherman would of itself smash and the rebellion.  It would enable him to capture a plan to, crush or capture Hood's army, and sweep over Georgia, South Carolina and Alabama at pleasure, in which States alone he could recruit 200,000 colored soldiers.  Savannah, Charleston, Mobile and Wilmington were all fall into his hands, and the rebellion in the cotton States would collapse.  The Copperheads understand all this full well, and it is for the purpose of preventing Sherman from being reinforced that they are raising such a dismal howl against the war, and threatening to resist the draft.  Let no man be deceived.  The rebels have given the "Order of American Knights" the signal of distress, and called on them to prevent Sherman and Grant from being reinforced.

AUGUST 27, 1864


The Situation.–Gen. Grant has been eminently successful in deceiving the rebel commander, and during the last week gained several important points in the game of fighting out the war “on this line.” By throwing his forces to the right, and demonstrating boldly in that direction, he so misled Lee as to his real purposes, that he not only took advantage of the depletion of Lee’s army by the reinforcements sent to Hood and Early, but was enabled to throw Warren’s corps to the South of Petersburg and retake possession of the railroad to Weldon. Warren was immediately attacked by Hill’s corps, but it seems that he held the railroad and utterly destroyed it for several miles.

Nothing is more important as a preliminary to the capture of Richmond than to hold the line of communication between the rebel capital and the South. There are two of these lines–one to Weldon and the other to Danville. Several raids have been made in order to cut these roads, and attempts have been made to hold them. Lee has heretofore been able to thwart these schemes, but the masterly strategy of Grant has finally encompassed him, and placed the Weldon line in the Federal grasp. Lee has by this time learned the impolicy of weakening his army; while the fact that he has been obliged to reinforce other armies by detachments from his own command shows that the rebel power is weaker and less imposing now than heretofore. Should Lee throw a large portion of his force upon Warren to drive him back, he must enfeeble his line at other points, and so open the way to a successful attack by Hancock, whose movements on Grant’s right have been important and encouraging.

Late advices from before Atlanta, via Nashville, state that the rebels have eighty-five thousand troops at Atlanta, including forty thousand Georgia militia. Their works are fifteen feet high, with deep ditches, abattis and wire traps. Sherman has felt their lines to an extent of twelve miles, with the purpose in view of turning their position, but thus far has been unable to effect his object, their lines proving equally strong at all points.


Fighting Women.–Colonel Capron of Ohio, who reached Marietta, Ga., after his unsuccessful raid, in which he lost almost his entire brigade, says he had great difficulty in escaping to the Union lines. In those counties where the men had all left or had been conscripted into the Southern army, “the women were out in large numbers acting as scouts, aiding in the work of capturing our wounded and exhausted men.”


We stated two weeks since that much anxiety was felt by our citizens in regard to the sinking of the monitor Tecumseh, as in the list of officers we noticed the name of Acting Ensign Gardner Cottrell, of this city.

After more than a week of anxiety, his parents and friends were pleased to learn of his safety, and his letters give as minute an account of the disaster as it is possible. It appears that the Tecumseh steamed slowly in with the fleet towards Fort Morgan, intending to put all steam on while passing the Fort. ->

Captain Craven and the Pilot were in the pilot-house, Lieutenant Kelley, Acting Master Langley, with sixteen men and an Engineer, were in the Turret; Surgeon Danker and Paymaster Work were in the Ward Room; Chief Engineer Faron, Assistant Engineer Kettich and Ensign Cottrell, with ten men, were in the Turret-Chamber; Engineer Titcomb, with twenty men, were on the Berth-Deck, and four Engineers, with firemen and coal-heavers, were in the Engine Room. As the vessel steamed along everything was quiet; Chief Engineer Faron, who had arrived on board but twenty minutes before the disaster, was very weak, and had just left the hospital. He was reading a letter from his wife, and Kettich was standing against the bulk-head waiting for orders. In the Turret-chamber the drop of a pin could be heard, and all were waiting patiently for orders, when, of a sudden, without the slightest shock, water came rushing in. This was reported to the Lieutenant, but all were ordered to hold their stations. When the water had got knee deep in the Turret-chamber, orders were issued for the men to leave their quarters, and from that moment on every one was for himself. Those who ascended into the Turret were drawn up by the Engineer stationed there, and as the men got out on deck they rushed to the three boats moored alongside, but it is likely that the suction of the sinking vessel carried two of them down, as but fifteen men were saved of the whole crew. Mr. Cottrell finding the vessel sinking fast, pulled off his boots and made preparations to swim. As one edge of the Turret went under water he jumped, but not quite far enough, as the “washboard” struck him on his side. The sinking of the vessel created a suction which carried him down to the bottom, when he was released and came to the surface. Shot and shell were now dropping all around him and nothing which could save his life was in sight. A few strokes brought him near Acting Master Langley, but he was so exhausted that he could not speak. A small piece of wood floated near him at this time and he grasped it, but it was not sufficient to bear his weight, and he swallowed a large quantity of salt water and soon sank to the bottom. On coming to the surface a second time, the boat  passed along, and by raising his hands above the water his companion saw him, and, when two feet under water and going down for his third time, he felt an oar, and seizing it with a grasp which a man can only give when in his death struggle, he was hauled into the boat. On arriving on board the Buckthorn he was in an unconscious state, but by a free use of hot water he was soon relieved of the salt water. He was sent to Pensacola and transferred to the Potomac, on board of which he found Master’s Mate Canfield, who treated him with great kindness.

Mr. Cottrell is now on board the captured gunboat Selma, but will probably be allowed a furlough after the contest is over at Mobile.


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