OCTOBER 16, 1864

The Invasion of Missouri.
Demonstration on Memphis.

The Memphis Bulletin, of Monday, has the following:

It became known yesterday morning that a rebel force was in motion in the country beyond this city. Some excitement was manifested, but such is the confidence of the people in the loyalty of the citizens, and in the stern determination that exists among them to meet vigorously any attempt on the part of the enemy, supporting to the utmost of their power the operations of our courageous soldiers, under the orders of the active and vigilant officer now in command here, that nothing like an alarm was manifested.

On Saturday, a large rebel force, stated to be under the command of Chalmers, crossed the Coldwater and made demonstrations towards Memphis. Learning, no doubt, that the whole Union forces were on the alert, and that a warm reception awaited any assailant, they advanced no further.

Up to dark last evening, the tidings given by arrivals from White’s Station, on the Charleston Railroad, stated that nothing had been heard during the day of any rebel force being between that place and Nonconnah. Every preparation has been made to repel an irruption of the rebels into our neighborhood. Their movements are watched and known, and any attempt they might be hardy enough to make would be readily repulsed.

A man who claims to be a deserter from a rebel gunboat at Mobile, came into our picket lines yesterday. He stated that on the whole route he saw no rebel soldiers except a few at La Grange.

A person who is supposed to be well informed of the purposes of the rebel leaders, states that no raid on Memphis is contemplated, but that the rebel forces in this vicinity intend to join Forrest and with him force their way through and join Longstreet.

Guerrillas in Kentucky.

The Cincinnati Commercial says:

The notorious Col. Jessee and his band of guerrillas and bushwhackers are still roaming at pleasure through the counties of Owen, Gallatin, Carroll, Trimble, and Henry. A well-informed gentleman from Gallatin estimates Jessee’s force at from 800 to 1000 men, who are scattered in small squads throughout the above named counties. As a general thing, they are well clothed and armed, and mounted on very fine horses, which they have stolen from the farmers in that region.

Our informant states that since the draft has been commenced in this part of Kentucky, Jessee has been receiving from thirty to fifty recruits per day. A squad of his men rode into Ghent, Carroll county, on Wednesday, and took several horses and helped themselves to whatever they wanted. John Marshall, a son of Humphrey Marshall, is one of Jessee’s officers. He was met, a few days ago, by a citizen of Carroll county, a short distance back of Ghent, mounted on a splendid horse, and rigged out in a full suit of Confederate gray.


Young ladies should be careful how they use technical phraseology, when not quite clear of its meaning. The Jackson Mississippian says:

A correspondent at Auburn, Ala., sends us an “unintentional good thing,” which was perpetrated the other day by a young lady of that place. She had been told that there was news from Forrest, and seeking for more information, she asked: “Has he whipped Sherman’s rear?”

Destroying the Crops in the Valley.–On Thursday, September 29, Gens. Custer and Merritt’s divisions were sent up the Valley to destroy according to the following order:

Headquarters, etc.

Do all the damage you can to the railroad and crops. Carry off stock of all descriptions and Negroes, so as to prevent further planting. If the war is to last another yet, let the Shenandoah Valley remain a barren waste.

U. S. Grant.

It is further given out that Gen. Grant has ordered the above to be so completely carried out that a crow, flying over the Valley, will have to carry its own rations.

All day of the 29th both Custer and Merritt were engaged in destroying the crops, mills, and all property of use to the rebel army. The scene presented on this occasion was indeed a very saddening but still a very necessary one. In the course of the day we destroyed enough wheat to subsists the whole rebel army for a year to come, besides collecting fifteen hundred head of cattle and about three thousand sheep.

On Friday, the 30th, the destruction and collection operations were continued.


Rumors of the most exciting kind were in circulation in Washington on the 4th last. One was that Gen. Butler had been killed, and that an awful disaster to the Federal forces had happened. The excitement reached New York and Philadelphia, at which latter place, noted for being the prolific fountain of sensational rumors, a dispatch was received on the 4th to the effect that Admiral Farragut had arrived at Fortress Monroe, and had gone up the James River. But it was soon discovered that it was Capt. Lardner, and not Admiral Farragut, who had arrived at Fortress Monroe, while no disaster had happened to the army. But the third and fourth editions of the evening paper went off like hot cakes.


The Increase of the Public Debt.

Washington, Oct. 4.–An elaborate series of investigations into the increase of public debt during the war has just been completed by Dr. Elder of the Treasury Department. The  results show that the mean increase of the public debt during the thirty-nine months since July, 1863, is as near as may be a million and a half of dollars per diem during the first two months of this period. The mean increase was one million three hundred thousand dollars. Subsequent to that it stands a mean of one million nine hundred thousand dollars, exceptional days showed a maximum of three millions, and a minimum of one million dollars, but the mean for the time has been as above stated, one million five hundred thousand dollars per day.–Cor. N. Y. Times.


OCTOBER 17, 1864

From Wilmington.

The Wilmington Journal has the following account of an attack upon the blockade runner Nigh Hawk, and the destruction of a Yankee gunboat:

Loss of the Night Hawk.–It is proper to state, even at this late date, that the fine steamer Night Hawk, Captain Smiley, from Bermuda, attempting to enter new Inlet Bar, about a week ago, grounded on the North breaker, about  3 miles from shore, and was instantly boarded by a launch from the gunboat Monticello, who proceeded to fill the ship’s boats with her officers and crew.

The sentinels on Fort Fisher hearing the distant report of musketry, gave the alarm, and the Commander of the fort suspecting that the steamer aground had been attacked, immediately lighted her up by means of rockets, and shelled right and left of her. At the first rocket the enemy took fright and skedaddled, leaving more than half the officers and crew to take care of themselves. These reached the fort in safety. The Yankees did not leave, however, until they had set the steamer on fire fore and aft, and as the wind was strong the flames spread rapidly.

The garrison of Fort Fisher had never seen a ship destroyed under their guns, and were determined, as it appears, to rescue this one, and we are informed, in spite of fire fore and aft, the gallant soldiers boarded the steamer amidships, and with all available buckets, commenced to fight the flames. It was not very long before the fire was got under, and with the assistance of boats and crews from other steamers, before noon the next day the fire was entirely subdued.

The steamer was in the breakers, and only half the work of saving her done. The soldiers went to work, unloaded her, and with the aid of Negroes at the pumps, enabled the engineers  to get up steam and bring the steamer safely to Wilmington by her own power. Captain Smiley was captured, but his place was filled by Captain May, first officer of the Falcon, who remained her to get the Night Hawk off. We have given the above facts relative to the Night Hawk, because we think the noble conduct of our troops at Fort Fisher deserve to have some credit for their heroic efforts in saving a valuable steamer.

Destruction of a Blockader–
Repulse of an Attack on the Steamer Condor.

It is generally known that the large, three-funnelled steamer Condor, from Halifax, N. S., in entering New Inlet Bar a week ago, was deceived by the wreck of the Night Hawk, and ran aground. It appears that it was in attempting to come ashore from her in a boat that Mrs. Rose Greenhow was drowned. The Condor has been slowly unloading under the guns of Fort Fisher, and a guard, as usual, has been kept on her at night. On last Friday night the Yankees made an attempt to board the Condor, to destroy her, but were gallantly repulsed by Lieut. Sowles, of Company A, 39th N. C. troops, and a detachment of men.

As soon as the attempt was made, Lieutenant Sowles communicated the fact to Fort Fisher, when her heavy guns burst forth to right and left of the Condor. The second shell fired to the left of the Condor struck a gunboat that had accompanied the boat party in, and so completely ruined her that she was run ashore on the South breaker of the bar and abandoned. The enemy set fire to her in several places, and before morning she was totally destroyed, her magazine having exploded and torn her to pieces. Since this occurrence on Friday night last, we are informed that there has been no sign of the enemy off the bar at night, and the fleet is hull down during the day.

The Spirit of the Enemy.

This, says the Richmond Whig, is a war of extermination. The order of Grant to Sheridan, executed by that officer with remorseless severity, was not wanting to convince us that the object of our enemy is to extirpate the inhabitants of the Confederate States, and to settle the country with Yankees and Negroes. The whole course of the war, especially since the Emancipation Proclamation of Lincoln, bears incontestable testimony to this design, which is further strengthened by the revelations of the Northern press and the utterances of every man connected with the party now paramount in that country who has addressed the public since that event. The Yankees are particularly sensitive to the opinion of the world, and it was to influence that opinion and to justify the foregone conclusion of their Government, that they invented all those falsehoods respecting the treatment of their prisoners and the massacre of their Negro soldiers. To the same end was fabricated the atrocious lie with regard to the death of Dahlgren, who was killed in a night attack by our troops, when it was so dark that it was impossible to distinguish one person from another, but who was represented by the Yankees as having been deliberately murdered in the broad light of day. To the same end are the Yankee populace continually stimulated by their press with tales of Confederate atrocities, which, in ninety nine cases out of the hundred, are only true in so far as the case is one of retaliation for brutalities perpetrated by the Yankees. The design is to get up a case which may justify any excess of cruelty they may think fit to perpetrate, in the eyes of the world, in order that, under its shelter, they may carry out their predetermined schemes of murder and devastation. If they can induce Europe to believe that each instance of deliberate atrocity is only a case of just retribution, their vanity and ambition receives ample satisfaction, and the Yankee nation becomes the stern and irresistible Nemesis of the Continent treading the path of vengeance with swift and certain steps, and with remorseless justice exacting atonement from the wrong-doer, even in the hour of his triumph. If the Yankee people can place themselves in that imposing attitude before the world, it will gratify their vanity no doubt; but their hatred of us, and their affection for our possessions, are passions even stronger within them than their vanity. They are prepared to exterminate the population of these States, regardless of the opinion of mankind.


OCTOBER 18, 1864

Letter from Alexander H. Stephens.

Alexander H. Stephens, Davis’s vice president, under date of Sept. 22d, 1864, addressed a letter to a number of citizens of Georgia, expressing his views on the questions of war and peace. The reports from North Carolina papers published on Saturday morning, state his position incorrectly.

He confesses an ardent desire for peace, but is unable to see how men situated like himself or those whom he addresses, can initiate any movement to secure the much desiderated end. He commends the action of the last session of the Georgia legislature, attributing to it in a great measure the organization of the peace party at the North. His views are propounded in the following paragraph:

“Easy and perfect solutions to all our present troubles, and those far more grievous ones which loom up in prospect and portentously threaten in the coming future, is nothing more than the simple recognition of the fundamental principle and truth upon which all American constitutional liberty is founded, and upon the maintenance of which alone it can be preserved; that is, the sovereignty—the ultimate absolute sovereignty—of the States. This doctrine our Legislature announced to the people of the North and to the world. It is the only keynote to peace—permanent, lasting peace—consistent with the security of public liberty.”

He argues that the old confederation, the “old Union,” and the whole framework of American institutions were based upon this principle, and that our present troubles, spring “from a violation of this essential law of our political organization.”

He repudiates the idea that force can be successfully used to uphold a Union founded upon such principles:

“The idea that the old union, or any union between any of their sovereign States, consistently with this fundamental truth, can be maintained by force is preposterous. This war springs from an attempt to do this preposterous thing. Superior power may compel a union of some sort, but it would not be the union of the old Constitution or of our new — it would be that sort of union that results from despotism.”

“The subjugation of the people of the South by the people of the North would necessarily involve the destruction of the Constitution and the overthrow of their liberties as well as ours. The men or party at the North to whom you refer, who favor peace, must be brought to a full realization of this truth, in all its bearings, before their efforts will result in much practical good; for any peace growing out of a union of States established by force will be as ruinous to them as to us.”

“The action of the Chicago Convention, so far as its platform of principles goes, presents, as I have said on another occasion, "a ray of light, which, under Providence, may prove the dawn of day to this long and cheerless night." the first ray of light I have seen from the North since the war began.--this cheers the heart, and towards it I could almost have exclaimed: ‘Hail, holy light, offspring of Heaven first born, of the eternal co-eternal beam, may I express thee unblamed? since God is light.’

“The prominent and leading idea of that convention seems to have been a desire to reach a peaceful adjustment of our present difficulties and strife through the medium of a convocation of the States. They propose to suspend hostilities to see what can be done, if anything, by negotiation of some sort. This is one step in the right direction. To such a convention of the States I should have no objection, as a peaceful conference and interchange of views between equal and sovereign Powers—just as the convention of 1787 was called and assembled.” ->

He says the authorities at Washington and Richmond might assent to such a proposition, and that all wars which do not result in the extermination of one party must end in some sort of negotiation. From the discussions of a convention the relations of the States to each other, and the central government would be much better understood. At this point, however, the poison that saturates the doctrines of secession blossoms forth. Mr. Stephens says, “I should be opposed to leaving the questions at issue to the absolute decision of such a body.” That is after the North had consented to a suspension of hostilities, after many of the advantages gained by bloody and successful fighting had been relinquished, Mr. Stephens is willing that months  of precious time should be consumed in the debates of a convention of States, and yet refuses to be bound by its final action. It would certainly be a very nice arrangement for the rebels to enter into. Before any conclusions could be reached, hundreds of federal regiments now in the field would have completed their terms of service and returned to their homes. No fresh troops could be raised in the interval, and the southern States would enjoy a long breathing spell to strengthen them for a closing contest. Having secured all the advantages that flow from such an agreement, they reserve the privilege of repudiating the terms proposed by the convention, provided they fall short of pro-slavery exactions. Mr. Stephens but repeats the cardinal doctrine of the South Carolina heresy. It is the “rule or ruin” principle. They are content to obey law so long as law is framed to accord with their notions; but threaten to bolt, break, nullify, secede, provided their views, no matter how unreasonable, fail to secure endorsement. According to Stephens–

“Delegates might be clothed with powers to consult and agree, if they could, upon some plan of adjustment, to be submitted for subsequent satisfaction by the sovereign States whom it affected before it should be obligatory or binding, and then binding only on such as should so ratify. It becomes the people of the South as well as the people of the North to be quite as watchful and jealous of their rights as their common ancestors were.”

He closes as follows:

“The chief aid and encouragement we can give the peace party at the North is to keep before them these great fundamental principles and truths, which alone will lead them and us to a permanent and lasting peace, with the possession and enjoyment of constitutional liberty. With these principles once recognized, the future would take care of itself. There would be no more war so long as they should be adhered to.”

“All questions of boundaries, confederacies and union or unions would naturally and easily adjust themselves according to the interests of the parties and the exigencies of the times Herein lies the true law of the balance of power and the harmony of States.”

The letter shows that men like Mr. Stephens are not ready yet to accept of any terms short of disunion, and that they look to the success of the Democratic party as the only means of securing it.

OCTOBER 19, 1864

War News.

Richmond papers say that the battle of Friday created great excitement. All business was suspended and everybody put in the fortifications. Schools were closed; all Union prisoners hurried South; Negroes impressed into service, being taken up on the streets unawares. The Enquirer urges the taking of men from everywhere and from every occupation by force.

An expedition sent by Gen. Dana, from Rodney, Miss., of colored troops, reached Fayette on the 2d, capturing 600 cattle, a large number of horses and mules, and several prisoners. Another expedition sent by Gen. Dana attached the rebels at Woodville on the 6th inst., capturing three guns, two officers and fifty-four men, and killing forty. Our loss was none. The cavalry expedition under Gen. Lee captured Clinton, La., on the 6th, with thirty prisoners, including Lieut.-Gen. Pinckney, rebel Provost-Marshal-General of the district, and considerable stores and ammunition. At last accounts Lee was ten miles east of Clinton, moving on. The new Legislature of Louisiana had convened and organized. Gov. Harn delivered his message on the 6th inst.

We learn from Chattanooga that the enemy are reported in force at Dalton, but that Gen. Sherman is pressing close on Gen. Hood, and will soon make that scene of operations entirely too hot for him.

On Thursday last two divisions of the Tenth corps, under Gen. Terry, made an important reconnoissance around the right wing. Having reached and advanced some distance up the Darbytown road toward Richmond, they discovered just before them a new and formidable line of works, strongly garrisoned. They had been built since Sept. 29th to take the place of those then lost. He made an assault, but finding himself too weak to capture them, ordered a retreat. The enemy sallied out to attack him while falling back, but were repulsed with heavy slaughter. Our total loss was about four hundred. Major Henry W. Camp was severely wounded and fell into the enemy’s hands.


An Old Lady Thrown Overboard.–One of the most cruel and inexcusable outrages was committed at the landing on Friday last, that has ever come within our knowledge. An old lady, a Mrs. Kirk, whose face has long been familiar to those who do business at or frequently visit the levee as one among a number of poor persons who pick up a dime here and there by peddling pies and fruits about the boats and among the crowds that gather on the river banks, while on board a certain packet loaded with soldiers, and here endeavoring to make a sale of her little stock, was insulted by one of those to whom she proffered the contents of her basket.

Upon being accosted thus in an unexpected and unkind manner, she attempted to withdraw from the presence of those in whose midst she happened. In doing this she was surrounded by a number of the soldiers and her basket was emptied or being emptied of its contents when she tried to persuade the heartless fellows to desist and return her what they had stolen. Her pleading was answered only by insults, and, finally, while trying to extricate herself from them, she was shoved into the river. Attempt was made to extricate her from the water, but in vain. She sank under the surface and has not been seen since.

The Interior of a Javanese Seraglio.–As no man except the Sultan is permitted within the precincts of the seraglio, I will here insert a description from the pen of my wife, who, by the kindness of Mrs. Z–, was enabled to see and converse with these Javanese houries. In a low kind of bungalow, some distance from the main building–not, however, so far off but that we could distinctly hear the sounds of music and mirth from the joyous scene we had just left–were assembled several women, mostly very young, and well dressed in a costly native fashion. Some of the party were playing a Chinese game of cards. All looked up upon our entrance, but soon resumed their occupation, alternately playing, chewing tobacco, betel, and seri leaf, and using their spittoons, one of which was placed by the side of each person. Most of them were good-looking, with magnificent dark eyes, drooping lids, and long, curling lashes. They make use of an immense quantity of powder, which, though very glaring, probably tends to heighten their charms. Their hair was dressed with care, being all drawn back from the face and arranged in two loops behind, in which champaka and moir flowers were inserted by some, while others wore diamond pins. The ear was made unnaturally large by immense ear-rings, in shape exactly like a small cotton reel, about the size of one of Clark’s number sixty, the centre of each being studded with brilliants. The large holes through which these singular ornaments were thrust are bored at a very tender age, and the apertures are filled from time to time with gradually larger and heavier ear-rings until the lobes finally become so unnaturally elongated.

Unfortunately, the beauty of the Javanese in general is spoilt by a prevalence of bad noses. It is very rarely one comes across a good nose, but when that feature is perfect, the face is usually pretty, provided always the mouth is kept closed, for, from the constant use of serigambier, tobacco, &c., their teeth are very black. This unfortunately is considered a beauty. In children of thirteen or fourteen you see frequently beautiful teeth, like rows of pearls, either undergoing or about to undergo this disfiguring process. Amidst the group before us, I was most struck by a very young girl, whose age, I thought, could not exceed twelve or thirteen, and from whose face, though she appeared thoughtful, silent and sad, the childish look had not yet disappeared. Who knew but that the instinct of her heart already told her a better destiny might have been hers than that to which she was probably devoted? She was doubtless intended to be the new toy of a middle-aged monarch, and although she might revolt against her lot, she could no nothing to change it. She was her master’s property until he tired of her, and sought new charms. Most of the, however, looked cheerful and happy, and I was told, by one who knew many of them personally, that they are generally content with their lot, being allowed no end of finery and silly amusements. Turning to look at the numerous birds which hung in cages around, I could not help thinking how true was the comparison which likened these captive minstrels to the poor prisoners who attend to and pet them.–Life in Java, by W. B. D. Almeida.


Where They Place Him.–In the nearest news room south of us, Gen. McClellan’s photograph has been exhibited surrounded by photographs of the prominent rebel generals. The proprietor probably wishes to show his interpretation of the Chicago platform, and places the “general” where he thinks he belongs. Not much doubt about that!


Startling Disclosures.

Hon. Joseph Holt, Judge Advocate General, has, by request of Secretary Stanton, made a synopsis or resume, of the evidence of treasonable conspiracy against the government by the peace democrats of the West. The proof is conclusive that the “Sons of Liberty” is a treasonable secret organization, armed and officered, and sworn to implicit obedience to its leaders. The representations which Mr. Holt makes of the extent and power of the order are truly alarming. He says:

“The ‘temples’ or ‘lodges’ of the order are numerously scattered through the States of Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Missouri, and Kentucky. They are also officially reported as established, to a less extent, in Michigan and the other western states, as well as in New York, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and Tennessee. Dodd, the Grand Commander of Indiana, in an address to the members in that state, of February last, claims that at the next annual meeting of the supreme council (in February, 1865), every state in the Union will be represented, and adds, ‘This is the first and only true national organization the democratic and conservative men of the country have ever attempted.’ ”

It is to be noted that the order, or its counterpart, is probably much more widely extended at the South even than at the North, and that a large proportion of the officers of the rebel army are represented by most reliable witnesses to be members. In Kentucky and Missouri, the order has not hesitated to admit as members, not only officers of that army, but also a considerable number of guerrillas, a class who might be supposed to appreciate most readily its arms and purposes. It is fully shown that as late as July last several of these ruffians were initiated into the first degree by Dr. Kalfus in Kentucky.

In March last, the entire armed force of the order, capable of being mobilized for effective service, was represented to be 340,000 men. The details, however, upon which this statement was based are imperfectly set forth in the testimony, and t is not known how far this number may be exaggerated. It is abundantly shown, however, that the order, by means of a tax levied upon its members, have accumulated considerable funds for the purchase of arms and ammunition, and that these have been procured in large quantities for its use. The witness Clayton, on the trial of Dodd, estimated that two-thirds of the order are furnished with arms.

Mr. Holt shows that the objects of the order are: aiding soldiers to desert, discouraging enlistments, resisting the draft, circulating disloyal publications, giving intelligence to the enemy, furnishing them with arms and ammunition, co-operating with their raids and invasions, destroying government property, persecuting Union men, and in fact resorting to assassination in aid of their southern brethren. Mr. Holt says the order has adopted new signs and pass words since the exposures at Indianapolis, and that there is evidence they have planned a serious revolt in case Mr. Lincoln is re-elected. Mr. Holt concludes his review of these extraordinary developments with these reflections:

“In the presence of the rebellion and of this secret order—which is but its echo and faithful ally—we can not but be amazed at the utter and widespread profligacy, personal and political, which these movements against the Government disclose. The guilty men engaged in them, after casting aside their allegiance, seem to have trodden under foot every sentiment of honor and every restraint of law, human and divine. Judea produced but one Judas Iscariot, and Rome, from the sinks of her demoralization, produced but one Cataline; and yet, as events prove, there has arisen together in our land an entire brood of such traitors, all animated by the same parricidal spirit, and all struggling with the same relentless malignity for the dismemberment of our Union. Of this extraordinary phenomenon—not paralleled, it is believed, in the world's history—there can be but one explanation, and all these blackened and fetid streams of crime may well be traced to the same common fountain. ->

So fiercely intolerant and imperious was the temper engendered by slavery, that when the Southern people, after having controlled the national councils for half a century, were beaten at an election, their leaders turned upon the Government with the insolent fury with which they would have drawn their revolvers on a rebellious slave in one of their Negro quarters; and they have continued since to prosecute their warfare, amid all the barbarisms and atrocities naturally and necessarily inspired by the infernal institution in whose interests they are sacrificing alike themselves and their country. Many of these conspirators, as is well known, were fed, clothed, and educated at the expense of the nation and were loaded with its honors at the very moment they struck at its life with the horrible criminality of a son stabbing the bosom of its own mother while impressing kisses on his cheeks. The leaders of the traitors in the loyal States, who so completely fraternize with these conspirators, and whose machinations are now unmasked, it is as clearly the duty of the Administration to prosecute and punish as it its duty to subjugate the rebels who are openly in arms against the Government. In the performance of this duty, it is entitled to expect, and will doubtless receive, the zealous co-operation of true men everywhere, who, in crushing the truculent foe ambushed in the haunts of this secret order, should rival in courage and faithfulness the soldiers who are so nobly sustaining our flag on the battlefields of the South.”


Death of Chief Justice Taney.

Roger B. Taney, Chief Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, died in Washington on the evening of the 12th of October, in the 88th year of his age. He was a native of Maryland, educated at Dickinson College, at Carlisle, Pa., and was nominated to the Chief Justice-ship by President Jackson in 1835, having previously (in 1831) been appointed by the same Attorney General of the United States, and when Mr. Duane was dismissed from the cabinet as Secretary of the Treasury, because he would not remove the deposits of the United States Bank, President Jackson filled the vacancy by the appointment of Mr. Taney. The New York Post, in an extended notice of the deceased, gives the following interesting passage from the record of his professional life:

“When Mr. Taney became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court he was already considerably past the prime of life; he was fifty-nine years of age. He had been previously a lawyer in good practice and of considerable local repute; originally a Federalist in politics, and at one time of his life the friend of impartial liberty. In defending the Rev. Jacob Gruber from a charge of inciting slaves to disorder in Maryland, in 1818, Mr. Taney used these memorable words: ‘A hard necessity’ indeed compels us to endure the evil of slavery for a time. It was imposed upon us by another nation, while yet we were in a state of colonial vassalage. It cannot be easily or suddenly removed. Yet while it continues it is a blot on our national character, and every real lover of freedom confidently hopes that it will be effectually, though it must be gradually, wiped away, and earnestly looks for the means by which this necessary object may be attained. And until it shall be accomplished, until the time shall come when we can point without a blush to the language held in the Declaration of Independence, every friend of humanity will seek to lighten the galling chain of slavery, and better, to the utmost of his power, the wretched condition of the slave.”


OCTOBER 21, 1864

Letter from the West.
From an Amherst Boy in the 1st Reg. U. S. Vol.

On Board Steamer Effie Deans,
Missouri River, Dakota Territory,
September, 1864.

Mr. Editor:

Being “out on the frontier,” I thought perhaps a letter from your humble servant, giving a slight description of the country, and the appearance and habits of its inhabitants, might be interesting to a portion of your readers.

Will commence with the time we left St. Louis, which was Saturday, August 27th, nearly one month ago, with orders to report to Brig. Ge. Sully, Fort Rice, Dakota Territory, a distance of seventeen hundred miles above St. Louis, on the Missouri River. We are now within about three hundred miles of our destination, and about sixty from Fort Sully, where, owing to the shallowness of the river, we are afraid we shall be obliged to abandon the steamer and march to Fort Rice, a journey which, in this barren country, we are by no means anxious to undertake.

After leaving St. Louis we passed by the cities of Jefferson, Lexington, (a place made historic during the present war by exploits of the late lamented Col. Mulligan,) Kansas City and St. Joseph in Missouri, and on the other side of the river the cities of Leavenworth and Atchison, Kansas; Nebraska and Omaha, Nebraska Territory. No one could help noticing the difference in the looks, appearance, enterprise and activity between the places in Missouri and those on the opposite side of the river in Kansas and Nebraska Territory–the latter being peopled principally by eastern people. I could meet on nearly every street corner some New Englander who, with all his original Yankee proclivities, would very soon find out what part of the country I was from, and in turn, I would learn the same from him, and consequently we would, in many cases, part almost cousins.

Nebraska City is a very smart, enterprising place, having sprung up from a place of four houses ten years ago, to a city of five thousand inhabitants. Thus it is that villages are springing up all along the river until you get to Sioux City, Iowa. Here we lose all signs of civilization, with the exception of occasionally a little rude log house where some adventurous white man, or perhaps half civilized Indian or half-breed lives, and cuts wood for the steamers that run the river, which they sell at prices varying from three to six dollars per cord, and as their land costs them nothing, and their living but a small sum, they are, to use a Yankee phrase, “making money fast”–but for the last hundred miles we have lost all trace of them, and now cannot even see the foot-prints of white men.

Previous to coming into this section of the country, I had heard and read a great deal of the vast agricultural resources of the “great West,” but did not–I might almost say–have the slightest idea of its magnitude. I was very much pleased with the prairies of Illinois and the manner in which they are cultivated; but I must say that I like Western Missouri much better than any other section I have yet seen. There they have fertile, rolling prairies, well watered and wooded; which is more than can be said of the richest farming section of Illinois. For the last three years, there have been so many robbing and murdering bands of guerrillas infesting the whole western part of the State, that it is now almost deserted. ->

With peaceable time and Yankee enterprise, it might be made the “garden of the West.” As we came further up the river, the soil gradually grew poorer, until we got fifty miles above the southern boundary of the Territory, where we find it so poor that it cannot grow a mullein stock. For the last five days we have seen no vegetation whatever, and wood is out of the question, with the exception of a little skirt now and then along the river bank, and hardly enough of that to furnish fuel for the steamers. I think you will be surprised when I tell you that this river is navigable twenty-seven hundred miles from its mouth; and that boats are constantly plying between St. Louis and Fort Benton, which is the head of navigation, almost at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, in the western part of Idaho. Steamers go up loaded with supplies for the trading posts; and sometimes with mining parties, who go for gold, which is quite plenty there; but the Indians are mostly too troublesome to allow much to be done at mining. Greenbacks are at more of a discount there than they are in Wall Street, gold being all the currency used. When I say the river is navigable for so many miles, I do not intend to convey the idea that it is that distance in an overland route. Probably it is not more than two-thirds that distance, the river being so crooked makes the difference. Scenery along certain portions of the river is really magnificent. Steamers plying the river are very light draft; this one, with six hundred troops, drawing only three feet.

We have yet seen no hostile Indians, but plenty of friendly ones. The first we saw being the “Black Feet” tribe in Nebraska–there being but a remnant of a once powerful nation. The next being the Yanktons and a few friendly Sioux, who live and dress in the old Indian manner; but civilization is fast killing them out.

When we get to our destination, will let you hear from me again. Hope we may find a better and more pleasant country there.


What Makes a Lady.–When Beau Brummel was asked what made a gentleman, his quick reply was, “Starch, starch, my lord.” This may be true, but it takes a great deal more to make a lady; though it may seem some similar, I am ready to maintain that no conceivable quantity of muslin, silk or satin, or dress of any description, constitute an real lady.

Was not Mrs. Abbott Lawrence just as much a lady when attired in twelve cent calico in Boston as when arrayed in full court dress at St. James, London? “As Mrs. Washington was said to be so grand a lady,” says a celebrated English visitor, (Mrs. Troupe,) “we thought we must put on our best, and so dressed ourselves in our most elegant ruffles and silks, and when introduced to her ladyship, we found her knitting with her checked apron on! She received us very graciously and easily, but after the compliments were over she resumed her knitting. There we were without a stitch of work and sitting in state, but Gen. Washington’s lady, with her own hands, was knitting stockings for her own husband.” Does not that sweet republican simplicity command your admiration?


OCTOBER 22, 1864


The St. Albans Raid.
Account from an Eye-witness.

Mr. J. B. Baldwin, conductor of the sleeping car train from Rouse’s Point to Troy, reached here at five o’clock this morning. As narrated by him, the St. Albans raid will long be remembered as one of the most daring and brutal events in the present war.

Mr. Baldwin had been taking a vacation for a few days, stopping at the American Hotel, St. Albans. About a week ago some strangers came to board at this house and the Tremont. One of them, calling himself colonel, appeared to a be a prominent one among them. He was a man of medium size, about 35 years of age, and seemed to have no other name than that of colonel.

Others of the party, who subsequently proved to be thieves and murderers, were habited in the uniform of United States officers, and all wore a sort of wrapper or cape, and each carried a satchel slung by a shoulder strap at the left side, after the manner of English sportsmen. There seemed to be no concert of action between any of these men–they said nothing to each other in public–no conversations ensued that would attract attention–to all appearances they were substitute brokers, contractors or speculators, such as are often seen in frontier towns–St. Albans being only sixteen miles from the Canada line. On Tuesday night, the strangers in the village were reinforced by others who arrived in the train from Rouse’s point, and new faces appeared at the breakfast tables of the hotels. On Wednesday morning, a further batch of conspirators arrived, till about thirty raiders had collected. And then the plot was ripe for execution.

At 3 o’clock p.m. on Wednesday, Oct. 10, St. Albans was in a state of apparent quiet. Our informant, conductor Baldwin, was standing on the steps of the American Hotel, just as the town bell rang out the hour of 3 o’clock, when he saw a man coming out of the door of the First National Bank, and as he did so a citizen on the steps knocked him down. A second was also floored, but the third raider had a pistol in his hand, and the citizen retreated. The conductor thought the affair was the freak of some drunken men, but he soon saw symptoms of a disturbance at other points. Several men appeared to be rushing about with pistols, in parties of from five to ten.

Meanwhile, the attack had been simultaneous on three banks–the First National, Franklin County and St. Albans. Parties entered each. When the teller and cashier, suspecting no evil, asked what they desired, the leader presented a pistol, with the exclamation: “You are my prisoners. If you move an inch we’ll blow you through.” Others of the gang then went to the vault and drawers, and laid violent hands on all the specie, bills, and other articles which they could find, and filled the side satchels which each wore, as we before described. Of course, resistance was useless, for the surprise was complete. At the Franklin County Bank, the raiders pushed the cashier, Mr. Beardsley, and one of the clerks into the vault and locked them up, and the prisoners were not released until late in the night.

Then commenced a reign of terror in the village. Plunder had been accomplished, and violence followed. The raid was brief, but the scene must have been terrible while it lasted. The thirty of more marauders rushed up and down the street, firing their pistols in every direction. Whenever they saw a citizen or group of men, they would aim in that direction. Bullets were flying around among the buildings on the Main street, nearly all of which bear marks of lead. Windows were broken, blinds chipped, and people wounded. It was a scene that beggars all description.

The guerrillas, as they rushed through the town, stopped all the citizens they met and gathered them in squads under guard of a few men armed with pistols–retaining them as prisoners on the common. Meanwhile, the remainder of the banditti started to secure horses. They took two from Field’s livery stable, five from Fuller’s, several from the American and Tremont stables, and a twelve hundred dollar span from Mr. Clark of Rutland–securing about thirty in all.

Meanwhile, their threats were horrible. “We will burn your d----d town,” they said. We will treat you as the people of Atlanta were treated.” They also said: “We are coming back again, and will burn every town in Vermont.” These imprecations were of a blasphemous character. They claimed to be Confederates. Our informant does not think that any of the men were Canadians. They all looked like Americans, and Southerners at that.

All this was the work of twenty minutes. Conductor Baldwin says he can scarcely realize that it all happened, and that so much was done in so short a time. The guerrillas having all secured horses and saddles, commenced their retreat. They abandoned the prisoners and rode off northward, firing their pistols as they proceeded. It appeared to be their intention to make an attack on the Missequoi bank at Sheldon.

AT 6 o’clock the out-buildings of the American Hotel were discovered to be on fire. Whether the marauders had fired the town during their 3 o’clock visit and the flames smouldered, or whether sympathizers or accomplices in the town had started the conflagration three hours afterwards, is not known. Terrible to discover, water would not extinguish the flames. The walls had been covered with phosphorous, and the engines were useless. In this emergency, by tearing down fences, throwing vinegar and molasses on the fire, and smothering it with blankets, it was finally put out.


Some two weeks ago, while Lieutenant Earle, of the Fourth Wisconsin Cavalry, was scouting with a number of his men above Natchez and in the neighborhood of St. Joseph, he discovered a party of eight or ten rebels. They proved to be the advance of a large body of cavalry, ad had in their charge twelve battle flags and regimental colors captured from our forces in the Red River campaign. They were conveying them to Richmond. With the party was also a rebel mail carrier, with a very important mail. The instant Lieut. Earle and his scouts saw eh enemy, he approached them as closely as possible without being discovered, and then rode into their midst and demanded their surrender. The rebels were taken completely by surprise and surrendered without firing a shot, and the flags and mail fell into our hands, thus saving the flags from being taken to Richmond as trophies and feasting the eyes of those who had given up all hope of ever gaining another. Nearly every letter in the mail speaks despondingly of the rebel cause. One written from Marshall, Teas, by an officer connected with the Ordnance Bureau, dated Sept. 26, contained the following extract: “The people in this country” (beyond the Mississippi) “are mighty weak in the knees; indeed they are weak all over. If the people on your side” (of the Mississippi) “are giving was as they are here, we are gone up.” The last few words were underlined in the original. Such of the re-captured flags as belong to regiments still in service have been returned to them by order of Gen. Canby; the remainder will be sent to Washington.

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