The U.S.N.L.P. Handbook
Guide to Naval Reenacting
Section 2.2 Basic Naval History of the Civil War

The U.S. Navy in the Civil War
A Brief Sketch for the Benefit of Naval Reenactors in Discussion with Spectators

The purpose of this chapter is to provide the Naval reenactor with a compact source of statistics, interesting facts, and general feeling for the Navy’s role in the Civil War. In this first edition, the focus is mainly on the actions of the Federal Navy (although some Confederate information is included in the section entitled, "The Opposition"). For detailed information about specific vessels, campaigns, and chronology, refer to the bibliography.



The overall Union plan for the prosecution of the Civil War was outlined by General Winfield Scott. Referred to as the "Anaconda Plan", it proposed to encircle the Southern states so as to cut off all contact with the outside world. Because of the very limited manufacturing resources of the South and her reliance upon foreign trade, it was supposed that the execution of such a plan would leave the South to slowly "die on the vine". The plan was militarily sound, aiming as it did to strike at the enemy’s resources rather than seeking bloody battle against her armies, but it was not to be. While the US Navy adhered fairly well to the strategy with its blockade and river campaigns, the public so clamored for fast victories that the Army was pushed into ill-advised and poorly planned battles that did little but waste lives. No war had been fought on American soil since the close of the War of 1812 and the most recent American war had been in far-off Mexico in 1846; few Americans had any real notion of the realities of war. In the public mind, "war" meant "battles" and only "battles" brought "victory"; hence, the voting public clamored for battles. Throughout the war, generals who did not move fast enough or fight often enough to answer the demand for battles were removed from command, (e.g., McClellan). In an unfortunate coincidence (for the Army), the rapid expansion of US land forces meant that the Federal forces were plagued with raw recruits and politically-appointed officers; it was these same untried and inept officers who were hastened to battle. Conversely, the Union Navy did not experience an expansion on nearly the same scale, and so managed to maintain a larger percentage of its officers and men on a more highly-trained "professional" level. There is a wonderful quote from "Lamson of the Gettysburg" [ref. bibliography] that says, "There is a perfectness of organization in every department of the Navy that they do not have in the Army. I have often heard this admitted and admired by Army officers themselves. . ." (Roswell Lamson, Sept. 19, 1862). The public expected a very short war, with little or no role for the Navy, and so rushed to fill the ranks of the land forces. This was a blessing in disguise for the US Navy, although it did mean new-made warships sometimes sat idle at the dock waiting for crews to man them.

Given time and patience, the Anaconda Plan would probably have worked. But the public in the North, suffering from the delusion that "one great battle" would decide the war, did not have that kind of patience. So, battle after costly battle was waged without any overall strategy (until the appointment of Ulysses Grant as overall commander). Throughout the war, the US Navy (sailors and marines both) worked hand-in-hand with the Federal Army. On the rivers of the west – the Mississippi, Cumberland, and Tennessee – sailors fought literally side-by-side with their Army compatriots. Additionally, the Navy ran much of the Army’s supplies and evacuated their wounded. The Rebs could block a road or cut a rail line, but they couldn’t stop a river, and many generals came to prefer the waterways as a supply lines. Shiloh, Vicksburg, Fort Donelson, Island Number 10 – all are Navy victories as well as Army victories. The first victory of the Civil War for the Union was a naval one: the capture of Forts Clark and Hatteras on North Carolina’s Outer Banks helped to offset the recent defeat at Bull Run. On the coasts, the Navy also supplied the Army, reconned rivers, and chased smugglers down every little creek and bayou in the South. They ran the blockade of the South’s ports [see below] and played a key role in the battles at Charleston and Wilmington (Fort Fisher). In all theaters and at all times, Union Navy and Army officers worked well together, and routinely complimented one another on the high level of cooperation they received from members of their sister service.

Square One

The Federal Navy began the war in a dilapidated state: caught flatfooted by President Lincoln’s announcement of a blockade, the Navy had only 90 vessels and 7000 men on its rolls. Of these, a mere 41 ships were in serviceable condition – and the majority of them were on foreign station, scattered around the world, mostly in the African, Mediterranean, Brazil, East Indies, and China Squadrons. It would take weeks to get the announcement of war to all vessels and an even longer time to get them into home waters. The Home Squadron consisted of only the Brooklyn, Wyandotte, and six small steamers. To remedy this situation as quickly as possible, the USN instituted a crash building program and also began to purchase anything that would float. Merchant steamships and ferryboats along the coasts and rivers were bought by the Navy, armored and armed, and sent to blockading stations off the South’s major seaports and to points on the inland rivers. By August 1861, the fleet had doubled to 180 vessels; by December 1861, it had grown to 264 vessels in service manned by 22,000 seamen; in 1862 the number of commissioned ships grew to 427; and by war’s end the Navy stood 670 warships strong crewed by 51,500 men. Of this total, fully 500 ships were on blockade duty. The North built 126 wooden vessels between 1861 and 1865, mounting 1307 guns, and 74 ironclads with 213 guns; the balance of the new ships were either purchased or captured.

The Federal Navy’s most powerful warships were the six screw frigates built between 1855 and 1856: Niagara, Roanoke, Colorado, Merrimack, Minnesota, and Wabash. Each of these was armed with 2-10", 28-9", and 14-8" Dahlgren guns. Of these, the Confederates would succeed in capturing only the burned-out hull of the Merrimack. Fortune also favored the North in the distribution of Navy yards, of which there were ten at the start of the war:

Kittery ME
Portsmouth NH
Charlestown MA
Brooklyn NY
Philadelphia PA
Washington, DC
Norfolk VA
Pensacola FL
Mare Island, CA
Sacketts Harbor NY

The Norfolk Navy Yard was the oldest and the most valuable in the country; Pensacola was not a yard of construction, but merely for shelter and repair. While the Rebels would take the Norfolk Yard, their lack of resources and inability to transport what they did have never truly allowed that facility to function to capacity.

The US Navy played three major roles in the Civil War, each of which is examined below:

blockading the deep-water ports of the Confederacy;

chasing and destroying Rebel privateers and commerce raiders on the high seas; and

working with the Army on the coasts and inland rivers to conquer the South. The Navy was also responsible for transporting Army supplies and evacuating Army wounded in many theaters of the war.

The Blockade

While initially ineffective, the blockade of the Southern ports was always politically critical and, eventually, was highly effective. The action was called a "blockade" (as opposed to a "closing" of ports) because the laws of the time allowed the seizure of neutral ships trying to run a blockade and also the search (and seizure) of neutral vessels suspected of carrying contraband cargo. "Blockade" gave the USN more powers than would the announcement of the "closing" of ports.

The great challenge for the Confederacy was always resources. While not destitute of mineral deposits, the South lacked the infrastructure (transportation and manufacturing) to fully utilize these resources. In fact, the entire South had less manufacturing capability than New York City, producing barely one-tenth of the manufactured goods in the United States in 1860. To maintain its armies in the field, the Confederacy had to do two things:

produce or purchase the equipment and arms and food needed by those armies, and,
produce or purchase the materials and food needed by its citizens supporting the war effort.

As regards food, the South faced a problem of staggering proportions, for, as men left their farms to join the army (thereby adding a mouth to feed to those ranks), their farms lay idle (thereby reducing food production). Additionally, many of the large plantations grew only enough food to feed their own families and slaves (the bulk of their land being devoted to cash crops such as tobacco and cotton, the latter of which could still be got through the blockade and sold for a tidy profit in Europe). Part way through the war the Confederate government tried to pass legislation that required these large farms to plant food crops, but the effort was not particularly successful. The North did not face this challenge in food production because of 1) its greater population, and 2) the introduction of labor-saving farm machinery immediately before the war. Northern food production actually increased throughout the war, and, ultimately, it was "King Wheat" that influenced Britain rather than "King Cotton" (the North having sufficient surplus to supply 40% of British needs). Even when areas of the South enjoyed a surplus, the railroad system in the Confederacy could not meet the demands placed upon it by the war. Increasingly, the Rebel railroads were less able to move food, raw materials, finished products or troops where and when they were needed. Because of this inability to produce the manufactures of war, the Confederacy turned to Europe for its weapons and its food. Denying access to this distant resource was the job of the Federal blockade.

In blockading the Confederacy, it should be remembered that that nation was bounded by more than 3,000 miles of coastline studded with 189 inlets or river mouths up which smugglers and blockade runners could hide. Fortunately, there were really only nine port cities that had deep enough harbors and rail connections leading into the interior to be commercially useful. They were New Orleans LA, Mobile AL, Pensacola FL, Fernandina FL, Savannah GA, Charleston SC, Wilmington NC, New Bern NC, and Norfolk VA. The city of Brownsville, TX might also be included in this list as it served as the terminus for supplies brought overland from Matamoras, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Of these, Wilmington was the most difficult place of all to blockade due to the configuration of the coastline: two inlets from the sea led to the city and these were separated by shoal water that required a 40-mile detour to get around; astride the low islands separating these inlets sat Fort Fisher, easily the largest single fortification in the Confederacy. To blockade the port required a force of 50 Union ships. Wilmington became the port of entry for Richmond, and thus for the Confederate armies in Virginia and North Carolina.

Maintaining the blockade posed special problems for the Navy, as the coal-burning steamer dominated in the fleet and complicated the task of supply by adding coal to the food and water requirements of the blockading ships. Because fuel gave out sooner than food or water, blockaders needed to have bases close to the blockaded ports or else spend more time returning to base and less on duty. And so, in spite of the success in finding such bases, an average of one third of the blockading ships were absent from their stations at any one time getting essential supplies. The largest of these supply bases was Port Royal (between Savannah and Charleston), taken in November 1861.

Was the blockade a success? Certainly, captures of Confederate blockade runners were so infrequent during the first years that the Confederate Army was supplied with more arms, munitions, clothing, medicine, and such articles than has been generally suspected. Europe furnished the Confederacy with its best ordnance, best muskets, best ammunition, and nearly all its uniforms. Blockade running became one of the most lucrative of enterprises. The Banshee, a blockade runner that made nine trips, reaped a 700% profit for her English owners before her capture in November of 1863. It became a regular business, and continued so until the ports of the Confederacy were actually captured. The chance for wealth made it worth all the risks. A captain could expect a salary of $5000 in gold for a single round trip between Nassau or St George and the Southern ports. Lower rankings were paid commensurate salaries: Chief Engineers ($2500), First Officer ($1250), and each member of the crew ($250). Pilots recruited in Wilmington or Charleston received $3750 for each round trip. The greatest profits for captains and officers came not from salaries but from private cargos that they carried in space allotted them by the owners, (e.g., one captain purchased 1000 pairs of corset stays in Glasgow which he sold in Wilmington several weeks later at a 1100% profit; he enjoyed the same return on toothbrushes). Shipowners, too, made an incredible profit: up to $425,000 for a single 3-day trip between Wilmington and either Nassau in the Bahamas or St. George in Bermuda. Blockade running also showered wealth on the people of Bermuda and the Bahamas: because of the dependence on Southern trade, sympathy for the Confederacy ran strong in the islands.

Agents of the Confederate War Department spent about $12.25M on European weapons and materiel; it is probable that 80% of these supplies reached the South. Of non-official shipments, it is impossible to accurately estimate the value of the goods that passed through the blockade (although $200M seems to be the accepted figure). Through the blockade came 60% of the Confederacy’s arms, one third of its bullet lead, ingredients for three fourths of its gunpowder, and most of the army’s leather and uniform cloth. The steamers of the Confederate Ordnance Department alone brought in four times as many small arms in the year September 30, 1862-1863 as were produced by the combined armories of the South. And in November 1861 the runner Fingal brought in to Savannah, Georgia enough arms and ammunition to enable the Confederates to fight the battle of Shiloh the following Spring.

Out of 2054 attempts to run past the blockading vessels off Wilmington, North Carolina, 1735 succeeded, an average of 1.5 efforts per day with 84% of them getting through. In the Gulf of Mexico, between April 1861 and June 1865, 2960 vessels tried to slip through (average of 2 per day). In 1861 few vessels were taken; 65% succeeded in 1862, and 62% in 1863 (this may be due to the higher number of sailing vessels used in the Gulf, as opposed to steamers). In 1864 and 1865, dramatically more steamers were used so that 87% got through in 1864 and 94% in 1865. In short, In 1861, one runner in ten was captured, (10.0%); in 1862, one runner in eight was captured (12.5%); in 1863-64, one in three was captured (33.0%); and in 1865, one runner in two was captured (50.0%). The number of prizes brought in during the war was 1149, of which 210 were steamers. There were also 355 vessels burned, sunk or driven on shore, or otherwise destroyed, of which 85 were steamers, making a total of 1504 vessels of all sizes.

Similarly, cotton was shipped out through the blockade. Most of the cotton was shipped to the Bermuda, the Bahamas or Havanna, Cuba. As an example, of 10,412 bales shipped by the Confederate Treasury Department before November 1, 1864, only 1037 were captured. In other words, approximately 10% of cotton shipped failed to reach the Sea Islands, a remarkable showing for a period in which the blockade was supposed to be very effective. Of the 10,412 bales, practically all of it went to Nassau [8101 Nassau, 164 Halifax, 1954 Bermuda, 193 Havana]. Most of these bales came from Charleston and Wilmington. Of the total amount, 5602 bales were shipped from Wilmington, 4534 from Charleston, 75 from Mobile, 83 from Savannah, 68 from St Marks, Florida, and 50 from Bay Port, Florida.

On the face of the above data, it is perhaps a justifiable argument that the Federal blockade was a failure. Certainly, the US Navy was never able to make good on its promise to close the Southern ports; blockade running did not stop until these Rebel harbors were actually taken by mixed Army-Navy assault forces. But the blockade was marvelously effective in sapping the will and ability of the Rebel states to make war. As soon as there was an element of risk attached to entering a Southern harbor, prices on the commodities delivered began to climb. As prices rose, blockade runners sought to further increase their profit margins by filling their hulls with luxury items -- which were in demand throughout the war as the Southern upper classes sought to maintain their pre-war style of living. Yankee blockaders routinely listed French cognac, Madeira wine, Belgian silk, and corset stays among lists of captured goods. Although the Confederate government sought to limit by law the amount of hull space devoted to such merchandise, their efforts were largely ignored by the private runners (many of whom were financed by English firms and skippered by English naval officers on "leave"). Richmond created its own small fleet of government blockade runners, but these few vessels represented only a portion of the ships involved. Because the profits from luxury goods were so alluring, hull space that could otherwise have been devoted to foodstuffs, medicines, clothing, etc., was not. Plagued by a rail system so poor that it could not deliver the ample food resources of the Confederacy where they were most needed, and bedeviled by blockade running captains who put profit before patriotism, the middle and lower classes of the South watched as rampant inflation ate away at their ever-decreasing ability to purchase food. There were bread riots at cities throughout the Confederacy (the one at Richmond being the most well-known). There was also disaffection, as hunger blunted the fervor of even the most ardent patriots: in letters to the front, those at home wrote of food shortages and starvation. Desertion became an ever-increasing problem for the Rebel armies. Closing a port by physically landing troops was ultimately the only way to ensure its demise; the blockade could not stop, but only hinder, the delivery of supplies. But even in hindering the supply line, the Navy’s blockade played a major role for the Union.

Despite the fact that even as late as 1865 a blockade runner stood a 50-50 chance of getting through the Federal blockade the impact of the blockade on the course of the war was enormous. In addition to reducing the amount of good coming into the South, it also constricted the amount of exports. In the last three years before the start of the war, three million bales of cotton shipped from Southern ports – while only one million shipped in the last three years of the war. All told, the ships of the Navy, lying silently offshore, reduced the foreign trade of the Confederacy by two-thirds – just at a time when a vast increase in exchange was needed to carry on the war. While the sale of cotton remained profitable – a bale bringing 8 or 9 a pound on the dock at Charleston selling for 80-90 a pound in Europe – so restricted was Southern trade that the government of the Confederacy was rapidly drained of its limited supply of hard currency. This led to incredible inflation at home and undermined Southern credit overseas.

To illustrate this effect on the Southern economy, let’s look at the price of salt through the course of the war. Far from being a mere spice, in this pre-refrigeration age salt was necessary to preserve food. Salt was often an item of cargo on blockade runners -- so important that the local newspapers of a port announced its arrival.

On the eve of war, the cost at New Orleans for a 200# sack of salt was 50 (or 1/4 per pound). By August 1861, the price had doubled to $1 for the same 200# sack. While New Orleans enjoyed the benefit of local salt mines (which reduced its dependence on foreign salt), other areas of the Confederacy did not. In September 1861 200# of salt cost $6 in Richmond VA. By January 1862, residents of Savannah GA were paying $25 and people in Richmond saw the price climb to $100 in November for 200# worth – 200 times what it had cost before the war! The price settled down a bit after that to $50 in Georgia and $75 in Mississippi in 1864. Given that the pay for a Rebel infantryman was $11 per month, it becomes obvious what dire straits such inflation placed his family in at home.

Certainly, as far as the majority of Yankee seamen were concerned, the blockade was dull duty. But for some lucky enough to be involved in the capture of a blockade runner, the rewards could easily make up for weeks of tedium at $16 a month. When a ship was taken, a special prize court inspected its cargo, examined its papers, and interviewed witnesses to the capture; usually the seizure was deemed legal and the ship was sold – often to the U.S. government for blockade duty – and the cargo auctioned off. The prize money from these actions was distributed as follows:

50% was kept by the government
5% went to the commander of the regional blockading squadron
1% was received by the local commodore
44% was given to the crew of the capturing ship(s), divided into 20 equal shares disbursed to the:
Captain 3 shares
Officers & Midshipmen 10 shares, divided amongst them
the Enlisted Men 7 shares, divided amongst them

Some men got rich on an afternoon’s work, prompting one Northern newspaper to suggest that the blockaders were motivated by "Pride, Patriotism, and Pocket". As an example, the crew of the tugboat Eolus received $3000 apiece for the captures of the Hope and the Lady Sterling (spaced only a few days apart); the captain received $13,164 for the Hope alone. High-ranking officers made a fortune in prize money without necessarily having ever confronted a blockade runner: Rear Admiral Sam Lee banked almost $110,000 over two years as commander of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron and Admiral David Dixon Porter pocketed $91,528 for his two months on patrol. By war’s end, the Federal government had distributed well over $10,000,000 in prize money.

How did the mechanics of blockade running – and of blockading – work? On the face of it, runners faced insurmountable odds in trying to slip past the ships of the US Navy. Arranged in ever-widening arcs extending miles out to sea, the Federal ships patrolled ceaselessly outside major Southern ports. The chase could begin while a runner was still over the horizon: forced to burn low-quality bituminous coal (if her bunkers had been filled in a Southern port), blockade runners sent up billows of brown smoke that were easily distinguished from the black smoke discharged from Yankee ships burning the harder anthracite coal mined in the North. To escape detection near their destination during the day, runners timed their departure from Bermuda or the Bahamas to coincide with high tide and a moonless night for the final run into port. Most runners were painted grey, "the color of fog", and were built low to the water. Against the shoreline such a ship was all but invisible and her engines were drowned by the noise of the surf. For all their firepower and superiority in numbers, the blockaders really had few advantages at night. When a runner was spotted, Federal warships found it nearly impossible to start their engines or spread enough sail to cut off or catch a vessel that was dashing through their picket line at 18 knots; even getting a shot off at such a target was difficult. In the opening days of the blockade, the US Navy itself gave some benefit to the runners, who were able to use the well-lit vessels of the blockading squadrons as guide markers. When the USN realized its mistake, they blacked out all ships except for a single lantern on the senior officer’s vessel, which remained anchored in the center of the fleet as a marker. Before long, runners learned of this arrangement and learned to use that single light as a beacon upon which to get their bearings. When the Federals in turn realized what the runners were doing, they took to changing the position of the lighted vessel, luring many a runner onto the shoals. At one point the blockaders were ordered to fire a flare in the direction of their quarry’s course in order to guide pursuit. The runners soon realized what was happening and began to carry flares of their own and sent them off to port or starboard to confuse their pursuers.

The Hunt for Privateers and Commerce Raiders

A major impetus to the rapid escalation of the Union blockade was unwittingly supplied by the Confederacy herself. Realizing that it could never match the ability of the North to field ships and crews, the government in Richmond devoted the limited resources of its Navy to the defense of its harbors and rivers; to challenge Union dominance on the high seas it resorted to the old and largely-discredited practice of privateering. The aim of this strategy was to destroy Northern commerce, thereby reducing the ability of the Federal government to conduct trade (including the importation of arms) and also to tie down the Union Navy in searching for the Southern raiders. Letters of marque were granted beginning in May 1861, allowing private ship owners to capture ships for profit. In the course of that year, some 24 vessels (mostly from Charleston SC and New Orleans LA) were issued such letters. Unfortunately for this strategy, the government of Britain decided to close its ports in June 1861 to privateers attempting to dispose of their prizes; when other European countries followed suit, privateers found only Southern ports available to them. The fall of New Orleans in April 1862 and the Union blockade of Charleston saw the effective end of Confederate privateering. Though short-lived, the period of privateering spawned three significant developments:

It did destroy the Northern merchant marine. Although the privateers (and the Rebel commerce raiders that followed them) physically destroyed only 5% of the Northern merchant marine, rising insurance rates and fears of being captured caused fully 50% of that fleet to be reflagged to neutral countries. The US Merchant Marine, which had been one of the world’s largest, never fully recovered its place in world shipping.

The successes of the privateers so impressed Stephen Mallory, the Confederate Secretary of the Navy, that he decided to commission a number of armed, deep-water cruisers to seek out and destroy Northern merchant ships as agents of the Confederacy (as opposed to private citizens). These relatively few vessels tied up hundreds of USN ships that could have been used on the blockade.

Privateering so spooked the Lincoln administration that it hastened the buildup of the blockade. Any Union naval strategy would have dictated a blockade of the Confederacy, but, considering the condition of the USN at the start of the war, such a move would have been delayed as the Union slowly built up its fleet. Instead, privateering acted as a tripwire, forcing the Federal government to face difficult political and diplomatic challenges and announce a blockade.

Unlike the privateers, the commerce raiders were part of the Confederate Navy. Although they were officered by Confederate Naval personnel, their crews were a mixed bag of Southerners and foreigners sympathetic to the Southern cause (or ,more often, attracted by the lure of prize money). Raiders built in foreign ports as "neutral" ships were sailed to sea to rendezvous with a supply ship that transferred weapons and Confederate officers aboard; crews were made up from the men aboard the "neutral" and from the supply ship. Oftentimes the crew of a commerce raider would be augmented by interested parties among the men of a captured merchant ship; crew strength could also plummet when the raider put into a neutral port. Some of the more successful commerce raiders (with the tally of their prizes and dates of activity) were:

CSS Sumter 18 vessels captured June 1861 - January 1862
CSS Alabama 64 vessels captured / sunk August 1862 - June 1864
CSS Florida 35 vessels captured August 1862 - November 1864
CSS Georgia 9 vessels captured April 1863 - October 1863
CSS Nashville 2 vessels captured October 1861 - November 1862
CSS Tallahassee 40 vessels captured July 1864 - April 1865
CSS Shenandoah 38 vessels captured October 1864 - April 1865
CSS Chickamauga 7 vessels captured Late 1864 - February 1865

Of these ships, the most well-known today is the Alabama, which was finally cornered and sunk by the USS Kearsarge off Cherbourg, France.

Campaigns on the Inland Rivers

So much attention is focused on the blockade in histories of the USN in the Civil War, that their contribution along the inland rivers is relatively unknown. Almost certainly just about everyone has seen the famous illustration of the Battle of Shiloh with the Union gunboats pounding the shore from in the middle of the Mississippi River. This was not an isolated incident. In fact, the use of water communications is what allowed the Union to make their campaign down that river and along the Cumberland and Tennessee. Far from stopping the Yankees, the rivers of the South offered avenues of invasion to the water-borne regiments of the North. The Navy’s contribution also included what a later age would call fire support, reconnaissance, and supply – for, unlike a railroad, the Confederates could not tear up a river.

The focus of Union strategy in the West (remember the size of the country in 1860) focused on reopening the Mississippi River to Northern commerce. For the Confederacy, its control of the Mississippi at any point was as good as holding it all. Not until every Rebel battery and ship from Kentucky to the Gulf was cleared would one Northern hog, bushel of corn or sack of flour pass down the Father of Waters. For the Lincoln administration, the opening of the Mississippi to national commerce was as vital an economic issue as its military aim of splitting the Confederacy asunder. It was also a political necessity: many of the people who had settled the upper reaches of the Mississippi had moved there from the South, following the course of the river into Illinois, Missouri, and Wisconsin, and of its tributary, the Ohio, into that state and Indiana. It was this "Northwest" area that proved the source of most political dissension throughout the war, being the seat of Copperhead sympathies and clamoring loudest for access to the markets of New Orleans.

The war on the inland rivers could not have been more different for the Navy from that on the ocean. Officers and men used to navigating by the stars or compass and concerning themselves with wind and tide were naturally challenged by the ever-changing nature of the rivers. Recall that, until the Army Corps of Engineers took on the task of "taming" the Mississippi in the years after the Civil War, that river – and others – continually altered its course and presented new and unknown hazards at every bend. In Mark Twain’s "Life on the Mississippi", in which he describes his education as a "cub" river boat pilot in the years prior to the war, off-duty veteran pilots would fill their free time between jobs riding up and down the river. They spent this time with other off-duty pilots in the pilothouse, exchanging information about stretches of the river they had recently steamed along. A veteran pilot relied on this information to constantly update the catalogue of snags, sandbars, and fallen trees he kept in his head. There was no such thing as a reliable map of the Mississippi: it changed constantly. Twain tells the story of a slave who went to bed one night in his shack on the slave-holding side of the Mississippi; when he awoke, he discovered he was a free man on the free side of the river – which had shifted its channel several miles to the other side of his dwelling! Another such anecdote tells of a farmer digging a well, from which he unearthed a bible with the name of the vessel "Naomi" inscribed upon it. Mystified, the farmer showed the bible to the local sage, a retired steamboat captain. The captain told him that the Naomi had been a Mississippi River steamboat that came to grief on a notorious sandbar some decades previous, and sunk to the bed of the river – which was now miles away from the farmer’s new well, the old streambed silted in. Pilots grew skilled at discerning the slight differences on the surface of the water that indicated shallow water, a sandbar or a submerged tree. These last obstacles came in a variety of dangerous guises: "planters" were fallen trees that had one end embedded in the river bottom and the other jutting upward, just below the surface; "sleepers" were waterlogged trees that floated beneath the surface; and "sawyers" were trees that bobbed up and down, and could be easily missed. All of these could tear a hole in the flat bottom of a steamboat in seconds. At different times of the year, the water level could rise or fall depending on rains or snow melt upstream. During the war this specific hazard once warranted the removal of many of the ocean-going capital ships from the Mississippi, and on another occasion almost cost the Union a fleet of gunboats on the Red River.

A major difference in design between the seagoing vessels of the Navy and the ships of the inland river fleets was in the shape of their hulls. While the ocean ships had a deep keel to lend them stability in the waves, craft designed to sail on the rivers had a flat bottom. This flat bottom allowed the gunboats of the river Navy to travel far up the ever-shallowing streams in pursuit of Rebel units – sometimes in as little as three feet of water. In one of the more unique episodes of the war, levees along the Mississippi were breached to flood the course of a shallow tributary, the Yazoo River, which offered an avenue to the rear of Vicksburg. The Navy loaded a fleet of gunboats with Federal troops and sailed "overland" on this flood. Lincoln’s praise of the Navy, that it could be found "where the ground was just a little damp" was not very far off the mark. The ships of the high seas fleet drew too much water to be of much use outside of the deeper reaches of the major rivers.

The river fleets were home to some of the more extraordinary vessels of the time: Ellet’s rams, Pook’s "turtles", mortar barges, and tinclads. These last-named ships were typically refitted freight haulers that had been purchased by the Navy, "armored" with one-inch sheets of iron, armed with a half-dozen guns, and sent down the river from the Union’s main base at Cairo, Illinois. In appearance, they were the stereotypic Mississippi steamboat, right down to twin smokestacks and side or stern paddlewheels. But to Confederate cavalry looking to ford a river or Rebel units hoping to set up a line anchored on a river, they were not a welcome sight. Again, the books listed in the bibliography provide the specifics of the river campaigns; suffice it to say here that the Union armies traveled in and were supplied by US Navy ships; that the Navy routinely assumed the duty of patrolling great portions of captured Rebel territory; and that victories such as Vicksburg could not have been won without the Navy’s help.

The "Opposition"

Inasmuch as the operations of the Confederate Navy obviously influenced those of the US Navy, a brief overview of the situation of that branch of the Southern military is warranted. The story of the CSN echoes the familiar tale of the Confederate Army and of the South in general: lack of resources. Still, like the Army, the Navy made incredible efforts to overcome these shortages.

The southern regions of the United States were not possessed of a seafaring tradition prior to the Civil War. Unlike the North, they did not have a pool of experienced civilian sailors upon which to draw. Although Navy officers chose sides in a ratio similar to that of the Army, the lack of sailors hobbled the CSN throughout the war. In total, 4500 men served in the Rebel fleet (with never more than about 3000 at any one time); this was total was 25% requirements. Beginning with nothing, Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephen Mallory realized that it would be impossible to combat the Union fleet on a large scale; even if the numbers on either side had been matched at the start of the war, the South could never hope to keep up with the Federal ability to build new vessels. Instead, the CSN focused on defending rivers and harbors as part of the Confederate strategy of guarding its extensive coastline against Federal attack. To accomplish their mission, the CSN built ironclads. Although the building of ships at home had been dismissed at the start of the war (since it was assumed they would be easy to purchase overseas), the successful construction of the Merrimack / Virginia spurred the Rebels to build ironclads at a variety of other cities:

CSS Atlanta and Savannah in Savannah, Georgia
CSS Albemarle on the Roanoke River in North Carolina
CSS Chicora, Columbia, Charleston, and Palmetto State in Charleston, South Carolina
CSS Raleigh in Wilmington, North Carolina
CSS Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Virginia II in Richmond, Virginia
CSS Tennessee and Huntsville in Mobile, Alabama
CSS Arkansas in Vicksburg, Mississippi
CSS Manassas and Louisiana in New Orleans, Louisiana

All told, the Confederacy built 27 ironclads in the course of the war. They also created 14 "cottonclads" (ships less armored but "padded" with bales of cotton to absorb the fire of the enemy) that fought at New Orleans and Memphis, 14 "Davids" (spar torpedo boats), and three submarines. The best of the Rebel ironclad vessels were poor specimens as compared with a first-class Union ironclad.

The only powder to be found in the South at the start of the war was what was captured at the Norfolk Navy Yard and the smaller supplies scattered among Federal arsenals. All told, only 60,000 pounds of powder were available. In April of 1861, the Confederacy had no arsenal, laboratory or powder mill of any size, nor any foundries or rolling mills of consequence outside of Richmond. By August 1862, the CSN had built a powder mill that supplied the needs of the Navy throughout the war. It had also created two engine boiler and machine shops, five ordnance workshops, a ropewalk capable of providing 8000 yards per month, and eighteen yards for building warships by that time. In those yards were 23 ironclads being built to join the twelve such ships already in service. In the Spring of 1863, the Navy assumed control of the massive gun foundry at Selma, Alabama and began to cast its own large guns.

Throughout the war, the Confederate Navy built or purchased three types of vessels: high seas cruisers (such as the Alabama), ironclads, and merchant vessels / blockade runners (especially toward the end of the war). Some of these ships were built overseas, but the availability of such construction depended largely on the willingness of foreign nations to turn a blind eye toward the building of CSN warships on their soil. When the Confederacy enjoyed success on the battlefield, the governments of Britain and France found it convenient to ignore the construction of Rebel warships and defer the loud protestations of Northern diplomats over the blatant abuse of their neutrality; as the fortunes of the Confederacy fell through the war, so too did the willingness of those nations to permit shipbuilding. The cost to build ironclad vessels in Europe was $93,750 in England in 1862, and it took a minimum of about 15 months to complete a ship. The most formidable ironclad built for the Confederacy was the Warrior. Costing $182,000 in Glasgow, Scotland, the ship was predicted to take two years to build; it was not completed in time to see action in the CSN.

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