JUNE 2, 1861



Destructiveness of Engines of War

As the invention of gunpowder has tended to soften the ferocity of war, and to the saving of human life, so it may be hoped that scientific improvements may yet be made which will diminish still further the carnage incident to military operations. The Chevalier Folard, in his account of the catapultę, ballistę, and other engines of the ancients, stated that some of their powers were little inferior to those of our modern instruments of destruction, and in the works of Celsus we find that the effects of leaden balls and stones projected from the engines then in use were by no means unknown. By the calculations of D'Antoni it appears that the initial velocity of a cannon ball is nearly 2000 feet in a second, and that of a musket about 1700 feet; but these velocities rapidly diminish from the moment the ball quits the mouth of the gun, and are greatly influenced by the quantity and quality of the powder, the force used in ramming the wads, the elevation of the gun, and the length of the bore. The state of the atmosphere has also some influence, the velocity of the ball in very dry weather being one-seventh greater than when the air is loaded with vapor. In sieges heavy cannon are used, while in engagements in the open field, the weight of the shot is of course less, owing to the necessity in the latter case of having guns sufficiently light to be easily portable. The other species of shot are the common musket ball fire singly from muskets or discharged in cases from field pieces; Minié rifle bullets; shrapnel and other improved shells; grape, which consists of small iron balls disposed in linen bags fastened to a wooden bottom, in the middle of which is a spindle round which the balls are secured by cord or wire; or case shot, which consists of the same iron balls put into tin cylinders, the bases of which are closed by two circular pieces of wood. Another kind of projectiles are shells, or hollow iron spheres filled with powder, which may act either before or after their explosion.

A French scientific journal we have just received states that in addition to experiments with a steel cannon, said to be invented by the emperor, which have just been made near Paris, trials have taken place with a new projectile weighing about 100 pounds, which is of such terrific power that it is believed that in bursting in the midst of a mass of men a hundred might be killed or wounded.

The closer the contending armies are to each other, the more deadly will be the effect of all projectiles. Thus, according to D'Antoni, a 32-pound shot may pierce a file of seventy men; a 16-pound shot a file of forty-eight men; an 8-pound shot a file of forty men; a 13-ounce shot a file of twenty men; a 6-ounce shot a file of sixteen men; a 1-ounce ball a file of four men--if very close to them and propelled by a certain degree of force. A shell will pass through from two to five men, and will kill or wound by its splinters from six to nine. The distance and the resistance will of course produce a great variation in the action of all these missiles, and it is remarkable what a very small amount of resistance will deflect a musket ball from its course.

A man, for instance, has been struck on the throat, and the ball, instead of passing through the neck, only penetrates the skin, performing a complete circle under the integument, and lodging close to where it entered. Another singular fact is the harmlessness of slugs and musket balls when lodged in some parts of the body, nature having formed a layer around them to protect the surrounding parts. Many instances are on record of men carrying balls thus encysted for years without much pain or inconvenience.


The war fever which has seized with burning hand on every adult of this city, has also infected Young America.

Parading the streets are companies of boys, in full uniform, whose military step and evolutions generally, would do credit to older people. Amusing scenes occasionally occur.

The other day our attention was arrested by a child holding a duster at shoulder arms. The little imitator was scarcely larger than the duster, could hardly articulate a word, and was marching, countermarching and beating time with his tiny feet with all the earnestness imaginable.

That modern institution, the newsboy, is also up to the neck in war. Not long since a laughable occurrence took place while a batch of these paper vending gentry were formed in lines. "Shoulder arms!" cried the captain. The order was obeyed. "Forward march!" was the next word of command. "Halt! Double up!" This was a stunner. The line looked puzzled, and so did the captain, who had got to the end of his rope. Finally, the boys thought they knew more about selling newspapers than drilling, and not knowing why they should "double up," or how, broke ranks and vamoosed.


A special Washington correspondent of the N. Y. Times (one evidently posted in the premises) writes as follows concerning the withdrawal of troops from the far west:

The war department has issued orders for the immediate withdrawal of all the regular troops from New Mexico and Utah. There are about 2000 in the former territory, and only 500 in the latter. If government contemplates any vigorous movement to recover and hold the line of military posts on the southern frontier, the troops can be spared from New Mexico; otherwise, in the event of their withdrawal, that territory will afford the filibusters, among the rebels, a convenient point of rendezvous from which to precipitate their raids upon Sonora and other Mexican provinces.

But the removal of the small force from Utah will prove a fatal blunder, as it will leave the great overland routes to California and Oregon unprotected, and invite aggression both from lawless Mormons and hostile Indians. After the first of July our entire mail communication with California is to be by the overland mail via Salt Lake City. The presence of even a small body of troops, representing the dignity and power of the government, will, in great measure, prevent depredations on this mail and passenger route, which otherwise will probably be broken up. The trans-continental telegraph line and pony express, of course, must share the same fate. The troops, if they come, cannot arrive before October, and the cost of transportation will greatly exceed that of organizing a new force of twice its number.

It is to be hoped that the war department will review its decision, and not leave such vast interests without the small amount of protection now enjoyed, and which should be trebled rather than curtailed.


In last Sunday's issue, we adverted to the fact that the most rampant daily and weekly abolition journals are constantly sold in large numbers at our cit news depots.

Here is a sample extract from a long and insolent article in the New York Sunday Mercury, a paper still circulated in our midst:

"The present unnatural rebellion of the slave-breeding peasantry of our southern provinces may prove an inestimable benefit to the nation at large, in the end, if it but serves to teach our lawgivers and rulers the miserable fallacy of that transcendental idea, which presupposes the possibility of a great commercial and political nation like ours being properly governed and defended without either army or navy of proportionate size."

Nearly every New York and Boston weekly teems with the most violent denunciations of the south and her institutions, and, yet find ready sale as literary papers! Even Wilkes' Spirit of the Times is patronized in this region, although the editor is enrolled among the armed enemies of the south now in Washington city! Of course, the sale of infamous abolition sheets only gives our foes money to wage war upon us. Send them back to the north, or let them rot on the shelves of news depots.

The London Times on the War

The London Times, May 14--The news from America will probably give some hopes to those who are anxiously longing for peace. There is at length a pause, produced partly by the unreadiness and partly by the moderation of the belligerents.

If, then, we take the two great parties, the Unionists and the Confederates, we see little change in the situation. Both are eager to fight, and both have gained advantages which may encourage them. The south has seized nearly all the forts within its territory, has forced the enemy to destroy one of the chief dockyards, with a number of vessels, and to abandon Harper's Ferry, one of the national establishments for the manufacture of arms. Mr. Davis has also succeeded in detaching all the great slave states from his adversary. On the other side, the north has raised an army, which, if it can be used for offensive warfare, must place the Confederates in no little danger, and has saved the national capital, and thus kept for itself the dignity of being the main trunk of the republic. Both would seem to enter on the struggle with hope of success, and their somewhat equal chances would, in ordinary circumstances, make a contest almost certain. But the position taken by Maryland and Virginia must have some effect on the progress of events. Where events are influenced by ever-changing circumstances . . . it is more than ever difficult to calculate the future. . . . it is more and more evident that a war for the subjugation of the south is an enterprise of which the Washington politicians have not as yet conceived the magnitude.

JUNE 3, 1861



The reports of two sharp engagements between three federal steamers and the rebels at the mouth of Aquia Creek are confirmed, though the dispatches do not agree in all respects as to the facts. The affair commenced on Friday morning by the federal steamer Freeborn firing at the ferry-boat at the landing. The three land batteries then opened on the Freeborn, the Anacosta, Resolute, and schooner Taylor. These vessels responded with shell, completely silencing the smaller batteries; but the large battery of ten rifled cannon on the hill could not be dealt with so effectually. It opened a brisk fire on the steamers, the Freeborn and Anacosta replying with shot and shell. Three shells took effect, scattering the rebels with great consternation, and the dead and wounded were seen carried off. None were killed on board the fleet. The Freeborn was struck by shot without damaging anything but her gun-carriage. The firing continued till noon, when all the batteries within range of federal guns had been silenced. One seaman was wounded. The official report represents the conduct of the naval officers as daring and efficient.

By later accounts it appears that the contest of Friday was resumed on Saturday, after the Pawnee reached the scene of action, and continued for four hours. The order for the New York Seventy-first to march was revoked. Pending the pause in the fight, the rebels rallied an additional force, and meantime repaired damages to their batteries nearest the shore. For the first two hours, the fire from the shore batteries was very brisk; but it was returned with still more expedition by the Pawnee. During the engagement she fired 160 shells, one of which was seen to explode immediately over the heads of the rebels working the battery. An observer through a telescope saw a number of bodies carried away in wagons during that time. The movements of the rebels were quite lively. The Freeborn received two shots, one of which passed through the cabin, smashing some crockery, but not damaging the vessel, except making a hole through her bulwarks of slight consequence. The Pawnee, whose position was nearest the enemy, received eight or nine shots, but they were all too high to inflict much damage. Some of the shots passed over the mast-head of the Pawnee to the Maryland shore!

The Pawnee and Freeborn had hauled off beyond range of the enemy's fire, and the Anacosta returned to Washington yesterday morning. The rebels undoubtedly have rifled cannon.

The railroad depot and building at Aquia Creek are destroyed, but the damage to the batteries is not thought to be permanent. The rebel loss is not precisely known, but is supposed to be ten or twelve.


The European Times--We do not, however, anticipate that many British subjects will accept letters of marque from the southern states. Privateering is now regarded in such an odious light that no shipowner with any character at stake would willingly embark in such a perilous work; and if his cupidity should involve him in trouble, he would be left to get out of it as best he can. The case is altogether different with regard to Englishmen who have become naturalized Americans, and who feel strongly on one side or the other.


The exodus of northern-born people from the south is becoming quite general. We hear of thirty coming on in one company from Florida last week. Some of these had gone south for temporary purposes as contractors, others as teachers, some as invalids, and though taking no part in the war troubles, were warned to depart. The rebels recognize no neutrals in this contest. Every man must define his position, join the confederate service, or pay tribute. Failing or refusing to comply, he must depart. And where such victims have fixed property on their hands, the time required for moving off is so short that it operates in many cases to a confiscation of property for the benefit of the rebels. An experience of this sort happened to one of our citizens, who has but recently reached home from the northwestern section of Arkansas, not far from Fort Smith. The Woburn Journal of Saturday mentions the arrival of Mr. John Bowman of that town, from Virginia. He was driven out for no other reason than his being of northern birth. Whilst in Maryland, he was hurried forward by an armed mob much faster than he desired to go. Mr. Bowman with his family was allowed twenty-four hours to arrange his affairs. He says that Virginia has been arming ever since the John Brown raid, not with the expectation of meeting any such state of affairs as the present, but for the purpose of resisting the repetition of a similar foray. He believes that when Virginia is conquered, the back-bone of the rebellion will be broken, and that it has been the design of the leading secessionists to force the brunt of the fight upon her, as they considered that she was the strongest and best able for defense. He says it is nonsense to suppose that the negroes are unacquainted with the doings of the past six weeks. If the experiences of all who have been obliged to flee from the slave region were written, we should have instructive lessons in the workings of the peculiar institution--material for another book of Exodus.


Our enterprising neighbors, Messrs. Cutter & Walker, are now manufacturing at their establishment, No. 48 Central street, a new and substantial article of suspenders for the army. They are made of the best stock, in the most durable manner, and are so arranged as not to slip from the shoulders. They have already filled one contract for the army. A handsome pair each has been sent to President Lincoln and his cabinet, to Gen. Scott, and to Gen. Butler and his staff.


Government chooses only "homely" women for nurses, and does not allow them to wear crinoline. This is a wise sanitary regulation. A pretty woman feeling of a soldier's pulse would be very apt to make it beat at the rate of several hundred a minute, and then she would report him as a "gone case."


The Syracuse Journal states on the authority of Dr. Martin McQueen, of Boston, who was compelled to flee from San Antonio, Texas, for uttering union sentiments, that the day before he came away, he saw a woman from Boston, Mass., stripped naked in the public streets, tarred and feathered, and rode on a rail round the public square, with a secession flag on each side, a crowd conducting the orgies. The same week, Charles Sanborn, of Haverhill, Mass., and Francis Kidder, of Lawrence, Mass., were hanged by a mob. The crime of the three was attachment to the union.

JUNE 4, 1861



Two columns of federal troops from Gen. McClellan's army--one commanded by Col. Kelley, composed of Virginia volunteers, and the other by Col. Crittenden, of Indiana volunteers--left Grafton early Sunday evening. After marching the entire night, about 20 miles, through a drenching rain, they surprised a camp of rebels 2000 strong at Phillipi, Va., (the shire town of Barbour county,) and routed them, killing 15, and capturing a large amount of arms, horses, ammunition, provisions and camp equipage. The surprise was complete, and at the latest advices, the federal troops were in hot pursuit of the rebels, and probably more prisoners would be taken. Col. Kelley was mortally wounded and has since died. Several others of the federal troops were slightly wounded.


A letter from New Orleans says butter is scarce at 75 cents per pound. Bacon is from 30 to 33 cents per pound, and other articles in the same proportion. Money or paper is entirely out of reach; 10 per cent. per month is offered on first class notes with collateral, without success. A letter from Galveston states that flour is selling at $20 per barrel.


The frigate Powhatan is blockading Mobile.

Advices from Commodore Bell, of the Mediterranean squadron, state that the frigate Susquehanna left Naples May 5th for New York; the Iroquois would sail from Spezzia May 14th for New York; and the Richmond would follow soon. Stores and coal have been taken aboard these.

The new steam sloops of war will be named as follows: Those to be built at Portsmouth, N. H., the Kearsarge and Ossipee, the two at Charlestown, the Housatonic and Wachusett; one at Brooklyn, the Adirondac; those at Philadelphia, the Juniata and Tuscarora.

The naval lyceum at Brooklyn will take charge of all letters for the blockading squadron.

The navy department has increased its working hours.

There are 15 war vessels now in the Gulf of Mexico, 12 on the Atlantic coast, 10 on the Chesapeake and Potomac. Every exertion is being made to add to this list with the least possible delay.

The navy department has dispatches from Capt. Ritchie, of the steamer Saranac, in the bay of Panama, 22d ultimo, in which he states that the president's proclamation relative to pretended letters of marque has been received. He was previously notified by the Pacific mail steamship company of the supposed presence of privateers in the Pacific, and adopted vigorous measures to protect our commerce, and particularly the steamers laden with treasure, from the buccaneers. The United States war vessels now on that coast are the Saranac, Cyane, St. Mary's, Narragansett and Wyoming.


The pony express has arrived at Fort Kearney, with San Francisco dates to the 23d.

Advices of our great uprising in support of the government, and to crush out rebellion and piracy, have encouraged the Union men of California, who are rapidly forming military organizations. A volunteer corps has been enrolled at San Francisco, embracing one company of light artillery and four companies of infantry. When a full regiment is formed, it will be offered to the federal government. A lieutenant of the regular army is, by leave of Gen. Sumner, drilling these volunteers.

The people's Union ticket was triumphant at the municipal election held in San Francisco, on the 21st.

A little more disposition is shown to ship treasure to the eastern states; exchange ruled 6 per cent. premium.

Oregon dates to May 9th, say that Union meetings were being held throughout the state. Dale's Mountaineer rejected the proposition to call a democratic state convention for Oregon, favoring one without discrimination of party.


There is evidently a gang of secessionists in Pleasant Valley, Dutchess county, N.Y. A Union flag was raised by leading members of the Presbyterian church, on their house of worship, Saturday. Threats of destroying the church were uttered in consequence. The church was actually fired Saturday night, but the flames were extinguished before much damage was done.


Isaac Toucey, late secretary of the navy, is a native of Newton, and Mallory, one of Jeff Davis' secretaries, is a native of Ridgefield. Fairfield county has need to blush for her unworthy offspring.


James Whittemore was arrested at Oxford, Saturday afternoon, by two officers from Middlesex county, on a count of passing counterfeit money at Ashland. He has recently made a business of traveling about the country as a teacher in the science of detecting counterfeit money, and is said to possess the testimonials of various cashiers in this state as to his skill and judgment.


The mills of the Eagle cotton company at Taunton, stopped Friday night. The employees were "docked" 17 per cent. in their wages, and they unanimously refused to submit to such a reduction, and hence the stoppage.

Mrs. Ida Bliss of Boston, who was shockingly burned by the explosion of a fluid lamp about the first of May, died on Friday. She was 20 years old.

JUNE 5, 1861



Major Poore sends an interesting analysis of the composition of the Eighth Regiment, whose pioneer service in the war as already furnished so much material for history:

The Eighth Massachusetts Regiment claims the title of the Essex Regiment, as all of the battalion and one of the flank companies are from that glorious old northeast county of the commonwealth. Lynn has furnished 160 men, Marblehead 152, Beverly 72, Newburyport 61, Salem 59, Gloucester 53, and other towns lesser numbers. Of the 705 effective men on the rolls, 490 are single, and 215 are married men. The average age is twenty-four years and ten months, and the average weight about 145 pounds.

The occupations of the members of the Essex Regiment in civil life were varied. Among them are: 289 cordwainers, 48 clerks, 36 carpenters, 30 marine[r]s, 20 painters, 18 farmers, 17 merchants, 12 machinists, 11 cabinet makers, 11 truckmen, 10 bakers, 9 blacksmiths, 9 laborers, 8 butchers, 8 curriers, 8 morocco dressers, 7 printers, 7 shoe cutters, 6 jewellers, 6 manufacturers, 5 masons, 5 gentlemen, 4 horse railroad drivers, 4 moulders, 4 students, 4 artists, 4 sailmakers, 3 lawyers, 3 railroad hands, and 2 each of saddlers, saloon keepers, stair builders, fishermen, weavers, calkers, expressmen, peddlers, landlords, stone cutters, bricklayers, tailors, harness makers, and coach makers.

The Essex Regiment also has one conductor, spar maker, factory overseer, engineer, teacher, piano maker, comb maker, auctioneer, provision dealer, shoe maker, confectioner, musician, ship carpenter, collar maker, glue maker, miller, box maker, whalebone cutter, plumber, telegraph operator, ice dealer, trunk maker, tobacconist, gold beater, fish dealer, physician, cooper, watchmaker, supercargo, hatter, bookbinder, belt maker, marble worker, boiler maker, silver plater, book agent, wool spinner, factory operator, paper maker, &c., &c.

Materials for establishing a colony if it not? If Governor Andrew will accept the services of the regiment, as rendered for the war, it can settle down in Virginia and establish a live community with its own members.


Hon. Frederick Smyth of Manchester, who accompanied the New Hampshire Regiment to Washington, returned home yesterday. He visited all our camps at Washington and on the Virginia side opposite, also Fort Monroe and the encampments in the vicinity; was on the Potomac off Aquia Creek on Friday and witnessed the whole of that engagement. Mr. Smyth says that on Thursday there were nineteen thousand federal troops encamped on the Virginia side of the Potomac, nearly all of whom are actively engaged in erecting fortifications at Arlington Heights, head of Long Bridge and back of Alexandria. Mr. Smyth left Col. Tappan's camp Thursday. The men were in good condition. He states that they were then under orders to march; but as their forward movement is not reported from Washington, the order may have been recalled.


Two steamers arrived from England yesterday, bringing intelligence from Europe to the 24th ultimo. In England, American affairs were the chief subject of discussion. The Times is dissatisfied with Mr. Seward's instructions to the foreign ministers. There  were rumors of privateers fitting out at Liverpool. The new kingdom of Italy is in the market for a loan of  500,000,000 francs. In the Liverpool market all qualities of cotton had advanced in price, in consequence of the news from America. Breadstuffs declined, and other articles remained without material change.


Tit for Tat--The South threatens the North with her Beauregard. New York will meet her with her Bowery Guard.


It is said that the ladies of Troy, N.Y., have invented a new feature in their fairs. A parcel of handsome girls set themselves up and allow the "fellers" to kiss them for twelve and a half cents a kiss. One girl made $62 in on evening. One man took $11 worth.


A gentleman who travelled with Colonel Maxey Gregg's South Carolina Regiment a  part of the way from Richmond to Manassas Junction, says that they were accompanied by two hundred negroes, who carried their masters' arms, knapsacks, and in many cases an extra hat. The guns were strapped on the backs of the negroes. A peculiar feature was a full negro band, which played Dixie elegantly.


John O'Neil, a prominent citizen of Rochester, N.Y., on the 28th ult., went with his wife to Elmira, to bid farewell to an enlisted brother. On returning home, he fell between the platforms of two cars, and his body was cut in two. His wife knew nothing of the accident, supposing him to be in another car, until she reached Rochester.


Matthew D. Field of Massachusetts, one of the noted Stockbridge family, has been sent to Cairo, Ill., by the government, to superintend, as civil engineer, the construction of five large floating batteries, each capable of carrying 500 men, and destined to accompany an expedition down the Mississippi river. Mr. Field was formerly one of the engineers of the Atlantic Ocean cable.


Mrs. Wilson's
Hair Dressing

Mrs. Wilson's Hair Dressing is put up in large bottles, and retails for 37 cts. per bottle, and for dressing the hair of any person, young or old, there is not its equal in the world. It will make the hair everything you wish it to be, and moreover, it has a perfume that is infinitely superior to any of the fashionable extracts, either foreign or American, which alone should entitle it to  a place on every lady's toilet table.

JUNE 6, 1861



From present appearances we infer that a battle, of some magnitude, will take place very soon near Manassas Junction, seventeen miles from Alexandria; or, if the Southern forces remain there, the battle will be at a later day, nearer Richmond.

As yet the Northern and Southern troops have not met to destroy each other in battle. In Mexico, both Northern and Southern troops fought side by side, and both acquitted themselves bravely and with honor. The Southerner was rather the more impetuous, but the Northerner proved more capable of endurance, and, in severe service, the better soldier. Now the Northern soldiers, who have not, as a general thing, any embittered feelings against the South, are treading Southern soil, and the hot blood of the Southern men is up. That they will fight with desperation, when they deem it proper to give battle, we do not doubt, and whether this feeling, that is now so thoroughly aroused in them, of a defense of their rights and their homes, will give them controlling advantages in battle, with equal numbers, remains to be seen.


The Boston Pilot discovers the inconsistencies between profession and practice about removals from office:

"The fair promises held out seven weeks ago, when volunteers were needed for the war, that party distinctions were to be disregarded in the administration of the patronage of the Government, have vanished into thin air, particularly in Massachusetts. At the first call of the president, three days after the evacuation of Fort Sumter, the Democrats and Union men far outstripped the Republican in rushing to the support of the stars and stripes, and the quota of Massachusetts named in the proclamation of the President was trebled. Compliments, thick and fast, were showered upon the patriotism of the thousands, who, laying aside their party ties, nobly came forward to serve under a Government chosen by the party whose course and threats brought on the war. But no sooner was it made certain that no more troops would be needed from Massachusetts, than the guillotine was set in motion at the Custom House, and Democratic heads fell off in every department. Chiefs, clerks, inspectors, watchmen, had to give way to the very men who have brought on war's desolation."


NO PARTIES--The Providence Post says Collector Bayley of Bristol has entered upon the duties of his office, and commences operations by removing every Democrat found in the Government service at Bristol and Warren.


"NO PARTY NOW!"--The Collector of the port of Boston, Mr. Goodrich, returned from his residence in Stockbridge on Monday morning, and while making a brief stop in Pittsfield, remarked to a gentleman, as we are informed, that twelve Democrats would be dismissed from the Custom House on Tuesday, and their places supplied by Republicans--by men, we suppose, who sported torches and lanterns and made midnight marches before the Presidential election, but who have not, as yet, had patriotism enough to risk their precious persons by volunteering to sustain the Union they did so much to imperil. How contemptible appear such politicians as Goodrich and the Massachusetts Congressional delegation at the present time! "Nero fiddled while Rome was on fire!"

The Government is preparing in the West a number of gunboats to operate on the Mississippi. Some of these, it is said, will be cased with iron to resist the shot from the batteries erected upon that river. Others will be strongly built tug-boats, strengthened for war purposes. One of the latter has already been put in use at Cairo. The lower Mississippians feel very much concerned about these manifestations, and at New Orleans, particularly, there is a great deal of apprehension entertained of an invasion from above. Every little movement about Cairo is chronicled as soon as made, and a great deal more space given to events there than those transpiring near the seat of Government. The Western movement will, no doubt, be a formidable one when it commences its work.


SIGNIFICANT--It is a trifling thing, but not without meaning, that the Secession flag is flying undisturbed in the harbor of Liverpool. The other day a vessel with that ornament at its peak attempted to enter the harbor at Havre, but was stopped and compelled to substitute the Stars and Stripes before she was permitted to pass. It is quite easy to discover the different leanings of  the French and British masses.


COST OF THE WAR--The Washington correspondence says "the campaign against the Treasury opens with great spirit and success. The daily average expenditures of the U.S. Government are estimated at $1,000,000. Half of the amount probably is embraced in one item--cheatage. It used to be said in Congress that 40 per cent. must be allowed for cheatage, but these are war times."


Jefferson Davis held a levee in Richmond on Thursday week, at the Governor's mansion, where several thousand ladies and gentlemen paid their respects to him. During the day he visited the military camp, and made an address to the volunteers. Among those who accompanied Mr. Davis to Richmond is S. R. Todd, a brother-in-law of Mrs. Lincoln.


While Jackson, the hotel-keeper, who killed Col. Ellsworth, at Alexandria, is stigmatized at the North as a traitor and murderer of the deepest dye, the South regard him as a patriot and a martyr. In all the principal Southern cities flags were hoisted at half-mast, as a tribute of respect to the memory of the "gallant hero" (so they call him) who was "the first to die in defence of the Confederate flag." In Mobile, on the 29th ult., $1100 had been subscribed for the support of the family of the deceased, and similar contributions are being made in Nashville, New Orleans, and other places.


NEWPORT MODESTLY GLORIFIED--The Providence Journal grows eloquent over the healthiness of Newport, in answer to the suggestion of the Tribune that the naval school be removed to Perth Amboy, N.J., because it is more healthy. The Journal thinks Newport the healthiest place in the country, and says nobody there thinks of dying under seventy; and the obituaries speak of the death of a man at that age as "cut off in the flower of his youth," or at least "in the prime of his manhood."

JUNE 7, 1861


The Harriet Lane Engages a Rebel Battery

On Wednesday morning, the steamer Harriet Lane exchanged about fifty shots with the Big point battery, nearly opposite Newport News, on James river. The steamer received two shots from a rifled gun, one through her bulwarks, wounding five of her men, one of them severely. She was about three-fourths of a mile from the rebel battery. It contained seven embrasures, some of which disclosed heavy pieces. The shells from the Harriet Lane burst immediately over the battery, taking effect within the works, and (by means of spy-glasses) carts were seen to move off, it is conjectured with the dead. The battery has ten or twelve guns. The Harriet Lane's purpose was merely to feel their fire and determine the character of the work.

There is another battery a short distance further up the James river, and it is evidently the purpose of the rebels to fortify the shore at points where our forces may make a landing, fearing that Gen. Butler may land forces on that side of the river, with a view of commanding the rear of Norfolk, cutting off railroad connection with the South and Richmond. Large numbers of men are engaged in throwing up fortifications in the neighborhood of Pie Point.


The steamer Sawanee arrived at Key West on the 14th ult., from New Orleans. She belongs to the same company that loaned the Rusk to parties who seized the Star of the West last winter. Lieut. Craven, the federal commander at Key West, refused to give the Sawanee a clearance for any port in the seceded states, and she declined taking one for New York; therefore, she was detained for the use of the government, and sent on a successful search for the bark Mystic, which she fell in with at sea, piloting to Key West. The Sawanee afterwards sailed for Fort Pickens with 70 men and a full freight of stores for the relief of Col. Brown.

Letters from Capt. Adams, dated May 20th, state that great preparations have been made by the rebels for an attack on Fort Pickens, which at that time was hourly expected, and he dispatched the Wyandotte to Key West for troops, and afterwards placed her in a position where she could render the most aid.

Previous to that time Capt. Adams had notified Bragg, the rebel commander, that the port was strongly blockaded and vessels would violate it at their peril. Bragg impudently replied that this was a virtual acknowledgement of the nationality and independence of the confederate states, and asked Adams to consider the harbor closed against all boats and vessels of the United States, as he (Bragg) should permit none to enter except Adams's dispatch boat under a white flag. To this Capt. Adams did not respond.


Additional troops have been ordered to Chambersburg, indicating an early movement of federal troops on Harper's Ferry. Mr. Seward remarked, Thursday morning, that he expected to hear of sharp work there in a day or two.

All reports of the evacuation of Harper's ferry by the rebels are pronounced incorrect. Some sick persons have been sent away. A government agent named Williams was hung on Wednesday as a spy. The railroad bridge across Sleepy Creek, 20 miles east of Harper's Ferry, has been destroyed.

The secession pay master has been captured by the federal forces, on his way to Harper's Ferry, with $50,000, intended for the pay of troops.

A Wealthy Secessionist Killed

Clinton Rentch, a wealthy secessionist, was shot Wednesday night by a Union man in Williamsport, Md. Rentch had boasted that he could whip any Unionist living. After his death his pass was found, signed by his brother, a prominent secessionist of Maryland, accrediting him to Capt. Doyle, an officer in the rebel army at Harper's Ferry.

Dr. Causter of Washington has been taken a prisoner by the Virginia secessionists in Maryland.

Disarming Baltimore

Marshal Bonnifont of Baltimore on Thursday seized a large quantity of powder  and other contraband articles, and a considerable amount of specie, intended for the rebels. The federal government approved his acts.


Gas Fixtures for Springfield

Gas Fixtures for Westfield. Gas Fixtures for Holyoke. Gas Fixtures for Northampton. Gas Fixtures for Greenfield. Gas Fixtures for Easthampton. Gas Fixtures for all who are opposed to secession and in favor of sustaining the present administration. The subscriber having removed to the store now occupied by T. A. Williams, No. 84 Massasoit Block, Main street, near the Depot, would take this opportunity to thank a  generous  public for the liberal patronage he has received during the last six months, and would respectfully inform them that he has just opened a fresh lot of the latest styles of Coal Gas Fixtures for private dwellings, stores, churches, &c.; also the latest patterns of Glass Shades, and, to clap the climax, I have the best Gas Burner ever invented for saving gas, and brilliancy and purity of light--the Patent Lava Tip.

S. G. Priest
No. 84 Main street

 JUNE 8, 1861



Nearly ten thousand of our best troops will be going home by the time Congress meets early in July. Just as these men become well drilled and are fit for active service, they will return to their homes. This is much to be regretted, but cannot be helped. The three months' regiments are very generally composed of business men, who cannot leave their businesses for the campaign without pecuniary ruin to themselves. The three Connecticut regiments will generally return at the end of the time for which they were enlisted, and this is true of several other regiments, but there is not one of them all that will not most willingly remain temporarily beyond the three months' term if any danger menaces the government and country. We are not likely, therefore, to be caught in a trap, such as Jeff Davis calculates upon, by the return of the three months' men. They will not return till the new regiments are all at the seat of war, and in a condition to fight.


The Trait d'Union, organ of the Mexican government at the City of Mexico, expresses doubts whether Mr. Corwin, our minister, will be received by the Juarez government. It argues that he cannot be received as representing the whole United States without disrespect to  the new southern confederacy, and as he will not of course consent to stand as the minister of the northern states only, the Trait does not see how he can be received at all. It says further: "It must not be forgotten that the republican party--the same which Mr. Corwin represents--refused to ratify the Treaty of McLane, which was so favorable at the time to the liberal cause, on the main ground that the treaty had been made by a government whose authority did not extend over the whole nation. This argument may now be turned against the republicans, for the authority of Mr. Lincoln is certainly very far from reaching over the whole of the country which once formed the confederation of the United States. This reasoning is strengthened by other considerations not less potent--the necessity which Mexico has for living on good terms with the confederate states, its neighbors; the danger to its frontiers of making for itself so formidable an enemy; its need of commercial relations with the confederate states, and many other irresistible reasons, upon which we shall take more than one occasion to dilate."

An Emancipation at Fortress Monroe

Thirty of the slaves who have sought refuge in Fortress Monroe have been emancipated by their master. He came to the fort to ask Gen. Butler for them, who told him they might go with him if they chose, but they decided to stay. The claimant then said if the general would allow him to take his slaves to Richmond he would manumit them. Gen. Butler said he could not make any such arrangement. He, the claimant, could go to Richmond with or without the slaves, and they could go or stay, as they pleased, and if they went the claimant might do as he pleased about manumitting them. In short, Gen. Butler refused to agree to anything but that negroes and master might leave as soon as they pleased. The claimant, finding himself in a bad fix, manumitted the thirty slaves on the spot, left them in the fort free men, and left himself for Richmond.


One of the general orders as to army nurses, issued from Washington, says they must wear the regulation dress, "no hoops being allowed in the service." Patriotic girls enlisting in this service must therefore make up their minds to become "perfect frights" for the time being. Miss Dix publishes a caution to women not to go to Washington to seek service, with the idea of being near their friends in the army, unless they have been previously engaged. Some such have arrived there without means, and failing to be employed, have taxed the charities of the people for money to send them home again. It is suggested that in no way can the women do more for the comfort of the troops than by knitting woolen socks for them. The coarse machine socks supplied to them are hard to the feet and have no wear to them, and the way the soldiers "darn" them don't stop the holes.


For the first time since Eve ate the apple, her daughters are regretting that they are fair. It has been decreed by the powers that be, that none but plain women, and those over thirty at that, shall be accepted as army nurses. And even these are to be rendered more unbecoming by the abolition of hoops and the adoption of a regulation dress. Nothing has been said as yet about the shaving of the head and the style of hood to be worn, but it is expected the authorities will attend to these little items next. Meanwhile, those whose beauty is above the required standard must stay at home and bestow their smiles on smooth-faced, kid-gloved clerks and such other specimens of masculinity as may be left within the radius of their charms. It is a hard case at the best. The poor, wounded soldiers, doomed to the attention of these angels in disguise, and the good looking women who are compelled to waste their sweetness around home, crave about equal portions of our sympathy. One of the pretty ones thus states in the Home Journal:

"Handsome women are in dismay. The Ladies' Relief Association refuse all volunteer nurses except plain ones. Nobody is to be sent to Washington who has any pretension to good looks. Beauty is to stay at home and scrape lint! This seems to us all exceedingly tyrannical, though some of us are trying to disembellish to the eligible degree--leaving off our various little becoming-nesses, etc., etc. But it does not seem to us very politic; for, who wishes to be handed over to history as a woman certified to be 'plain' by a committee? Then they accept 'none who are under thirty!' Dear me! Is nobody to be devoted to a dying young hero except an old fossil like that? And how many are going to confess to thirty? The army should be consulted, I think, too, as to whether they really prefer these nurses that are old and ugly! All doses are not agreeable, and it may need a handsome nurse, sometimes, to persuade the wounded Adolphus to take his medicine. Should there not be at least a 'Reserve Guard' (of us pretty girls) for this branch of the service? Of course, there is an elderly Army Surgeon at West Point. Could you not ask him the professional question, as to whether good looks are not naturally more soothing and healing? And ask him whether a plain, gloomy looking nurse is not discouraging and irritating to the handsome young sufferer?

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