, 1862

Affairs in Canada.

Lord Monck, the Governor General of Canada, has been making a remarkable speech, at a public reception given to him in Montreal.

The main purport of the speech is to impress upon the Canadians the obligation of putting themselves into a state of armed preparation, to be able to defend themselves from attack, and from liability to attack, coming from the United States.

Lord Monck does not say—and is too wary to say, if he thought so—that there is any thing in the state of the relations between the United States and Great Britain, or the United States and Canada, to make hostilities probable. His plea is the same as that which keeps up great armaments in Europe at seasons of the most profound peace. One warlike, armed, or suspected government imposes upon all its neighboring governments the duty of keeping up a defensive force—sufficient, at least, for defence against possible attack. France and England have for generations held this relation towards each other. While in public accord, and even in alliance, they measure their armies and navies against each other, and increase or relax their readiness for war, as they see the capacity of each other for attack increase or diminish. The rule-enunciated by Lord Palmerston and quoted by Lord Monck—is, that to maintain perfect friendship with your neighbor, you must be always ready to go to war with him. “A country which wants to maintain friendly relations with its neighbors, and to hold that position in the world, which its importance and dignity require,” ought “to be prepared not for aggression, but to be constantly prepared for defence.”

Applying this rule to Canada and the United States, the Governor General warns the people of Canada that they must give up the longer expectation of that quietude and absence from military cares for their own support, which they enjoyed so long as the United States were at peace, and had no great military establishments. But, the United States now being at war, converted, as he expresses it, into one “vast camp,” the British authorities apply the same principle of armed preparations for defence, as an indispensable requisite for the maintaining of its own authority ad the continuance of peace as they have practices in Europe; and, what is more significant to the Canadians, who have been living so long under light burdens, living under British protection, with little expense to themselves, they are plainly told that England expects Canada to do her full share in defending herself. England, Lord Monck says, will employ the whole resources of the empire to save the Province, if attacked; but England reckons on the resources of Canada as the resources of the Empire, and on the men of Canada to fill the armies of defence.

This speech of the Governor General is thought to have direct reference to the failure of the late militia bill in the Canadian Parliament, which produced so much remark in England as showing a culpable indifference among the Canadians to their own defence, and an inexcusable dependence on the unassisted power of the mother country. In Canada, however, it has been defended on grounds of objection to the details of the bill, to which are added those partisan considerations of hostility to leaders in a public measure, which always throw their adversaries into opposition independently of the real merits of the questions at issue.

That the state of things in the United States is seriously alarming to the people of Canada and the Government of Great Britain, in reference to Canada, is sufficiently evident and very natural. In a state of peace, the English colonies could rest by the side of a republic, however superior it might be in its undeveloped military capabilities, and grow steadily rich and powerful under such circumstances. Contiguity, the same language, the ties of commercial and social intercourse, and habits of thought gradually assimilating to each other, made the neighborhood agreeable and profitable, and, to some minds, were preparing the way for a political union hereafter. The preservation of State identity under a Federal Government, exclusively charged with foreign affairs, and of subjects of general concern, as specially granted, was an alluring inducement which prolonged peace might have ripened into controlling motives. The war, however, in which the republic is plunged, has created new positions and stirred up new questions.

The favorers of an American connection, of which there has not yet been an avowed party of much pretensions in Canada, are met with a new state of facts, in the war itself, and in the political developments which the end of the war may bring about. They have no choice but to themselves, as subjects of great Britain, and impose heavy taxes upon themselves to maintain their neutrality, and to be ready to assist the Home Government in war, if it should come. On the side of annexation, they have, on the other hand, the prospect, even if it should be peacefully effected by consent of all parties, of sharing in the burdens of a heavy indebtedness; and they cannot see which of the parties which are contending for mastery in the Government at Washington will prevail—whether the Federal principle will be restored, as it originally was, in the Union, or the centralization go on, that shall establish the right to extinguish State Governments, and consolidate in Washington power over the local institutions of the members of the Union.

The party for annexation, never truly strong in Canada, is not likely to gather strength by the events or prospects in the United States. These are, on the contrary, likely to attach the Canadians more strongly to their connection with a powerful empire like that of Great Britain, and to make them partisans of a peace with the United States, mainly because peace will entail upon them lighter burdens than a war, which must be conducted on their own frontiers, and be waged by their own people, although sustained by the money and help of England. The question of sympathy with either of the contending parties in the States, may be pout out of the question with the Canadians. They have shown, indeed, no very ardent feeling towards the Washington Government, but that implies no very active sympathy for its opponents. It serves only to strengthen the anticipations of their future course, which will be to cling to the British connection much longer than they would otherwise have done; and whenever the necessity of separation comes, to look to an independent Government or a union among themselves.


Wash Its Face.—We have none too many town-clocks in New Orleans, and therefore it behooves those who have the care of the few there are to keep their faces (the clocks’ faces, we mean,) sufficiently clean to enable the wayfarer to tell what’s o’clock by them. St. Therese, on Camp street, has a very good one, but it is awfully dirty.


Grammar on the Road.—There is no law we know of compelling corporations, which proverbially have no souls, to study and remember the dictates of Lindley Murray.1 But there certainly is some room for improvement in the style of writing the placards which we see stuck up in some of the city railroad cars. For example, one of them announces that “there are eight seats on each side, and a less (meaning a smaller) number of passengers will not be allowed to occupy them.” Another tells us that “no persons whomsoever (instead of whoever) except the driver (rather a needless exception, this,) are allowed to ride on the cars without paying their fare.”


Chaplains in the Army.—There are at present in the United States army in the field about four hundred and seventy-two chaplains, who may be divided as follows: Methodists, 124; Presbyterians (N.S.), 94; Congregational, 57; Episcopal, 66; Baptist, 43; Presbyterians (O.S.), 24; Unitarian, 23; Catholic, 22; not known, 9. Total, 472.


Submarine Speculation.—T. F. Wells, of Boston, has just completed a contract with the Government, by which he proposes to raise the vessels sunk at Gosport navy yard and in Hampton Roads. The value of property sunk in which he proposes to operate amounts to over a million of dollars. Mr. Wells is to commence at once, and is to receive forty-five per cent. salvage from the Government on all property recovered. The undertaking involves an outlay by the contractor of sixty thousand dollars before commencing the work; he will employ something like two hundred men, among whom will be twenty divers, who will descend to the ships in Wells & Gowen submarine armor. Such of the vessels as are not raised will be blasted with gunpowder, and all the material that is of value recovered.—Exchange.

JULY 28, 1862

Virginia to be Laid Waste.

The Northern papers publish three atrocious orders from Pope, commanding the Federal army of the Shenandoah Valley, all dated the 18th instant. Order No. 5 directs that the troops shall be subsisted in the country where military operations are carried on, and vouchers given to “loyal owners,” payable at the conclusion of the war, upon satisfactory testimony that they have continued “loyal” since the date of the vouchers.

No. 6 directs that cavalry forces shall carry no wagon or supply trains, but lay villages and neighborhoods which they pass through under contribution for subsistence of men and horses, vouchers to be given as stated before.

No. 7 notifies the inhabitants of the Shenandoah Valley that all injuries done by bands of guerrillas to railroad tracks, telegraph lines, trains of supply, bridges, &c., must be repaired at the expense of the citizens living within five miles of the spot, who must turn out en masse for that purpose, and besides pay in money and property, to be levied by military force, the full amount of pay and subsistence of the force necessary to coerce the performance of the work. If a Federal soldier or camp follower be fired upon from any house, the house will be razed to the ground. If such a thing occur at a distance from any house, the people within five miles will be compelled to pay a sufficient indemnity. All persons detected in such outrages to be shot.

It is needless to say that under such orders every spot of Virginia passed by a hostile foot will be laid waste, and not a morsel of food be left to the inhabitants. Should the villain who can issue such orders, or the troops who enforce them, be treated as civilized and honorable belligerents?


News Gatherings.

Scarcity of Labor.

Accounts from Jefferson county, Va., represent the wheat crop there as the most luxuriant for many years, but that a small portion only will be saved in consequence of the scarcity of labor. In many instances the ladies have gone into the harvest field to secure as much of the crop as possible.

The Contrabands on Roanoke Island.

The North Carolina papers say a report is in circulation that the contrabands in the hands of the Hessians on Roanoke Island, exasperated by abuse, hard labor and ill treatment, stole upon the Yankees while at dinner and put several of them to death; and that as soon as the soldiers were able to recover from the suddenness of the attack, they rallied and commenced an indiscriminate slaughter of the Negroes, which resulted in their almost total extermination.

Desertions from the Hessian Army.

A correspondent of the Richmond Dispatch from the Shenandoah Valley says:

The Yankees are leaving the Valley rapidly. They have a considerable amount of supplies at Winchester yet, and we will either capture or destroy some of them. Our presence, too, induces many to desert, and they flock to us rapidly. Fifteen in one gang came up to Powell’s Fort day before yesterday, and five in another. Four hundred deserted from one regiment at Front Royal the past week, leaving nothing but officers. There is great dissatisfaction and demoralization in the Yankee army here, and if their men at home have no greater inclination to fight this war through than their hirelings here, old Abe will have a sorry time of it in getting his 300,000 additional troops. Gen. Robertson paroles all who voluntarily come into our lines.


The Richmond Enquirer, in a chapter on artillery, maintains that the experience of a year’s warfare has established, that artillery, in a wooded country like Virginia, cannot occupy as prominent a position as an arm of service as it does in Europe; and it is a matter of universal surprise how small a portion of the Confederate loss sustained in the battles before Richmond was due to the Federal artillery, while, on the other hand, very few of our batteries had any chance to get into the action at all. The Enquirer concludes:

Infantry is the great and only formidable arm of service in this country; every effort should be made to increase it. No more artillery or cavalry are wanted; indeed, a reduction of the unarmed light artillery, as well as that of the heavy batteries around Richmond, would seem to be suggested by the wants of the service. While regiments of infantry and cavalry are numbered and companies lettered, batteries of artillery are known only by their captains’ names—hence, there is an individuality about the artillery attractive to our men because of the opportunities for distinction which it offers—hence the eagerness for the artillery shown by our officers in the organization of our army.

It may appear hard that men who volunteered for artillery should be reduced to infantry, but the wishes of the officers and men should not be consulted when the essential good of the service be promoted. We have more artillery than is necessary, or can be advantageously used in a country of the character of the State of Virginia. The theatre of operations limits the amount of artillery. So also of cavalry. No more of that arm is wanted. With the exception of Stuart’s gallant reconnoissance and vidette duty, the cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia has necessarily been useless. We have no Murats nor disciplined and drilled cavalry like the French, nor have we any use for either. The country will not admit of their operation. Every incomplete cavalry company should be converted into infantry.


A Protest Against the War.

The London Times, of July 3d, in an article on American affairs, says:

We would, then, once more raise our voice against the indefinite prosecution of this horrible war. While the scorching sun is filling the camps with fever and cholera; while the youth and strength of the country are being hurried to the common frontier in preparation for a new feast of blood in the autumn; while the North is burdening itself with a debt concerning which even its rulers fear to speak plainly, and while the great staples of the South are being given to the flames, we would ask the federals, with whom the whole matter really rests, where is their conscience, where is their common humanity, or their boasted worldly prudence? They are in arms to enforce on men of their own blood submission to a rule that the latter detest.

JULY 29, 1862

Timely Talk.—A correspondent of the Roxbury Journal has some excellent hints and interesting facts bearing upon the subject of enlistments. The writer thinks “the war cannot last a year longer; we can end it before that time, if men will come forward. If we do not end it, it will end us. Which shall it be?” After considering the liberal allowance offered our troops, the chance a man stands of coming out safe is considered, and under this head facts are brought out which are probably at variance with popular opinion. Roxbury soldiers have had their full share in the perils of the camps and the battlefields; but the mortality among the children of Roxbury is greater than among the soldiers of Roxbury. The actual loss of life, all things considered, is surprisingly small. Roxbury has sent out in all 901 men. Of these only 14 have fallen in battle and 7 from disease. Less than three out of a hundred have died in Roxbury, and less than three out of a hundred have died among the soldiers of that city. We are persuaded that a like inquiry into the facts in respect to other cities and towns in Massachusetts would show very similar results.


Various Matters.—The funeral of ex-President Van Buren was attended yesterday at his late residence in Kinderhook. Gov. Morgan and many other eminent persons were present.

As a party of young ladies were bathing at Rye Beach, on Thursday morning, one of their number, Miss Alice Simmonds, was seized with the cramp, and fell fainting beneath the waves. She was immediately brought to the shore, but all efforts to resuscitate her proved unavailing. Miss Simmonds was 29 years of age, and belonged in Warner, N.H., whither her body was carried on Friday for interment.

Mrs. Senator Harlan and Mrs. Major Weed are at Fortress Monroe, with a large amount of hospital stores. They propose to remain and give them out by personal distribution to those most needing them.

The shipment of Pennsylvania rock oil, or petroleum, from this country to Europe, during the first six months of the present year, amounted to considerably more than one million of dollars. This, for a trade that is in its infancy, is a large business.

“I shall be at home next Sunday night,” a young lady said, as she followed her beau to the door, who seemed to somewhat wavering in his attachment. “So shall I,” was the reply.

The Haverhill Banner says, “The shoe business continues to be lively, and the scarcity of workmen, keeps the remaining few at home busily employed and at fair wages. Every manufacturer is doing to the extent of his means.”

Arrangements have been effected between the Treasury and the Post Office Department. The latter is to prepare stamps for currency, and deliver them to the Treasury Department for distribution. They are to be of all denominations, from one to 30 cents. Mr. Blair expects to have some ready for use on or about the 10th proximo.

The wool clip of Maine, the present year, has greatly exceeded that of any former year. It is computed that Somerset county has yielded 150,000 pounds, and that the yield in Franklin county reaches 115,000 pounds.

The Ossipee (N.H.) Register says more persons have visited the White Mountain district during the past fortnight than is usual this early in the season.

Elias Howe, of Bridgeport, inventor of the sewing machine, and one of the wealthiest men in Connecticut, after giving $2000 to the enlistment fund, has enlisted himself unconditionally, and announced that he will not procure a substitute.2


Vermont.—Lewis S. Partridge, late United States marshal and postmaster at Norwich under Mr. Buchanan, and who was recently indicted by the grand jury for high treason, has absconded, accompanied by other prominent parties implicated with him. The principal charge was cutting down a  flag-staff and carrying off the United States flag. Officers are in pursuit of them.


A new gunpowder has been discovered and experiments are in progress at Vienna and Berlin. It consists of the flour of starch, which, boiled in a peculiar way with nitric acid, possesses a far greater projective force than the gunpowder in ordinary use. It has also the great advantage of not fouling the piece to any appreciable extent, and, from the nature of the materials used, is produced at a far cheaper rate. Another point in its composition which recommends it especially for fortresses and magazines is the facility with which the ingredients are mixed together, thus rendering it possible to keep them separate until wanted for actual use. In this state it is non-explosive.

There are to be built immediately four new iron-clad vessels, to be constructed in addition to the Ericsson gunboats, the Ironsides, Roanoke, and the vessels the laying of whose keel-blocks was announced last week. They are to be constructed as follows: One at Jersey City, one at Greenpoint, one at Boston, and one in New York.

The Springfield (Ill.) Journal estimates that twenty thousand bales of cotton will be sent to market from that state the coming fall. It says the success, even to this extent, of the experiment of raising cotton, will stimulate our farmers to efforts on a broader scale next season.


The Right Spirit.—At the war meeting in Cambridgeport, Saturday evening, that large-hearted man, J. M. S. Williams, after referring to the disinclination of men having families to enlist, pledged himself to pay to the family of every man who should volunteer before Tuesday night, $200 in case the soldier should fall in battle; if incurably wounded, he guaranteed to the sufferer a like sum, adding he would see that none of the children of such volunteers should be a burden to the town.


Bounty Money.—The mayor and city treasurer, who went to Camp Stanton yesterday, paid off sixty men, making the whole number paid by the city up to the present time, 208. Quite a number of the men reserved $5 of their bounty money, and sent $95 to their families, or had it deposited in the bank. There are some 25 more in camp who will be paid this week.

JULY 30, 1862

The New “Policy.”

The president stated on Sunday, in the hearing of several gentlemen, that he had done with “throwing grass,” and henceforth should conduct the war with severity.—New York Evening Post.

The lenient policy which has hitherto prevailed in the conduct of the war has proven to the world by what kind and beneficent motives our government is actuated. Compelled to march through a hostile country, the Union army has taken its supplies along with it, scarcely dreaming of the possibility of drawing support from the people whom it was sent to reconcile or conquer. If in the haste with which disloyal freeholders were compelled to abandon their estates, they neglected to make suitable arrangements for their preservation, we have courteously loaned the services of good union men to guard them from injury and decay. If their slaves, preferring the service of loyal men to their masters, have escaped—with generosity which it would be difficult to parallel, we have sent the wretches back to their chains.

The inconvenience of such a policy—to call it by no ungentle name—is evidenced in the failure of more than one campaign. It ahs required precious time and heavy calamity to teach us the gravity of the mistake. There have been prophets enough who foresaw how dangerous it was, but their warnings, like Cassandra’s, have fallen upon unheeding ears. But there is, at last, to be a change of policy. Heaven grant the promise may not be one of those kept to the ear but broken to the hope! The Washington correspondent of the Evening Post says the question was determined upon at a cabinet meeting on Monday, in which there was an extraordinary degree of unanimity.

“There was some tenderness towards the border slave states, even on the question of slavery, but none whatever towards the Gulf and Atlantic states. I hazard the opinion that the policy of the government will be to totally overthrow slavery in the cotton and sugar-growing states by every method in its power. It will not stick at any obstacles, being convinced that the only hope of making those states obedient is to entirely destroy slavery in them. Total abolition in the states of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas is resolved upon, or I am greatly misinformed. There will be no proclamation on the subject, but it is none the less the fixed policy of the government. Mr. Lincoln has a prejudice against anti-slavery proclamations, and will quietly inform his generals of his purposes, and will make no flourish in the matter nor permit them to make any. With slavery abolished in the Gulf and Atlantic states, it will take care of itself elsewhere—will gradually expire.


The Washington correspondent of the Evening Post says: “Immense numbers of horses and mules are arriving here daily to replenish the army in Virginia. It looks as if the intention of the government was to create a large army here, perhaps much larger than the army of the Potomac ever has been since it was transplanted to the peninsula.”

The Indiana Raid.—A private letter written by a gentleman at Indianapolis makes the following reference to the guerrilla raids and the war feeling at the west:

“We just had a raid into Indiana—a good thing. The Hoosiers are mad as bumble bees; and while I am writing, I hear the cheers of any quantity of new military organizations, raised within a few hours for one purpose and another. One colonel, who is at home on recruiting service, at a few hours’ notice, raised in Decatur county six hundred men to go into Kentucky and clean out Morgan. His men enlisted for thirty days. They consist of about all of the county officers, lawyers, merchants, &c., of the town. Colonel Gavin is to be reinforced with home guards, &c., and expects in thirty days to send Morgan and his men to the king of traitors—the devil. He has no idea of guarding rebel property and catching Negroes.”

The war feeling is throughout the west vigorous and decided, except among those who sympathize with Voorhies, Vallandigham, and their set.


Left on the Battlefield.—Among those wounded in the late battles before Richmond, was Harrison E. Case, twenty-seven years old, son of Mr. Elijah L. Case of Grafton. He enlisted from Hopkinton into company F of the 19th regiment, Col. Hinks. Captain Rice of his company being in command of the regiment since the battle. Lieutenant Hill writes to his father as follows: “In the battle of June 30, at Nelson’s farm, in which the 19th suffered severely, your son, Mr. Harrison E. Case, was wounded, and it is believed mortally, the wound being in a bad place, the left side, and after it he seeming unconscious. He was left on the battle field, so I am not able to tell you certainly his fate. He was a good man and a brave soldier, always ready and willing to do his duty.”

The wounded man may have died on the field, but this is by no means certain. The wound may not have been as bad as his comrades supposed, and, instead of being dead, he may now be a prisoner. Gen. McCall and others were reported killed, who were taken unhurt. One account told that Gen. McCall was shot at by half a regiment of rebels and seen to fall from his horse with a dozen bullets in his body, but this was not so; those who reported it were mistaken. Accurate observation of such things in the midst of a battle is frequently difficult.



An old lady from the core of the backwoods was brought to town Saturday by the alarming rumor that J. Davis and his followers were within half a mile of Utica, and preparing to shell the town. The old lady sincerely believed the tale to be true, and her journey was undertaken with a view of removing her dollars, from one of our savings banks, beyond the clutches of the invaders.—Utica, (N.Y.) Herald.

JULY 31,

From Washington.

The Recapture of Norfolk Threatened.

The steamer Mount Washington arrived at the Navy Yard at an early hour this morning. Her commander, Capt. Germain, says there is a rumor in Norfolk, which is believed by some, that Merrimack No. 2 and a new ram, which the rebels have at Richmond, intend to run through our fleet in the James River, attack the Minnesota and other vessels at Norfolk and take the city. It is also said and believed by the Unionists there that the Secessionists there have a full supply of arms in their houses, and are ready to strike a blow simultaneously with the approach of the rebel steamer on the way up. Quite an unusual number of boats were seen on the bay, crossing either way, which Capt. Germain thinks are in the employ of the rebels, and is also of the opinion that as most of our gunboats are elsewhere employed, that the secessionists in lower Maryland and Eastern Virginia are in constant communication with each other by this means.


Counterfeiting.—The New York Times contains a long article on the extent and increase of counterfeiting. We copy the following, giving in brief the extent to which the fraud is carried:

“Out of thirteen hundred and eighty-nine banks in the United States, only two hundred and fifty-three have escaped the attempts at imitation by one or another of the many species of frauds. And out of this two hundred and fifty-three, at least one hundred and forty-three are not worth counterfeiting, so that in round numbers, out of 1300 bank note issues, but 100 are not counterfeited. The rule is, that the better the bank, the more the counterfeits. All the New York city notes are counterfeited except three, and of these two are closing institutions, and one does not issue any notes. The only State (besides Iowa, which has but one bank) whose bank notes are not counterfeited, is Florida. The reason is plainly because the genuine notes of the four banks in the State are all of doubtful value. So in all the seceded States, where the paper currency is much depreciated, counterfeiting is at a low tide. Maryland has only four bank note issues not counterfeited out of 33, and of these four, one is at a heavy discount. The great State of Massachusetts, with her hundred and eighty-two banks, has only seven whose issues are not counterfeited. And yet, Massachusetts is the only state where there is an association for the prevention of counterfeiting. Of the two hundred and ninety-five banks in New York State, the issues of only forty-five are not counterfeited.”


Well Designed.—The Australasian brings intelligence of a stupendous canard palmed off upon the English public on the 18th inst., by a dispatch purporting to show that our army before Richmond had probably been forced to capitulate.

The falsehood came from secessionist sources, as may be easily seen. And it is highly probable that it was put in circulation at that particular juncture for its possible effect upon the debate which was to occur on the same evening in the House of Commons, on American affairs.

Merchants, Will You Recruit?

To the Editors of the Boston Daily Advertiser:

You can do it, speedily and effectually; not by shouldering the musket, or paying bounties, but thus:

Let each make up his mind that such of the young men, now in his employ, as will enlist at once, shall have their situations guaranteed to them on their safe return from the war, and let a vote to that effect be passed by you at the Board of Trade, or elsewhere, and you shall have, in ten days, a regiment, formed of the best material the city can furnish, volunteering, without bounty, for immediate service. In making this suggestion, I am not speaking unadvisedly. The subject is in much agitation among the class of young men referred to—the train is ready, and waiting only to be fired by your prompt assurances, that for such of us as may return, there shall be a reasonable certainty of some provision for the future. Seriously feeling the exigency of the moment, we are eager to add our mite to the force which shall crush the rebellion, and are withheld by one consideration alone. Do you also feel the importance of the crisis? Then remove this consideration, give to yourselves the satisfaction of having sent to the war an organization which shall do no discredit to those under whose eyes its members have been brought up, and to us the comfort proceeding from being heartily engaged in what we know to be our duty.

A Young Man.



An attempt was made on Tuesday, the 22d, to capture the rebel gunboat Arkansas, but in consequence of a misunderstanding, the mortars below failed to work, and the Essex boldly attacked the rebel craft alone; the Queen came to her aid and ran into the Arkansas, making her tremble from stem to stern. Both boats then returned up the river. One man was killed and two wounded. The rebel account puts the affair in a different light, of course, stating that five of our boats were sunk and disabled.

More vigorous measures are said to have been decided upon for the suppression of treason in Maryland and the other border States.

All the male inhabitants of Luray, Virginia, have been arrested and lodged in the Court House by order of Gen. Pope, preparatory to administering the oath of allegiance.

A dispatch from Bangor says that nearly all the towns throughout the State of Maine have furnished their quotas and many a surplus, and warns Massachusetts to “look out for her laurels.”

General McClellan has issued orders to his army for every man to be ready at a moment’s notice, and a move of some kind is expected hourly.

Contrabands report the movement southward from Richmond of large bodies of rebel troops, and say they are evacuating Richmond.

1, 1862

Arrest of a Rebel Messenger.—On Friday night the police of Baltimore arrested C. C. Stephens, an agent of the rebels, for attempting to smuggle medicines and letters to the South. A valise was found, and on a minute examination of the contents, it was ascertained that there was about $800 or $1000 worth of medicines, consisting mainly of quinine. In addition, there was $115 in Confederate money, and eight drafts for various sums, amounting in all to $2000. Also a number of promissory or demand notes of parties residing in Virginia, which had been taken up by the banks of Baltimore and laid over, and a large number of letters for parties residing in Richmond, Lynchburg, King William Court House, in Virginia; Pittsborough in North Carolina; and Macon, Georgia. The officers also found a commission for Stephens to act as the agent for the Confederate States government in purchasing articles of war, and a pass directing all the military officers of the Confederates to allow Stephens all facilities in passing from Virginia into Maryland. Stephens has been in the habit of going down in a steamer which would covey him to the lower counties, on reaching which he would be assisted by the secessionists there in passing over the Potomac and other rivers, and thus accomplish all his purposes. He would return by the same route. It is supposed he has made more than thirteen trips to and from the South.


The Powder Mill Explosion at Hazardville, Conn.—The Hartford Courant furnishes the following details of the fearful explosion of Col. Hazard’s powder mills at Hazardville, Conn., on Wednesday afternoon, an account of which fatal event we published in the Gazette last week:

“In the first mill that exploded there were six men at work, and they, with the building, were blown to atoms. One human foot, which was found a quarter mile distant, was all that could be found of the six men. One man was crossing a bridge with a mule and cart, near the mill. Not a vestige of the man could be found; the mule was torn into two parts, one half being thrown across the stream, and the other thrown over the trees into a field several hundred feet distant, while the cart was demolished. Another man was bathing in the stream; he was found lying in the water, dead, with a large stone on his head. A large elm tree, several feet through, was broken off and the limbs scattered in all directions. Other trees were stripped of their limbs; fences were destroyed, and acres of grass looked as if heavy rollers had passed over it. Most of the principal mills and buildings had their roofs crushed in, windows destroyed, and were otherwise damaged. In one building was a large quantity of coarse, unground powder; this building was much damaged, but fortunately the powder did not explode. In one of the buildings which escaped, there was powder enough stored to have destroyed the whole village. It is remarkable that there were not more lives lost. It was reported that a large piece of iron was thrown into one of the cartridge buildings, fracturing the skull of a girl at work there.”

Two persons who were injured have since died, making the number of dead ten. Buildings at a distance of two miles were unroofed, and men and horses in the streets prostrated by the concussion.

Fatal Explosion.—Last Monday morning the wheel-mill at the Massachusetts Powder Works in this town, was blown up, and Mr. C. C. Foster instantly killed. The “charge” had not been put in, and Mr. Foster was engaged in cleaning off the powder which adhered to the wheels, preparatory to starting the mill, when an explosion took place, by which the entire covering of the building was shattered to fragments, the frame, which is very strong, remaining uninjured. The quantity of powder in the mill was small, and the report not very loud, and was scarcely heard three or four miles distant. The body of Mr. Foster was found about fifteen feet from the building, entirely destitute of clothing excepting his stockings, with the skull and limbs broken, and other severe wounds, and was badly burned and blackened by the powder. Mr. Foster was thirty years old, and leaves a young wife, to whom he had been married about fifteen months, to mourn over his violent and untimely death. He was an industrious man, of temperate and correct habits, and highly esteemed by all who knew him. It is a singular fact, that Mr. Foster (whose regular business was in the “glazing mill”) was filling the place of Mr. Thomas Clark, (the regular hand in this mill), who was gone to attend the funeral of his brother, who was killed at the explosion at Hazardville last week. It is said that Foster was using a copper hammer in cleaning the wheel, and was advised by Mr. Potter to “wet it down,” before proceeding with the work. Mr. Potter, with another man, had been out of the mill but a few minutes when the explosion occurred. It is also said that Foster had been contemplating a change of business, and told his wife that morning that he should do so as soon as a man could be found to take his place. This same mill was blown up last Thanksgiving day while the men were at breakfast, and no person was injured. On the fourth of June, 1858, this mill, with two others, exploded, killing Mr. Wm. Bickford.


The Order Stopping Spirit Rations in the Navy.—Secretary Welles officially promulgates the section of the new law concerning the navy, which stops the spirit ration of the sailors, and gives notice that it will be rigidly enforced.


Marriage in Childhood.—Married, in New Milford, Conn., July 1st, Henry Benedict, Esq., of the ripe old age of 16, to the venerable Miss Sophia Nobles, aged 14. It is said that both of them, notwithstanding their advanced years, can read without spectacles, and have good teeth.




Our Navy.—The New York Times, in giving some statistics relating to the progress of our navy during the rebellion, says:

“It will be seen that the entire strength of our navy is close upon three hundred vessels, nearly all of which are propelled by steam; and that among these are two iron-clad frigates, twenty-three iron-clad gunboats, and a good stock of [a] highly effective naval weapon, the ram. Of the latter, the number can be increased indefinitely, and at any moment, as they may be needed. All we have to do is fit a beak on any staunch steam craft, plate its most vulnerable parts, and it is ready for service in sinking and destroying wooden walls, or whatever else it can get to drive at. In this way the magnificent ocean steamship Vanderbilt was fitted up in a short time in this port, and sent down to Hampton Roads for a tilt with the Merrimac; and the river ram fleet of Col. Ellet was also turned out in the same way.

We believe that these three hundred armed vessels are a match for any naval force that any one, or any two foreign powers could send to these shores; and at the same time they could keep the rebels in easy check. We have, or will have directly, a larger number of iron-clad vessels than England and France combined, and of a far more available and destructive kind.

The speed with which this splendid naval force has been gotten up and put into service is one of its most remarkable characteristics. The greater part of it has sprung into being within the last year. Twelve months since we had but eighty vessels of war of all kinds, only one third of which were steamers. But thirty then—three hundred now! For of these, all save some of the iron-clads and steam frigates are actually afloat. Within the year we have constructed alone nearly as many vessels as the entire number of ships on the naval register of 1861. We had but 8000 sailors and marines a year ago; now there are over 23,000 in our naval service. Certainly these things exhibit an amount of energy and of work deserving of notice, and show forth the resources of the country in a light not less striking than was shown in the raising of our armies. If Mr. Welles has seemed to be derelict in some of his duties, and has been censured by the public and the press for want of push and vigor, it must be confessed in the long run he has made a grand show both of deeds and results.”


A Railroad Battery.—The Richmond Enquirer describes an iron-clad railroad battery which it is alleged performed important service for the rebels during the recent battles before Richmond. The battery was mounted on seven sets of wheels an carried one rifle gun. It was propelled by an ordinary locomotive, and was used on the York River Railroad whenever our troops came within gunshot of the road. The Enquirer asserts that great injury was inflicted upon the Federal army by the shells thrown by this battery.


The Boston Board of Aldermen have voted $200,000 for the construction of an iron-clad Monitor for Boston harbor.


An American Dental Convention is to be held at Trenton Fall, N.Y., Aug. 5th.

Various Matters.

New York, August 1.—The Tribune’s special Washington dispatch states that the clerks of some of the Departments are commencing to form companies.

The Times’ Washington dispatch says the order of the Secretary of War, issued yesterday, ordering all absent officers and soldiers to return instantly to duty, will return 10,000 sound men to the army or drive 10,000 cowardly leeches in disgrace from the treasury.

New Orleans correspondent to the Herald states that Rear Admiral Farragut will capture the ram Arkansas if he loses every vessel in his fleet in doing it.

Gen. Magruder has arrived at Camp Moore, and he expects to attack New Orleans after collecting more forces.

Guerrilla bands have been operating on the people in the vicinity of New Orleans, who, encouraged by the near locations of the Union troops, have given utterance to Union feelings. Gen. Butler has in one instance taken several influential citizens of [the] Parish of St. John hostages for [the] safety of a Union man named Burbank, who has been carried off by rebels.

Capt. Buchanan has made an excursion to Pascagoula and vicinity, destroying rebel telegraph [lines] and indulging in one or two skirmishes, unfavorable to the safety of certain rebels.

Philadelphia, August 1.—A letter to the Inquirer dated 30th says Com. Porter’s fleet in part, consisting of the following vessels, arrived and came to anchor in the Roads this morning: Mathew Vassar, Geo. Machon, F. A. Ward, Adolph Hugel, Daniel Smith, Wm. Bacon and Racer.

Twelve of the fleet in all left the South West Pass on the 17th of July. Of these, seven have arrived at Fortress Monroe, and five others are hourly expected. Officers and crews of all the vessels think they are to reduce Fort Darling and intimate a perfect willingness to undertake the job. Exciting times may be looked for in that vicinity shortly.


Several suspicious farmers have been arrested in both Shenandoah and Luray Valleys, while at work on their farms. In nine cases out of ten the said men prove to be rebel soldiers who have been granted furloughs by Gen. Jackson to come home and harvest their grain. When that is accomplished they return to their duties in the field. But now matters have taken a different turn. All parties suspected are arrested and confined as prisoners of war.


Fill up the veteran regiments! All things considered, life in them will be safer than in the new regiments with green officers. And then it will be vastly better for the Republic. Remember the weighty words of Gen. Burnside: “All things are going well, if you will only fill up the old regiments.”

1 Lindley Murray’s 1795 English Grammar was “the most popular and frequently reprinted grammar of English during the nineteenth century.” One author (John Nietz, 1961) called Murray the "father of English grammar." 

2 Elias Howe did, in fact, invent the sewing machine—not Isaac Singer—in 1845, which he patented the following year. Because of poor response in the United States, Howe took his invention to England, where he met with the same reaction. However, manufacturers on both sides of the Atlantic began offering models based on Howe’s machine, ignoring his patent. After years of lawsuits, Howe’s claims were upheld and, in 1854, he was recognized as the inventor and patent-holder of the sewing machine. Other manufacturers (including Singer) were forced to pay him royalties, which made Howe a wealthy man. The regiment he funded—and joined—was the 17th Connecticut. (Ref.

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